GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH https://www.gsi.de/ GSI RSS-Feed de-de TYPO3 News Fri, 17 Sep 2021 05:38:28 +0200 Fri, 17 Sep 2021 05:38:28 +0200 TYPO3 EXT:news news-5135 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 08:37:00 +0200 First Heavy Ion Therapy Masterclass School held online https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5135&cHash=dc49555062f123d5f95f8c56c4b0e2f3 Recently, the first international Heavy Ion Therapy Masterclass (HITM) school was held online for the duration of a full week. The school focused on treatment planning in heavy ion therapy, but also covered the entire path to deliver the beam to the tumor. It was organized within the framework of the EU-funded HITRIplus (Heavy Ion Therapy Research Integration) project, a large consortium where GSI leads the Transnational Access and participates in Joint Research Activities. Recently, the first international Heavy Ion Therapy Masterclass (HITM) school was held online for the duration of a full week. The school focused on treatment planning in heavy ion therapy, but also covered the entire path to deliver the beam to the tumor. It was organized within the framework of the EU-funded HITRIplus (Heavy Ion Therapy Research Integration) project, a large consortium where GSI leads the Transnational Access and participates in Joint Research Activities. This first course of HITRIplus, coordinated by GSI with strong support of the HITRIplus partners, was attended by more than thousand participants, ranging from undergrad students up to early stage researchers.

The participants of the HITM school were presented with a multidisciplinary approach which started from basic concepts, included state-of-the-art practices and methods, and involved discussions of open points and needed research, as well as future plans for upcoming upgrades and developments. While overview lectures, partly delivered by GSI experts, provided the necessary broad panorama, specialized presentations and hands-on sessions focused on the treatment planning details. These were based on the matRad open-source professional toolkit, developed by the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg specifically for training and research.

Expert matRad tutors from DKFZ and LMU guided participants from software installation to the execution of involved treatment planning cases, demonstrating the benefits, but also the challenges of heavy-ion therapy compared to different treatment modalities. Approx. 200 participants delivered their hands-on results, which was awarded with a certificate of attendance.

The course used informative videos of the European heavy-ion therapy centers and research infrastructures, including GSI/FAIR, included real-time virtual visits to these labs and offered numerous opportunities for interaction with their experts. GSI experts also participated in dedicated sessions, where students presented their results and research projects as well as in the evening social events providing information on future career paths.

The online mode made the school easily accessible worldwide: Over thousand participants, almost equally distributed between European and non-European countries, ranging from undergraduate students to practitioners, followed all or parts of the program. These unprecedented high numbers, as well as the received comments, show an increasing interest in heavy-ion therapy, the technology introduced in Europe by GSI.

Within the HITRIplus project, promising early stage researchers will be candidates to be further supported by the upcoming HITRIplus schools on clinical and medical aspects, as well as by HITRIplus internships. Thus, they can optimally access the existing European heavy-ion therapy centers and research facilities, among which GSI/FAIR, contributing to relevant research projects, upgrades and future developments.

The format of the HITM school was inspired by the Particle Therapy MasterClasses (PTMC), a project also coordinated by GSI, that in 2021 attracted more than 1500 high-school students in 20 countries and 37 institutes. Several of the HITM school participants were eager to participate in future PTMC projects as tutors and moderators further motivating the younger generations.

The HITRIplus project, that has received funds from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 101008548, motivated by the response and success of this first course is preparing already the next courses based on the uplifting received feedback of numerous grateful participants. (CP)

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news-5137 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 10:40:43 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Till Mansmann visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5137&cHash=f8643f0a51c341b9c46dabbd3351a2b4 Member of the Bundestag Till Mansmann recently visited GSI and FAIR. He informed himself about the scientific activities and the progress of the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI. The guest was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, as well as Carola Pomplun from the Press and Public Relations D Member of the Bundestag Till Mansmann recently visited GSI and FAIR. He informed himself about the scientific activities and the progress of the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI. The guest was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, as well as Carola Pomplun from the Press and Public Relations Department at GSI and FAIR.

After introductory information on the status of the FAIR construction project, the campus development, previous research successes and current experiments, the FDP politician and a physicist by education was given insights into the existing research facilities on the GSI and FAIR campus during a guided tour. The tour included the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where mainly high-tech components for FAIR are tested, the linear accelerator UNILAC, the SHIP experiment, where the GSI elements 107 to 112 were produced, and the energy-efficient supercomputing center Green IT Cube.

After this, Till Mansmann had the opportunity to get an overview of the entire construction site and the activities in the northern and southern construction areas from the viewing platform on the edge of the construction site. Subsequently, the FAIR construction site and the progresses there were visited at close range during a tour. One highlight was the walk-through of the recently completed underground accelerator tunnel. The central ring accelerator SIS100 will be the heart of the future facility.

Also shown was the CBM experiment, which is well advanced in construction. The unique CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) experiment is one of the four research pillars of the future FAIR accelerator facility. The focus is on the investigation of highly compressed baryonic matter, as it exists in neutron stars and in the center of supernova explosions.

The development in the south of the construction field is also progressing well: This includes the structural work for six buildings and for a futher experimental facility – the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS). It will focus on research topics concerning the nuclear structure and interactions of extremely rare, exotic particles. The bus tour was completed with a stop at the large container facility on the southwestern edge of the FAIR construction site. From there, the construction planning for FAIR and the coordination of the FAIR construction site takes place. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5131 Thu, 09 Sep 2021 07:13:00 +0200 GLAD and COCOTIER: Two French FAIR contributions to R3B experiment in operation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5131&cHash=a9fb9a874a915aea49b4edbc2fe2873a Two state-of-the-art instruments, GLAD and COCOTIER, were designed and built at the Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l’Univers, IRFU) in Saclay, France, recently and are now operational in the R3B experimental site of GSI. In the future, both will be used at FAIR, the international accelerator facility currently under construction at GSI. This text is based on a news release by the Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (IRFU).

Two state-of-the-art instruments, GLAD and COCOTIER, were designed and built at the Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l’Univers, IRFU) in Saclay, France, recently and are now operational in the R3B experimental site of GSI. In the future, both will be used at FAIR, the international accelerator facility currently under construction at GSI.

GLAD is a large acceptance spectrometer for the analysis of relativistic radioactive heavy ion beam reactions. It was installed on site in 2015 and saw beam for the first time in fall of 2018. In some experiments, these beams will interact upstream with the COCOTIER liquid hydrogen target. The latter has just been used for the first time in the FAIR Phase 0 experiments in March 2021. These two pieces of equipment are key elements for measuring the properties of nuclei at the limit of nuclear stability and allow current nuclear models to evolve towards more predictive ones.

GLAD: a large acceptance dipole for GSI/FAIR

Following the successful testing of the cold mass (screen, vacuum chamber) of the GLAD magnet, (22 tons at 4.5 Kelvin) at Saclay in a cryogenic test station of IRFU, GLAD had been installed in its cryostat and transported to GSI, where it was installed in the experimental halls. It was positioned, as well as connected to its power supply and to its cooling system by GSI teams. Following a beam test in the fall of 2018, GLAD was successfully used in the 2019, 2020 and also the 2021 R3B FAIR Phase 0 campaigns, where for the first time the COCOTIER target was employed.

COCOTIER: a liquid hydrogen target

The COCOTIER (COrrélations à COurte porTée et spin IsotopiquE à R3B – for short-range Correlations and Isotopic spin at R3B) liquid hydrogen target is designed to perform quasi-free scattering experiments where the nucleus to be studied, in the form of a beam, impacts on a target of protons that will selectively eject a proton or a neutron from the nucleus in question. To compensate for the low intensity of the exotic beams, dense (hence the need to liquefy hydrogen) and very thick (up to 15 centimeters) proton targets are used. It is therefore necessary to reconstruct the position of the reaction vertex inside the target using a tracking detector. This information is necessary to perform the spectroscopy of the studied nuclei in order to correct the trajectories and the energy loss of the measured particles.

To liquefy hydrogen at pressures close to atmospheric pressure, it must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures (21 Kelvin). The hydrogen is liquefied in a condenser cooled by a cryocooler and flows into the target cell due to gravity. Turbomolecular pumping allows to obtain a high vacuum (10-6 millibar in the cryostat and in the target chamber) in order to limit the convective flows. The integration into the constrained R3B setup posed many challenges. The target is placed in the middle of the CALIFA calorimeter, far from the vertical of the cryostat.

The target cell is wrapped in several five micrometers thick multi-layer insulation sheets in order to reduce the radiation heat flux, especially from the tracking detectors placed at 25 millimeters in the same reaction chamber and which allow to reconstruct the position of the reaction vertex inside the target. Three target lengths of 15 millimeters, 50 millimeters and 150 millimeters were produced to meet the requirements of the experiments approved by the GSI experiment committee.

The target system was funded by the French Research Agency as a so-called in-kind contribution with the aim of pursuing the study of short-range correlations in exotic nuclei. It was designed and built at IRFU and installed at the end of 2019 at GSI by IRFU teams.

Remote operation during the pandemic

The system is controlled by a supervision system, developed at IRFU, which centralizes the information coming from the programmable logic controller and the various controllers. The system allows connecting and remote piloting via a secured internet client. During the recent FAIR Phase 0 scientific experiments this allowed in particular to perform all filling and monitoring operations of the target remotely, which was necessary due to the absence of the IRFU team on site because of the pandemic. (CP)

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news-5133 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 08:18:00 +0200 "The Art of Science at GSI and FAIR"- Illustrated book with unique works by artists and designers https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5133&cHash=dbc54b097bde0a1dcbf4aee8df547d7a A new illustrated book shows research at GSI and FAIR from the perspective of art and design. The network of Urban Sketchers Rhein-Main and students of the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach visited GSI and FAIR and developed their individual views on the experimental facilities and the scientific topics and reproduced them in pictures. The multitude of fascinating drawings and sketches can now be admired in an illustrated book published by GSI/FAIR. The bilingual illustrated book is available ... A new illustrated book shows research at GSI and FAIR from the perspective of art and design. The network of Urban Sketchers Rhein-Main and students of the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach visited GSI and FAIR and developed their individual views on the experimental facilities and the scientific topics and reproduced them in pictures. The multitude of fascinating drawings and sketches can now be admired in an illustrated book published by GSI/FAIR. The bilingual illustrated book is available in the Darmstadt Shop (Luisenplatz) and on site at GSI/FAIR.

"The human spirit shines brightest where splendor of art unites with splendor of science," said the 19th century scholar Emil Heinrich du Bois-Reymond. Drawers and designers at GSI and FAIR have taken up this challenge and captured on paper both, the visible world of particle accelerators with their magnets and detectors and the invisible world of atoms, forces and structures. The results impressively show the wide variety of perceptions, viewpoints, and modes of representation at the limits of human imagination and at the limits of what is technically possible.

In January 2020, the Urban Sketchers Rhine-Main visited the research facilities of GSI and FAIR with about 40 people for a sketching excursion. Urban Sketchers is a global network of artists who draw the places in which they live or to which they travel, capturing what they see from direct observation. Their mission is to "show the world, one drawing at a time." In the summer of 2020, 12 students from the Offenbach University of Applied Sciences (HfG) spent a week on the GSI/FAIR campus for the workshop "Sketching as a visual means of conveying knowledge at the interface between design and science." They drew experiment setups and accelerators, but were also introduced to the world of experimental physics - from the idea of the experiment, to the technical execution and the data analysis. A selection of the works created during these two visits can be seen in the illustrated book "The Art of Science at GSI and FAIR".

The illustrated book invites to look at science and technology from different angles. As means of expression, art and design enable people to reflect on scientific and technical topics in a very special way. The illustrated book is now available at the GSI/FAIR shop and in Darmstadt at the Darmstadt Shop at the Luisenplatz (price: 24 euros). (LW)

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FAIR News (DEU) Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-5125 Tue, 31 Aug 2021 08:00:00 +0200 Pi, Star Trek and the Arctic — Lecture series „Wissenschaft für Alle“ of GSI and FAIR stays digital https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5125&cHash=b4bb957e003d5afedbf2e1e007afb3f2 The lecture series “Wissenschaft für Alle” by GSI and FAIR will continue in online format in the second half of 2021. Interested parties can join the videoconferences via a dial-in link using a web-enabled device such as a laptop, smartphone or tablet. The program begins on Wednesday, September 15, 2021, with a talk about the number pi by Professor Albrecht Beutelspacher, Director of the Mathematikum in Gießen. The lecture series “Wissenschaft für Alle” by GSI and FAIR will continue in online format in the second half of 2021. Interested parties can join the videoconferences via a dial-in link using a web-enabled device such as a laptop, smartphone or tablet. The program begins on Wednesday, September 15, 2021, with a talk about the number pi by Professor Albrecht Beutelspacher, Director of the Mathematikum in Gießen.

On the occasion of the 314th lecture of the series " Wissenschaft für Alle " (Pi is often given as 3.14 in short form), Professor Beutelspacher gets to the bottom of the number. Pi has fascinated humankind for thousands of years, because while this number can be explained quite simply on the one hand, it is very difficult to calculate and plays a role in surprisingly many areas of mathematics on the other hand. In the lecture all these aspects will be presented, partly supported by small experiments. A lecture that is entertaining and instructive.

Professor Albrecht Beutelspacher studied mathematics, physics and philosophy at the University of Tübingen and was subsequently awarded his doctorate and habilitation at the University of Mainz. He has been a professor at the University of Gießen since 1988. Since 2002, he has been the founding director of the Mathematikum, the world's first hands-on mathematical museum.

The following lecture by Professor Markus Roth from the Technical University of Darmstadt will take a closer look at the physics of the popular science fiction universe Star Trek in October. In November, Dr. Julia Regnery from the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven will report on MOSAiC, the largest Arctic expedition ever undertaken. At the end of the year in December, Dr. Daniel Severin of GSI/FAIR, together with other colleagues, will report on the scientific experiments during the last operational phase of the GSI/FAIR accelerator facility in the traditional Christmas lecture.

The lectures start at 2 p. m., further information about access and the course of the event can be found on the event website at www.gsi.de/wfa (in German)

The lecture series “Wissenschaft für Alle” is aimed at all persons interested in current science and research. The lectures report on research and developments at GSI and FAIR, but also on current topics from other fields of science and technology. The aim of the series is to prepare and present the scientific processes in a way that is understandable for laypersons in order to make the research accessible to a broad public. The lectures are held by GSI and FAIR staff members or by external speakers from universities and research institutes.(CP)

Current program:
  • Wednesday, 15.09.2021, 2 p. m.
    Die Zahl Pi – der 3(,)14. Vortrag der Reihe Wissenschaft für Alle
    Albrecht Beutelspacher, Director of the Mathematikum Gießen
     
  • Wednesday, 27.10.2021, 2 p. m.
    Die Physik von Star Trek
    Markus Roth, Technical University of Darmstadt
     
  • Wednesday, 17.11.2021, 2 p. m.
    MOSAiC – viele Teile ergeben ein großes Ganzes: Ein Einblick in die größte Arktisexpedition aller Zeiten
    Julia Regnery, Alfred Wegener Institute
     
  • Wednesday, 08.12.2021, 2 p. m.
    Wer strahlte denn da? – Einblick in den wissenschaftlichen Experimentierbetrieb an GSI/FAIR in 2021
    Daniel Severin, GSI/FAIR, et al.
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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-5129 Mon, 30 Aug 2021 11:37:41 +0200 Milestones and Perspectives: Parliamentary State Secretary Dr. Michael Meister and Member of the Bundestag Dr. Astrid Mannes visit GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5129&cHash=f1f4156b79aeb049137957c9c5b51909 The significant progress made in the construction of the FAIR facilities and the current research priorities were the focus of the visit by Dr. Michael Meister, Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research, and Dr. Astrid Mannes, Member of the Bundestag from Darmstadt. The significant progress made in the construction of the FAIR facilities and the current research priorities were the focus of the visit by Dr. Michael Meister, Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research, and Dr. Astrid Mannes, Member of the Bundestag from Darmstadt.

The guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director as well as Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations. Dr. Michael Meister is directly elected Member of the Bundestag for the Bergstraße constituency, Dr. Astrid Mannes is directly elected Member of the Bundestag for the Darmstadt constituency.

First, the guests gained an overview of the 20-hectare construction site from the viewing platform directly adjacent to the construction area. Subsequently, the FAIR construction site was visited at close range during a tour. One highlight was the walk-through of the recently completed underground accelerator tunnel. The central ring accelerator SIS100 will be the heart of the future facility.

The CBM experiment, which is well advanced in construction, was also shown. The unique CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) experiment is one of the four research pillars of the future FAIR accelerator facility. The focus is on the investigation of highly compressed baryonic matter, as it exists in neutron stars and in the center of supernova explosions.

Efficient construction progress was also noted in the construction field south: this includes the structural work for six buildings and for a further experimental facility - the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super-FRS). There, the focus is on research topics concerning the nuclear structure and interactions of extremely rare, exotic particles.

State Secretary Meister was impressed by the significant progress made on the construction site in recent years despite pandemic conditions: "I have seen today how a vision is becoming reality in an impressive way. With the ring closure of the accelerator tunnel, a major milestone of the FAIR project has been reached: For this I would like to congratulate all those involved very warmly."

Another important focus of the visit was the high-tech development for FAIR and the very successful current FAIR Phase 0 experiments. The guests were able to gain an insight into the high-tech developments in the test facility for cryogenic magnets, where all superconducting components for the SIS100 accelerator ring are tested for their specifications before being installed in the FAIR facility.

An example of the scientific capabilities at GSI and FAIR is the R3B (Relativistic Radioactive Reaction Experiment) experiment, which was also visited. Within the R3B experiment, which was set up for FAIR in international collaboration, reaction experiments with high-energy exotic nuclei are conducted. Through this, an understanding of the origin of heavy elements can be gained.

"I am particularly impressed by the fact that although FAIR is still in the middle of construction, groundbreaking science is already being carried out here today. Whether it is Covid 19 research with heavy ions or the first experiments at the CRYRING accelerator - FAIR is already making an important contribution to find solutions to major challenges faced by society," says Meister. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5127 Fri, 27 Aug 2021 08:30:00 +0200 Focus on young researchers: Successful interim balance for GET_Involved Program https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5127&cHash=e41383c0e997b9c62b56dd6111bc1726 It is a very successful instrument for the promotion of young scientists: The GET_INvolved Program has attracted numerous young students and early-stage researchers from many nations around the world up to now. By the end of the second quarter of 2021, the program had secured more than 20 bilateral programs focusing on mobility, synergy, and capacity-building for young scientists from partner institutes and associate funding agencies. Recently, the management of GSI and FAIR met with the current participan It is a very successful instrument for the promotion of young scientists: The GET_INvolved Program has attracted numerous young students and early-stage researchers from many nations around the world up to now. By the end of the second quarter of 2021, the program had secured more than 20 bilateral programs focusing on mobility, synergy, and capacity-building for young scientists from partner institutes and associate funding agencies. Recently, the management of GSI and FAIR met with the current participants of the GET_INvolved Program on the campus in Darmstadt.

At a "Meet and Greet", the Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Ulrich Breuer and the Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock, got into a joint conversation with the international students and researchers from around the world participating in the GET_INvolved Program.

In summary, great progress was made in the last three years: The GET_INvolved Program received around 670 applications through midyear 2021, with approximately 200 of them being accepted into various programs in the program portfolio. Students and researchers from 38 different countries have participated in the GET_INvolved Program, with up to 40 percent of them being female. At the FAIR Phase 0 program, the majority of these students/researchers engaged in and contributed to current experiments. This engagement provided them with real-time, hands-on expertise with an in-depth understanding of the research and development at GSI/FAIR.

The current meeting with GET_Involved participants demonstrates the commitment and support from the joint management for all activities that lead to skilled training of the young generation. The goal is to offer the best research environment for the participants allowing the development of future leaders to operate and exploit the FAIR facility in near future. The Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino emphasized: “FAIR is going to be a world-class facility which will provide forefront technology to researchers from all nations. Thanks to its precursory program FAIR Phase 0 FAIR is a talent factory already now. So join us and GET_INvolved!“ (BP)

About the GET_INvolved Program

The GET_INvolved Program is an umbrella program that includes several bilateral/multi-lateral programs and several frameworks programs with partners and third-party funding agencies. All students and researchers are involved in a dedicated scientific or technical project with a mentor, as a part of their short term internship, bachelor or master thesis, ERASMUS+ Traineeships, sandwich doctoral or a postdoctoral research experience at GSI/FAIR. The duration for these internships vary depending on individual projects and also on the program. The project duration can range from three months for short term internships to up to two years for a research experience as a postdoc.

Further Information

GET_Involved Program for international students and researchers

ERASMUS+ Traineeship

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5123 Wed, 25 Aug 2021 17:00:00 +0200 In the trap: New method for cooling charged particles https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5123&cHash=7800017a3d53f158039b2029a063ebd4 For the first time, physicists have succeeded in successfully realizing a new method for cooling protons using laser-cooled ions - in this case beryllium ions. The innovative feature of the new system is that the two particle types are located in spatially separated traps. This means it is now possible to provide the cooling effect with the help of an electrical resonant circuit over a distance of nine centimeters from one trap to the other. The team at the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenbe This news is based on a press release of the Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

For the first time, physicists have succeeded in successfully realizing a new method for cooling protons using laser-cooled ions - in this case beryllium ions. The innovative feature of the new system is that the two particle types are located in spatially separated traps. This means it is now possible to provide the cooling effect with the help of an electrical resonant circuit over a distance of nine centimeters from one trap to the other. The team at the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), part of the BASE collaboration, was able to demonstrate that protons can be cooled to significantly lower temperatures in one of the traps than would be possible without beryllium.

The new technique can be used for all charged particles, even antiprotons, for which there is no other cooling method in this temperature range. What is particularly exciting is that it should now be possible to conduct experiments in which matter and antimatter can be compared more precisely. The results of the research have been published in the eminent scientific journal Nature. In addition to JGU, the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg (MPIK) and the Japanese Research Center RIKEN, also the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and the Leibniz University Hannover were significantly involved in the new development.

In order to be able to make precise measurements of individual ions, they must be captured and stored in a trap in which they are kept as inert as possible. To achieve this state, energy is removed from the charged particles, which reduces their temperature. With the new two-trap structure, the research team was able to reduce the temperature by about a factor of 10 in comparison with that reached using the previous best methods of cooling protons, thus attaining a temperature close to absolute zero. “The lower the temperature of the particle, the more precisely we can restrict the space in which the particle is present inside the trap. And the more accurately we can locate the particle, the better are the starting conditions and consequently also the results of our precision measurements,” explains Dr. Christian Smorra, physicist at the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence and co-author of the publication.

The new two-trap cooling method comes with even more advantages: It can also be used for antimatter particles because in a single-trap cooling system, the matter and antimatter would immediately destroy each other. The new concept will enable more precise comparison of protons and antiprotons. “We want to look specifically for any difference between the properties of protons and antiprotons. Our theory says that the two particles behave identically, the only distinction being the opposed charges. It is still unclear why our universe contains so many protons – and therefore matter – but almost no antiprotons, that is antimatter,” points out Matthew Bohman of MPIK, the first author of the study. Bohman has been working on the development of the new cooling method since 2018, when he was studying for his doctorate.

Whereas previous methods required distances of 0.1 millimeters or less between the particles to be cooled and the beryllium ions, the current research has shown it is in fact possible to transmit the cooling effect despite spatial separation over a distance of nine centimeters. This creates the basis for further research projects – and enables, for example, uninterrupted and more precise frequency measurements, which the BASE collaboration plans to carry out in the case of antimatter in the context of the search for dark matter. The research group had already investigated trapped antiprotons in a single trap during previous experiments at CERN – however, this was done by cooling them with liquid helium and without employing beryllium ions.

The two-trap method was proposed for the first time in 1990. The concept at the time did not include an electric resonant circuit – instead, the ions were to be connected by a common trap electrode. The advantage of this procedure was that no resistance was present, such as that caused by the resonant circuit, which produces heat and impairs the cooling process. The big disadvantage, however, is the low speed at which the energy of the ions is exchanged. As a result, the temperature of the charged particle does not decrease quickly enough. “The current system represents a practically workable development of the concept dating back to 1990. In this case, the energy exchange between the traps occurs within one second rather than taking getting on for two minutes,” stresses Dr. Christian Smorra. (JGU/BP)

Further Information

Scientific publication "Sympathetic cooling of a trapped proton mediated by an LC circuit" in the journal Nature

Press release of the Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5117 Thu, 19 Aug 2021 10:00:00 +0200 Sharing Research Data – GSI and FAIR participate in the establishment of national research data infrastructure https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5117&cHash=e121f7b38a763cb721f5d1e2d5cbaae1 The GSI Helmholtz Centre was a successful co-applicant to fund a consortium of the National Research Data Infrastructure (NFDI). Under this program, a consortium with strong GSI participation will be funded for the next five years. This was announced by the Join Science Conference (GWK) of the German federal and state governments at its meeting in July. The GSI Helmholtz Centre was a successful co-applicant to fund a consortium of the National Research Data Infrastructure (NFDI). Under this program, a consortium with strong GSI participation will be funded for the next five years. This was announced by the Join Science Conference (GWK) of the German federal and state governments at its meeting in July. PUNCH4NFDI (Particles, Universe, NuClei, and Hadrons for the NFDI) is a consortium of particle, astroparticle, hadron, and nuclear physics, and will make research data transparent and permanently available. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research is supporting the project with a contribution of 13.2 million euros. Around one million euros of it will go to GSI and FAIR.

In the coming years, scientific experiments at next-generation research facilities will become increasingly complex, leading to an exponentially growing flood of data. Data rates of up to one TeraByte per second are expected for the experiments at the planned accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI. The aim of PUNCH4NFDI is to systematically collect, intelligently link and make accessible this extensive data using novel methods. The organization of the data should follow the principles that it is easy to retrieve, easily accessible, linkable and reusable. An important contribution in this respect will be the development of software and algorithms and the creation of publicly available publications. At the heart of PUNCH4NFDI's activities is the development of a federated "Science Data Platform" that includes all the infrastructures and interfaces necessary for access to and use of data and computing resources. For this purpose, techniques and structures are first created on the basis of representative examples that are suitable for joint data management and address topics such as open data, open science and new ideas for processing and managing extremely large amounts of data.

In addition to GSI, the PUNCH4NFDI consortium includes 19 other funding recipients as well as 22 other partners from the Helmholtz Association, the Max Planck Society, the Leibniz Association and universities. "The coordination and cooperation of all consortium partners is one of the central challenges for the realization of universal research data management. Our activities in this regard focus on the exchange of concepts and developments as well as the provision of services provided to the PUNCH4NFDI partners and the entire NFDI. In a first step, we at GSI/FAIR will develop and provide a PUNCH4NFDI-wide authorization and authentication infrastructure together with Forschungszentrum Jülich. With these tools, we enable central access to all research data of the participating institutions,” explains Kilian Schwarz, Head of the Distributed Computing Group in GSI IT and representative of GSI in the management of PUNCH4NFDI. “In addition, we plan to develop metadata and analysis portals as well as to implement basic infrastructures for federated data management and the use of heterogeneous computing resources. With the sustainable high-performance data center Green IT Cube, we provide the consortium with computing time and storage space for its developments.”

Topics related to research data infrastructures already play a central role in the handling of scientific data from experiments at the GSI/FAIR research facility. Therefore, GSI/FAIR is also active in this field in the European environment, where the realization of a common scientific cloud is also promoted. “With their proficiency and expertise in data storage infrastructures and scientific computing, GSI and FAIR are among the key players in this field. Both GSI and FAIR as ‘ESFRI-Landmark’ are active participants in the consortium ‘European Science Cluster of Astronomy & Particle Physics ESFRI Research Infrastructures’ (ESCAPE), in which we are involved in the development of data infrastructures and analysis platforms as well as the provision of research software and services,” says Arjan Vink, head of the third-party funding office at FAIR/GSI, describing the European initiative. (JL)

Further information:

https://www.punch4nfdi.de/
https://www.forschungsdaten.info/

https://www.nfdi.de
https://projectescape.eu/

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5121 Mon, 16 Aug 2021 09:19:38 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Daniela Wagner gets informed at GSI and FAIR about the status of research and construction project https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5121&cHash=d149872cb18f533ccac1195c99817e7c The member of the Bundestag Daniela Wagner (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) recently informed herself about the scientific activities at GSI/FAIR and the progress of the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI. During the information visit as part of her summer tour, Daniela Wagner was accompanied by Nina Eisenhardt, member of the Hessian parliament, and Andreas Ewald, chairperson of the Darmstadt city council fraction (both Bündnis90/Die Grünen). The member of the Bundestag Daniela Wagner (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) recently informed herself about the scientific activities at GSI/FAIR and the progress of the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI. During the information visit as part of her summer tour, Daniela Wagner was accompanied by Nina Eisenhardt, member of the Hessian parliament, and Andreas Ewald, chairperson of the Darmstadt city council fraction (both Bündnis90/Die Grünen).

The guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Haik Simon, Deputy Spokesperson of FAIR Experiment R3B/Project Leader Super-FRS, and Berit Paflik from the Press and Public Relations Department at GSI and FAIR.

The program included an overview of the current research topics and the strategic goals for FAIR and GSI, which are the basis of the site's activities. Central issues were the successful experimental program in 2021, part of “FAIR Phase 0”, the campus development within the framework of the master plan, and the progress in the procurement of FAIR components and on the 20-hectare construction field in the east of the existing GSI and FAIR campus.

During a guided tour, the guests were first able to gain insights into the research facilities on campus. The experiment R3B was visited as well as the therapy unit for tumor treatment using carbon ions and the linear accelerator UNILAC. The test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where mainly high-tech components for FAIR are tested, was also visited.

After this, Daniela Wagner, Nina Eisenhardt and Andreas Ewald had the opportunity to get an overview of the entire construction site and the activities in the northern and southern construction areas from the viewing platform on the edge of the construction site, before taking a tour of the site to get a close-up view of the construction progress. The agenda also included a walk-through of the recently completed underground accelerator tunnel. The central ring accelerator SIS100 will be the heart of the future facility. The ring closure marks an important milestone in the realization process of the entire FAIR project. (BP)

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news-5119 Wed, 11 Aug 2021 09:00:00 +0200 Canadian research organization Mitacs and GSI formalize partnership https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5119&cHash=e21146ccaa3e7af3f6e1b0d5ff27742e A new agreement strengthens international research collaborations by creating exchange opportunities for PhD students and postdoctoral fellows: The nonprofit Canadian research organization Mitacs and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung are delighted to launch a formal partnership to support German and Canadian doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows at host-country research institutions. GSI becomes the third Helmholtz center after Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and Karlsruhe Institute of A new agreement strengthens international research collaborations by creating exchange opportunities for PhD students and postdoctoral fellows: The nonprofit Canadian research organization Mitacs and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung are delighted to launch a formal partnership to support German and Canadian doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows at host-country research institutions. GSI becomes the third Helmholtz center after Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to partner with Mitacs.

The Mitacs-GSI exchange mobility program will boost existing partnerships and help build future scientists and leaders for the operation of science facilities like the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR, which is currently being built at the GSI. GSI has been cooperating with and benefiting from scientific and technical collaboration with Canadian institutions for years in several research projects. The organization also has a special relation with the Canadian accelerator facility TRIUMF. The new partnership is remarkable also because it is formalized in the year of the 50th anniversary of the German-Canadian science and technology cooperation. Valuable in assisting in the recruitment of high-caliber qualified PhD students and postdoctoral fellows, the initiative aims to strengthen research collaborations between both countries.

Participants will receive a grant of $6,000 through the Globalink Research Award program to advance projects for 12 to 24 weeks under the supervision of a faculty member in the host institute. Mitacs and GSI’s three-year agreement will support a total of up to 36 researchers — six Canadian students and fellows per year going to GSI Germany and six coming to Canada from Germany.

 Professor Dr. Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing director of GSI and FAIR said: “It brings me great satisfaction to see Mitacs and GSI team up to promote and support early-stage researchers to gain access to world-class facilities and cooperate in collaborative research in basic science, frontend technologies, and applications. GSI is eager to support young PhD students and postdoctoral fellows in Canada and Germany collaborate on research projects. International partnerships are essential to us because they enhance research quality and promote additional knowledge networks. The partnership with Mitacs is now a great example of our successful and productive collaboration with Canadian institutions.”

Dr. John Hepburn, CEO and Scientific Director, Mitacs, said: “I am delighted to sign Mitacs’s first agreement with the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research — an important step to expand our already strong connections with the German research and innovation ecosystem. We are proud to offer opportunities for PhD students and postdoctoral fellows to develop skills and expand their professional networks, while deepening collaborations that will drive outcomes for Canada and Germany.”

Further information

The details about the application process for researchers interested in the Mitacs-GSI collaboration will be released in the near future. More information about the Globalink Research Award can be found on the program’s pages on the Mitacs and GSI/FAIR websites. For immediate questions can be contacted Étienne Pineault, Director, International Business Development, Mitacs at  epineault(at)mitacs.ca or Dr. Pradeep Ghosh, Programme Manager, GSI at Pr.Ghosh(at)gsi.de.

About Mitacs

Mitacs is a not-for-profit organization that fosters growth and innovation in Canada by solving business challenges with research solutions from academic institutions. Mitacs is funded by the Government of Canada along with the Government of Alberta, the Government of British Columbia, Research Manitoba, the Government of New Brunswick, the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Government of Nova Scotia, the Government of Ontario, Innovation PEI, the Government of Quebec, the Government of Saskatchewan, and the Government of Yukon.

About GSI/FAIR

GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt operates a worldwide leading accelerator facility for research purposes. About 1,520 employees are working at GSI. In addition, every year approximately 1,000 researchers from universities and other research institutes around the world come to GSI. They use the facility for experiments to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. They also develop new applications in medicine and technology. GSI is a limited liability company (GmbH). Shareholders are the German Federal Government with 90 %, the State of Hesse with 8 %, the State of Rhineland-Palatinate and the Free State of Thuringia with 1 % each. GSI is a member of the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest research organization. At GSI, FAIR is currently being built, an international accelerator facility for the research with antiprotons and ions which is being developed and constructed in cooperation with international partners. It is one of the world’s largest construction projects for international cutting-edge research. The FAIR project was initiated by the scientific community and researchers of GSI. The GSI accelerators will become part of the future FAIR facility and serve as the first acceleration stage.

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5115 Thu, 05 Aug 2021 10:26:57 +0200 Hessian Minister of Finance Michael Boddenberg informs himself at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5115&cHash=eacc2aa6ca6b4ba46739d412acef1ca9 The Hessian Minister of Finance, Michael Boddenberg, recently visited GSI and FAIR. The progress and developments of the FAIR project were the focus of the meeting. He was welcomed by Dr. Ulrich Breuer, the Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, as well as Jutta Leroudier from the Press and Public Relations department of GSI and FAIR. Achim Baumbach, Deputy Head of department at the Ministry of Finance, and Moritz Josten, deputy pre The Hessian Minister of Finance, Michael Boddenberg, recently visited GSI and FAIR. The progress and developments of the FAIR project were the focus of the meeting. He was welcomed by Dr. Ulrich Breuer, the Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, as well as Jutta Leroudier from the Press and Public Relations department of GSI and FAIR. Achim Baumbach, Deputy Head of department at the Ministry of Finance, and Moritz Josten, deputy press spokesman at the Ministry of Finance accompanied the minister.

In an introduction, the minister gained insights into current topics and activities at GSI and FAIR. He learned about the research program "FAIR-Phase 0", the perspectives of campus development, the substantial modernizations of the existing facility and the current status of the realization of the FAIR construction project, one of the largest projects for cutting-edge research worldwide.

After visiting the testing hall, where new hightech components for FAIR can be assembled and tested, Michael Boddenberg got an overview of the entire 20-hectare construction area from the viewing platform. Then he took a close view at the progress on the FAIR construction site during a tour. This included a walk-through of the recently completed shell construction of the underground accelerator tunnel. The central ring accelerator SIS100 will be the heart of the future facility. There was also an opportunity to visit the central transfer building, the crucial hub for the facility’s beamline, which is currently being built over several floors. (BP)

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news-5113 Mon, 02 Aug 2021 09:34:11 +0200 Member of the Hessian parliament Hildegard Förster-Heldmann from Darmstadt on a visit at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5113&cHash=2fb64268457e82b403a7e73eacc58f67 Hildegard Förster-Heldmann, member of the Hessian parliament, deputy chairperson of the parliamentary group of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Hessen and chairperson of the city council fraction in Darmstadt, recently visited GSI and FAIR. Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR as well as Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations of GSI and FAIR, welcomed her. The politician was accompanied by Oliver Stienen, parliam Hildegard Förster-Heldmann, member of the Hessian parliament, deputy chairperson of the parliamentary group of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Hessen and chairperson of the city council fraction in Darmstadt, recently visited GSI and FAIR. Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR as well as Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations of GSI and FAIR, welcomed her. The politician was accompanied by Oliver Stienen, Parliamentary group Managing Director of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen in Darmstadt and Judith Schreck from Public Relations.

After introductory information on the status of the FAIR construction project, the campus development, previous research successes and current experiments, the guests were given insights into the existing research facilities on the GSI and FAIR campus during a guided tour. The tour included the linear accelerator UNILAC, the therapy unit for tumor treatment using carbon ions, the large detector HADES, the R3B experiment for exotic nuclei and the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where high-tech components for FAIR are tested.

Afterwards Hildegard Förster-Heldmann was able to take a look at the progress of the construction of the future FAIR accelerator center from the viewing platform on the FAIR construction site, from the completion of the structural work for the SIS100 accelerator ring tunnel to the central transfer building, which is being erected over several floors. In addition, foundations and walls for the first experiment have already been built. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is one of the four research pillars of the FAIR accelerator facility, one of the largest construction projects for cutting-edge research worldwide. (BP)

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news-5111 Fri, 30 Jul 2021 09:00:00 +0200 Hessian chairperson of the CDU parliamentary group Ines Claus visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5111&cHash=d4013f132f4596dc530b9fc8cc39d198 The progress of the FAIR project, the current scientific activities and the campus development were central topics during the visit of the chairperson of the CDU parliamentary group in the Hessian state parliament, Ines Claus, at GSI and FAIR. The politician from Groß-Gerau was welcomed by Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing director of GSI and FAIR as well as Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations of GSI and FAIR. She was accompanied on the appointment, which was part of her summer tour under the theme "Innovative, digital, sustainable" by Office Manager Ingo Schon, Marius Schmitt and Scarlett Rüger (both Public Relations Department).

The politician informed herself about the status of the FAIR construction project, which is one of the largest cutting-edge research projects worldwide, and about previous research successes and the current experiments. After an introductory presentation, Ines Claus was able to gain insights into the existing accelerator and research facilities during a tour of the GSI and FAIR campus. She visited the linear accelerator UNILAC, the therapy unit for tumor treatment using carbon ions, the large detector HADES and the R3B experiment for exotic nuclei.

On the viewpoint of the FAIR construction site Ines Claus could get an overview of the construction measures and the current status of the work on the 20-hectare construction site. The FAIR project is progressing very well, including the completion of the structural work for the SIS100 accelerator ring tunnel, the heart of the facility, and the structural engineering for the central transfer building, the central hub for the facility’s beamline. (BP)

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news-5102 Wed, 28 Jul 2021 08:30:00 +0200 Film award for FAIR drone video https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5102&cHash=da66894ea24f1f1a43e24dc7b941182e The "Longterm Dronelapse 2018-2020" with which GSI/FAIR document the progress on the FAIR construction site was awarded the "Intermedia-globe SILVER Award" by the World Media Festival. 811 entries from 41 nations were submitted to this film competition. The "Longterm Dronelapse 2018-2020" with which GSI/FAIR document the progress on the FAIR construction site was awarded the "Intermedia-globe SILVER Award" by the World Media Festival. 811 entries from 41 nations were submitted to this film competition.

Using a sophisticated filming technique that is not yet widely used, GSI/FAIR have been creating annual longterm time-lapse videos since 2018 to show developments at the construction site of the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) particle accelerator facility. The jury of the "WorldMediaFestival | Television & Corporate Media Awards" judged the video to be an outstanding contribution in the category "Public Relations/Research and Science" and awarded it the "Intermedia-globe SILVER Award". 

With the new technique of "Longterm Dronelapse", the progress on one of the largest construction sites for fundamental research in the world becomes particularly tangible. For this purpose, Lars Möller from the interdisciplinary media production "Zeitrausch" from Breuberg regularly flies the same routes over the FAIR construction site with a drone. Several moving time-lapse videos are then combined into a single video. In the World Media Festival award-winning video, drone movies recorded over three years, are superimposed thanks to GPS support, so that the progress of the construction activities can be experienced in an impressive way.

The WorldMediaFestivals are located in Hamburg, Germany, and are an initiative by intermedia. According to their official website the WorldMediaFestivals | Television & Corporate Media Awards honor excellence in Television, Corporate Film, Online and Print productions on an international scale. These Awards are acknowledged internationally as symbols of the highest production standards and are one of the world's highest honors in visual competition. Experienced professionals from around the world serve in a volunteer capacity as judges. Decisions are based on both creativity and effectiveness. The criteria they use include for example writing, sound, editing, visuals, insights, and above all the extent to which the entry meets its stated goals, i.e. how well the defined target group is being addressed. (LW)

More information

Award-winning drone video longterm dronelapse

List of award-winning entries World Media Festival

 

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-5106 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 08:53:00 +0200 Hessian Member of the State Parliament Katy Walther Visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5106&cHash=d4f569dd2ea19473b1c0123f1f3d0853 The energy-efficient supercomputing center Green IT Cube was the focus of the visit of Katy Walther, member of the Hessian parliament. She was accompanied by members of the county council of the administrative district Offenbach. The energy-efficient supercomputing center Green IT Cube was the focus of the visit of Katy Walther, member of the Hessian parliament. She was accompanied by members of the county council of the administrative district Offenbach.

The MP's visit was focused on sustainable, energy-efficient and high-performance IT infrastructure. Katy Walther from Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is responsible for the administrative district Offenbach and was accompanied by the members of the parliamentary group Olaf Hermann, managing director of county council group, the environmental policy spokesman René Bacher, the cultural policy spokesman Werner Kremeier, the office manager Corina Retzbach, Büroleiterin as well as the members of the county council Sonja Arnold, Christine Dammer and Karin Wagner.

The guests were welcomed by Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR. In addition, Dr. Helmut Kreiser, Group Manager of the IT Department DataCenter, and Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations, were among the participants of GSI and FAIR.

The guests took the opportunity to learn more about the high-performance data center and its infrastructure in presentations and during a guided tour through the Green IT Cube, and showed great interest in the promising perspectives. The Green IT Cube on the GSI/FAIR campus is one of the most capable scientific computing centers in the world. At the same time, it sets standards in IT technology and energy saving: Thanks to a special cooling system, it is particularly energy- and cost-efficient. Therefore, the energy required for cooling is less than seven percent of the electrical power used for computing. In conventional data centers with air cooling, this relation amounts to 30 up to 100 percent. The innovative cooling system also enables a compact and space-saving design. The Green IT Cube has already received numerous awards, including the Blue Angel, the eco label of the German government.

In addition to a tour of the Green IT Cube, the program included an overview of FAIR/GSI research topics and the current status of the FAIR construction project. Furthermore, the guests were able to take a look at the 20-hectare FAIR construction site with the completed structural work for the ring tunnel of the SIS100 from the viewpoint. (JL)

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news-5104 Tue, 20 Jul 2021 07:27:00 +0200 Federal Ministry of Education and Research to fund fundamental research on detectors with almost three million euros https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5104&cHash=86d1302d7ac3dec09eba6febea269b80 Within the framework of the project funding of the ErUM-Pro action plan of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the Institute of Nuclear Physics at the University of Cologne will receive a total of 2.8 million euros for the next three years. This funding will be used to support the projects of Professor Dr. Jan Jolie, Professor Dr. Peter Reiter and Professor Dr. Andreas Zilges, which address the investigation of the smallest structures of matter. This news is based on a press release of the University of Cologne

Within the framework of the project funding of the ErUM-Pro action plan of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the Institute of Nuclear Physics at the University of Cologne will receive a total of 2.8 million euros for the next three years. This funding will be used to support the projects of Professor Dr. Jan Jolie, Professor Dr. Peter Reiter and Professor Dr. Andreas Zilges, which address the investigation of the smallest structures of matter. The focus is on the development, setup and execution of experiments at the international research facility FAIR, which is currently under construction at GSI, and the research facility ISOLDE at the research center CERN near Geneva.

The aim of the investigations is the properties of short-lived, previously unknown atomic nuclei, which are made available for the experiments at the accelerators in Darmstadt and in Geneva. In this context, the Cologne groups contribute significantly to the instrumentation of future experiments with detectors for γ-spectroscopy, for the detection of neutrons, and for beam particles. The experiments with stable beams performed at the accelerator facility of the University of Cologne will thus be extended in an ideal way.

The Cologne collaboration with the European research facility ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure — Nuclear Physics) will also be strengthened. ELI-NP is being built near Bucharest, Romania. The unique combination of laser beams and electron beams from particle accelerators will enable a future light source characterized by extremely high intensities and extremely high energies.

99.9% of the visible matter around us consists of atomic nuclei. These consist of protons and neutrons, which interact with each other through the strong as well as the electromagnetic and the weak force. Despite intensive experimental and theoretical efforts, the strong interaction in nuclei is still not well understood. Atomic nuclei also play a central role in energy production and other processes in stars. This means that atomic nuclei have an important connecting role between the very smallest systems and the very largest systems (stars, galaxies, universe). Because of this unique position of the many-particle system atomic nucleus, it is of fundamental importance to understand the structure of nuclei and the interactions of nucleons in nuclei.

With the ErUM-Pro action plan, the BMBF promotes networking between universities, research infrastructures and society in order to further develop research infrastructures and enrich research there. The action plan is part of the BMBF framework program ErUM - Exploring Universe and Matter. (CP)

Further information:
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news-5100 Thu, 15 Jul 2021 08:38:00 +0200 High gloss future — Testing of first of series module for the UNILAC Alvarez upgrade https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5100&cHash=4ab100ebdf9e7329b29973807af99575 Highest quality and a mirror-like gloss: Inside the so-called Alvarez accelerator, a 55-meter-long part of GSI's linear accelerator UNILAC, the high-grade copper surface stands out. Due to the upgrading measures for operation with the new FAIR accelerator facility, which is currently under construction, the existing GSI facility is also undergoing many improvements. Highest quality and a mirror-like gloss: Inside the so-called Alvarez accelerator, a 55-meter-long part of GSI's linear accelerator UNILAC, the high-grade copper surface stands out. Due to the upgrading measures for operation with the new FAIR accelerator facility, which is currently under construction, the existing GSI facility is also undergoing many improvements. One of them is the replacement of the existing Alvarez with a new, improved accelerator structures of the Alvarez type. A first of series (FoS) module has now been completed and is undergoing testing.

The linear accelerator UNILAC (Universal Linear Accelerator) serves as the first accelerator stage to bring ions up to speed. The Alvarez section, located at the rear of the 120-meter-long UNILAC, brings them from 5% to 15% of the speed of light so they can be injected into the GSI ring accelerator, accelerated further and later transferred into the FAIR facility. Since the existing Alvarez, which is in operation for nearly 50 years, doesn’t meet FAIR's high requirements, the decision for its replacement was made.

The new components combine large dimensions in the meter range with high precision in the submillimeter range. Internal surfaces must be manufactured to the highest quality with roughness of just a few micrometers to apply the copper plating afterwards. For the GSI electroplating department, which specializes in large components, the copper plating itself is a huge challenge due to the necessary homogeneity. The special surface is necessary for the device to start its “glossy” future in the accelerator.

“Another specialty are the quadrupole magnets integrated into the structure's drift tubes, which provide beam focusing during acceleration. Manufacturing, installation and adjustment must be exactly right to guarantee the magnetic field quality,” explains accelerator physicist Dr. Lars Groening, who is head of the responsible department “UNILAC Post Stripper Upgrade”. “We have greatly improved the quadrupoles compared to the existing Alvarez: they focus more strongly and, in quasi-simultaneous operation with several ion species, ensure optimal focusing properties for each species through rapid switching. This is essential for FAIR.”

Many of GSI/FAIR’s technical departments are involved in this project. Following extensive planning, design and construction of the components took place. A FoS Alvarez component was delivered in 2019 and assembled on campus. Testing took place for specified properties such as dimensions, tolerances and surface quality of the inside, as well as low-power electromagnetic field characteristics. In the previous year 2020 the structure received its characteristic high gloss: it was successfully copper-plated at GSI's electroplating facility and is now ready for testing in high-power operation.

Once the FoS passes all tests, 25 sections will be manufactured in series production. They, too, must undergo a defined acceptance procedure and tests of the high-frequency electromagnetic fields. For this purpose, five sections with three-ton end caps at each side and the drift tubes will be assembled to one cavity, so that in total five cavities of the Alvarez type will be tested. Subsequent to the careful test campaign, the replacement of the existing Alvarez section with the five new Alvarez cavities can begin at the UNILAC tunnel, which is estimated to take about one and a half years. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5098 Tue, 13 Jul 2021 08:42:00 +0200 FAIR construction project wins Solid Bautechpreis 2021 — Main prize for executing construction company PORR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5098&cHash=8b58cfb4d08d1954b50394c46c14d212 In June, the construction company PORR, responsible for civil engineering in the FAIR Construction Site North, won the Austrian Solid Bautechpreis 2021 in the category "International". The prizes are awarded every two years as main prizes and recognitions for outstanding construction achievements of Austrian companies by the construction magazine SOLID. A top-class jury of experts honors construction projects in various categories. In June, the construction company PORR, responsible for civil engineering in the FAIR Construction Site North, won the Austrian Solid Bautechpreis 2021 in the category "International". The prizes are awarded every two years as main prizes and recognitions for outstanding construction achievements of Austrian companies by the construction magazine SOLID. A top-class jury of experts honors construction projects in various categories. This year, the awards gala, where the winners were ceremoniously announced, took place virtually.

Since 2018, PORR has been realizing one of the currently largest and most complex construction projects in international cutting-edge research as part of the ARGE FAIR Construction Site North: PORR is building the 1.1 km long FAIR accelerator tunnel including the building sections above, the transfer building with underground section for guiding the beam into the accelerator ring (SIS100) and the connected main supply building. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5086 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 10:00:00 +0200 Series production and series tests of SIS100 dipoles for the FAIR ring accelerator are completed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5086&cHash=5c60b74340d37e50df54c1768652f7fc Another decisive step has been taken on the way to completion of the large ring accelerator SIS100, the heart of the future accelerator center FAIR: The production of all 110 superconducting dipole magnets for the new heavy ion accelerator with a circumference of 1.1 kilometers has been completed, as have the corresponding cold tests at the final operating temperature of -269 degrees. Another decisive step has been taken on the way to completion of the large ring accelerator SIS100, the heart of the future accelerator center FAIR: The production of all 110 superconducting dipole magnets for the new heavy ion accelerator with a circumference of 1.1 kilometers has been completed, as have the corresponding cold tests at the final operating temperature of -269 degrees.

In the FAIR ring accelerator, various sophisticated magnets and entire magnet systems will ensure that the ion beam is precisely guided and focused. The superconducting dipole modules also belong to them. In total 110 dipole magnets were produced, 108 will be installed in the ring accelerator tunnel and two more are spare ones. The dipoles, that will mainly be needed for deflecting the particle beam, make up more than a quarter of all 415 fast ramped superconducting magnets utilized in the SIS100.

The successful production of these dipole modules and their testing represents the largest series of accelerator components ever manufactured by order of GSI. The completion is an important milestone on the way to installation in the tunnel, which is scheduled to begin in the second half of next year. Bilfinger Noell in Würzburg, one of the few European manufacturers of superconducting magnets, was contracted for series production.

The SIS100 dipole magnets are so-called superferric magnets, consisting of a superconducting coil and an iron yoke to guide the magnetic field. The particular feature of the magnets is the superconducting coil, in which a special superconducting cable is used. This nuclotron cable - originally developed for the ring accelerator Nuklotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia - is particularly suitable for generating rapidly ramped magnetic fields.

The cable consists of a copper-nickel tube. Around this tube strands of niobium-titanium, a common superconductor, are coiled. The original design was optimized with regard to the requirements of FAIR. It is cooled with liquid helium and operated at a temperature of 4.5 Kelvin (equivalent to 4.5 degrees Celsius above absolute zero at around -273 degrees). The design of the magnets allows to integrate vacuum chambers for the ion beam, whose wall temperature is also just above absolute zero. Thus, the chamber walls act like a super pump onto which the remaining particles of the beam vacuum keep attached. The extremely low remaining gas pressure made possible by is a mandatory precondition for the acceleration of heavy ion beams with highest intensities. Highest particle intensities are part of the specifications of the FAIR facility, which offers a wide variety of new experimental possibilities.

Each of the magnets, which weight about three tons and are three meter long, is subjected to a comprehensive test program: The quality control of the production as well as several tests under room temperature conditions are performed in Würzburg before shipment to Darmstadt. Among other things, the geometric precision of the inner aperture and the electrical properties of the coil were measured as part of the so-called FAT (Factory Acceptance Test). Bilfinger Noell succeeded in making the production so precise over the entire series that the deviations of the geometry of the field-determining pole shoes were always less than 50 micrometers from the nominal geometry.

After delivery to GSI, all 110 dipole modules were subjected to a SAT (Site Acceptance Test), which included performance tests at the final operating temperature of 4.5 K. To cool the magnets down to this temperature, GSI has built an elaborate, almost 700-square-meter test facility with cryogenic equipment for superconducting accelerator magnets (STF, Series Test Facility). It has four so-called feed boxes to connect the dipole modules for parallel testing in different phases. Using a specially procured high-power power supply unit, the modules could be supplied during the performance test with amperage up to 17 kiloamperes at rise rates of 28000 amperes per second.

The test program for all 110 dipole modules was carried out in years of cooperation by employees from various specialist areas and departments. In a final integration step, the thin-walled dipole chambers, produced by PINK Vakuumtechnik in Wertheim, are now being installed. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5096 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 07:11:00 +0200 Diversity Charter signed: GSI/FAIR promotes diversity https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5096&cHash=da1b4a28355bcc140cbae026b99157bf GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) have signed the "Diversity Charter". Thereby, GSI/FAIR is committed to an organizational culture of diversity that is free of prejudice. GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) have signed the "Diversity Charter". Thereby, GSI/FAIR is committed to an organizational culture of diversity that is free of prejudice. The implementation of the "Diversity Charter" aims to create and promote an appreciative work environment for all employees, "irrespective of age, ethnic background and nationality, gender and gender identity, physical and mental abilities, religion and worldview, sexual orientation and social background," the charter declares. The charter was signed by the three managing directors of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, Dr. Ulrich Breuer and Jörg Blaurock.

The "Diversity Charter" is the result of a corporate initiative to promote diversity in companies and public institutions. The German government supports this initiative, which operates under the aegis of German Chancellor Angela Merkel. More than 3,800 companies and institutions with about 14 million employees have signed the “Diversity Charter”.

The initiative has been supported by the non-profit association “Charta der Vielfalt e.V”. since 2010. Its goal is to promote the recognition, appreciation and inclusion of diversity in corporate culture in Germany. With various projects, the “Diversity Charter” continues to advance the discussion on diversity management in Germany.

Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR emphasizes: "For GSI/FAIR as a strongly internationally operating research institution, the cooperation with different people and cultures has long been part of everyday life. Cutting-edge research is based on lively collaborations across all borders, not only across state borders. An unprejudiced perspective that optimally promotes the diverse talents is of great importance for successful top-level science.

Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR stresses: "The diversity of our employees with all their different skills and talents opens up a potential that we do not want to relinquish and cannot relinquish. Diversity is also an economic factor of success. It generates opportunities to meet the demands of modern business and working life even more successfully and efficiently, especially in an open-minded institution like GSI/FAIR."

Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR underlines: "Appreciation and recognition of diversity are an important resource that paves the way for innovative solutions. New perspectives and constructive cooperation make it possible to meet the challenges of increasing globalization. This capacity for innovation, which emerges from an organizational culture of diversity, must be harnessed to shape and advance promising future-oriented projects as FAIR."

Already last year, the centers of the Helmholtz Association agreed to develop and live a common understanding of diversity, inclusion and a diversity-aware organizational culture. All 19 members of the Helmholtz Association, among them also GSI, have officially adopted a corresponding guideline in their assembly of members in order to create the framework conditions for reflecting diversity and inclusion in the processes, structures and conditions of the centers. Now, with the signing of the "Diversity Charter", it was underlined how important it is for GSI/FAIR to have a climate of acceptance and mutual trust. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-5092 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 08:15:00 +0200 ALICE finds that charm hadronization differs https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5092&cHash=32526c587f24049d6231494ef5895c81 New measurements by the ALICE collaboration show that the way charm quarks form hadrons in proton-proton collisions differs significantly from expectations based on electron collider measurements. The ALICE research department at GSI was substantially involved in the measurement and evaluation of the results. This text is based on a news by the European research organisation CERN

New measurements by the ALICE collaboration show that the way charm quarks form hadrons in proton-proton collisions differs significantly from expectations based on electron collider measurements. The ALICE research department at GSI was substantially involved in the measurement and evaluation of the results.

Quarks are among the elementary particles of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Besides up and down quarks, which are the basic building blocks of ordinary matter in the Universe, four other quark flavors exist and are also abundantly produced in collisions at particle accelerators like the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Quarks are not observed in isolation due to a fundamental aspect of the strong interaction, known as color charge confinement. Confinement requires particles that carry the charge of the strong interaction, called color, to form states that are color-neutral. This in turn forces quarks to undergo a process of hadronization, i.e. to form hadrons, which are composite particles mostly made of a quark and an antiquark (mesons) or of three quarks (baryons). The only exception is the heaviest quark, the top, which decays before it has time to hadronize.

At particle accelerators, quarks with a large mass, such as the charm quark, are produced only in the initial interactions between the colliding particles. Depending on the type of beam used, these can be electron-positron, electron-proton or proton-proton collisions (as at the LHC). The subsequent hadronization of charm quarks into mesons (D0, D+, Ds) or baryons (Λc, Ξc, …) occurs on a long space-time scale and was considered to be universal - that is, independent of the species of the colliding particles - until the recent findings by the ALICE collaboration.

The large data samples collected during Run 2 of the LHC allowed ALICE to count the vast majority of charm quarks produced in the proton-proton collisions by reconstructing the decays of all charm meson species and of the most abundant charm baryons (Λc and Ξc). The charm quarks were found to form baryons almost 40% of the time, which is four times more often than what was expected based on measurements previously made at colliders with electron beams (e+e- and ep in the figure below).

“Coordinated by Dr. Andrea Dubla, our local ALICE group at GSI has produced and published many of these results. This also involved the use of a software framework for decay reconstruction developed for the FAIR experiment for studies of compressed nuclear matter CBM and now shared between CBM and ALICE,” explains Professor Silvia Masciocchi, head of the ALICE department at GSI. “The study of heavy quarks is one of the main focuses of our ALICE research at GSI, and we are very pleased that our long-standing efforts have now contributed to such impressive results. Our research also profits strongly from the postdoctoral research fellowship program HGF-GSI-OCPC, which allows us to attract and recruit excellent researchers from universities in China. This opens up exciting perspectives for the future.”

The measurements show that the process of color-charge confinement and hadron formation is still a poorly understood aspect of the strong interaction. Current theoretical explanations of baryon enhancement include the combination of multiple quarks produced in proton-proton collisions and new mechanisms in the neutralisation of the color charge. Additional measurements during the next run of the LHC will allow these theories to be scrutinized and further our knowledge of the strong interaction. (CERN/CP)

Further information
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5088 Tue, 29 Jun 2021 07:00:00 +0200 ESA-FAIR cooperation: Dr. Dr. Jennifer Ngo-Anh succeeds Thomas Reiter https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5088&cHash=7163eb2fe0511f2f5e599e591a5e2ab6 In the joint cooperation between the European Space Agency ESA and the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH), which is currently being built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, there is a new ESA coordinator responsible for implementing the ESA-FAIR cooperation. Jennifer Ngo-Anh, who holds doctorates in medicine and neuroscience, succeeds astronaut Thomas Reiter, who recently retired. On FAIR side, Dr. Corinna Kausch from Biophy In the joint cooperation between the European Space Agency ESA and the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH), which is currently being built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, there is a new ESA coordinator responsible for implementing the ESA-FAIR cooperation. Jennifer Ngo-Anh, who holds doctorates in medicine and neuroscience, succeeds astronaut Thomas Reiter, who recently retired. On FAIR side, Dr. Corinna Kausch from Biophysics Department is responsible for implementing the cooperation.

Dr. Dr. Jennifer Ngo-Anh works as Research and Payloads Coordinator in the Directorate of Human and Robotic Exploration programs. There she coordinate the research and payloads program, which has the overarching goal to enable safe and sustainable long-duration exploration missions into Deep Space with human crews. In her field of responsibility, she will also be in charge of the ESA-FAIR cooperation on cosmic radiation research, in which she has already been significantly involved before, among other things as part of the project team in the implementation of the joint ESA-FAIR Summer School.

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR Professor Paolo Giubellino said: “GSI and FAIR sincerely thank Thomas Reiter for the excellent collaboration. He was one of the decisive initiators of the ESA-FAIR cooperation, which we were able to successfully launch with the signing of the contract in February 2018 and which has already generated numerous important research contributions. We are very much looking forward to working with Dr. Dr. Ngo-Anh in the future and the opportunity to further advance our collaboration together with her. The cooperation between FAIR and ESA opens up unique opportunities for excellent research in the field of cosmic radiation and its effects.”

One of the key questions that need to be addressed regarding the future of human spaceflight as well as robotic exploration programs is how cosmic radiation affects human beings, electronics, and materials. Another important component is the assessment of radiation risks. More precise research on cosmic radiation, undertaken by the ESA-FAIR cooperation, is thus one of the central tasks for the effective protection of astronauts and space systems.

The new ESA person responsible, Dr. Dr. Ngo-Anh, is also looking forward to a strengthened collaboration with GSI/FAIR and emphasizes the importance of it: “Space radiation is considered as being one of the potential showstoppers for long-duration human exploration missions into Deep Space. This is why we have the cooperation with GSI / FAIR in place through which we are trying to advance our space radiation understanding. The cooperation is unique, because in the area of space radiation research, very limited opportunities for exposing materials to (space) irradiation is available. One of the main objectives of the cooperation is to implement space-relevant experiments and directly apply the obtained knowledge at the state-of-the-art facilities and infrastructure of GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt – and thereby contribute to sustained and safe exploration of Deep Space with human crews”.

Dr. Dr. Jennifer Ngo-Anh studied medicine in Tübingen and received her doctorate there, followed by neuroscience studies with a PhD at the University of Portland in the US state of Oregon. Subsequently, she began her career at ESA in the Directorate for Astronautical Spaceflight. Today, as Program Coordinator Research and Payloads, she leads the mainly medical/life science aspects of the European space program with a team of 20 people. Her scope of activities includes the scientific planning, coordination and implementation of the European contribution to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as all European ground-based human and robotic space activities. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-5090 Thu, 24 Jun 2021 07:46:00 +0200 TRON uses GSI/FAIR experiment period for cancer research: combination of heavy ion therapy and mRNA vaccine https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5090&cHash=fad569a3a2dd40de6e43fcdfbe217e5a It is a strong alliance for research in the fight against cancer, opening the way for exciting new developments. On one hand, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt with its worldwide unique accelerator facilities and the cancer therapy with ion beams developed here. On the other hand, the biopharmaceutical and translational research institute TRON in Mainz with its highly specialized oncology research. It is a strong alliance for research in the fight against cancer, opening the way for exciting new developments. On one hand, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt with its worldwide unique accelerator facilities and the cancer therapy with ion beams developed here. On the other hand, the biopharmaceutical and translational research institute TRON in Mainz with its highly specialized oncology research. Via its founder Professor Ugur Sahin and further scientists, TRON is closely linked to the biotechnology company BioNTech, which is conducting world-class science with its Corona vaccine development – based on the most advanced applications of mRNA vaccines from tumor research.

In the ongoing experiment period on the GSI and FAIR campus, TRON, in collaboration with the GSI Department of Biophysics, is using the accelerator facilities for a new and promising combination of therapeutic approaches: combining carbon ion therapy and immunotherapy with an mRNA-based cancer vaccine. Combining this powerful systemic drug with localized heavy ion bombardment of the primary mass could be a key to defeat cancers in advanced stage.

TRON's research at GSI/FAIR is still a glance into the future. “The findings will give a first orientation if heavy ion radiotherapy can benefit from combined immunotherapy, using cancer vaccines, and are instructive for the translation of radioimmunotherapy combinations using heavy ions into the clinic,” explain TRON scientists Dr. Fulvia Vascotto and Dr. Nadja Salomon.

“The aim of the current experiment at GSI/FAIR is to directly compare the effectiveness of carbon ions and X-rays (conventional radiation therapy), each combined with mRNA based vaccine specific for a mouse tumor model,” describes Dr. Alexander Helm, scientist in GSI's Biophysics Department and responsible for the experiment coordination. The experiment breaks completely new ground: Particle therapy with carbon ions and therapeutic cancer vaccines were never combined before.

The immune system plays an important role in the prevention and cure against cancer. Usually, it recognizes degenerated cells and can “sort them out". At the same time, it is equipped with highly complex control mechanisms to avoid overreactions. This is exactly what cancer cells can sometimes use to their advantage and to down-regulate immune surveillance. They disappear from the radar, so to speak, they camouflage so skillfully that the endogenous defenses do not recognize the enemy or are too weak to attack it. Immunotherapy can reactivate the immune system in the fight against cancer.

The approach pursued in pre-clinical studies at TRON leads to stimulate the immune system via vaccination with messenger RNA (mRNA). With the vaccination - the fragile mRNA is packed in a protective lipid envelope - the tumor-diseased organism receives valuable information. Like an educator, the vaccine uptaken by antigen presenting cells instructs the immune system specifically, activates it to produce antigens and mobilizes it against the mutated cancer cells. This cancer vaccine is based on similar technologies as mRNA-based vaccines used against covid 19.

There is already an indication that conventional radiation therapy (high-energy X-rays) as a second component in addition to mRNA vaccine synergize, showing more efficient in anti-tumoral effects reinforcing the immune system. The immunological effects of heavy ion therapy in contrast are less known. Radiotherapy with carbon ions was developed at GSI and is now very successfully in clinical application in Heidelberg and Marburg and in nine other centers worldwide. Can carbon ion radiotherapy be beneficial for certain types of tumors and can it open up new clinical perspectives for more cancer patients? It is possible that this form of therapy is more immunogenic, i.e. it could trigger an even stronger immune response than conventional radiation therapy and, together with an individualized mRNA vaccine, might result in generating more patients responding to these therapeutic combinations. These are the type of questions, to which this proof-of-concept experiment would like to provide an answer.

Last year, an international team of researchers led by the GSI Department of Biophysics, with lead author Dr. Alexander Helm, had already published first promising results for the potential benefit of a treatment combination of carbon ions and immunotherapy. The researchers were able to demonstrate that carbon ions plus immunotherapy is more effective in controlling lung metastases than both therapies alone and more effective than X-rays plus immunotherapy. However, the immunotherapy was based on checkpoint inhibitors instead of the therapeutic mRNA vaccine used now.

The progress of the current cancer research at TRON in Mainz will provide new answers, for example regarding tumor control/regression (here a colorectal adenocarcinoma) and on the mechanisms involving immunological cell players acting in the anti-tumoral effects. In order to better assess this potential, further research has to be conducted and finally the application in clinical studies must be tested. “Scientific synergies by complementary research act as accelerator for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Joint research activities such as the ongoing one between GSI and TRON are therefore of great importance for future cancer research” emphasizes Michael Föhlings, Managing Director of TRON.

The further development of tumor therapy with charged particles is a field of expertise of Professor Marco Durante, Head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department. He is eagerly awaiting the results of the TRON studies: “Particle therapy is rapidly growing and is potentially the most effective and precise radiotherapy technique. Combining it with most advanced vaccines is an extremely promising approach. The goal is always to answer the central question: How to treat and to achieve the most efficient, the best immune response in the fight against cancer. The entire experience of TRON and GSI/FAIR in the field of cancer research will be bundled and strengthened in this project. For me, this is a highlight of our current FAIR Phase 0 experimental program.”

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino says: “I am tremendously excited by these experiments. The fact that an mRNA-based vaccine is being studied in conjunction with ion beams to develop a potential new cancer therapy is one perfect example of the great potential of basic research at our accelerator facilities to produce new results, which can benefit society. The first stage of the FAIR experimental program, the precursor program FAIR Phase 0, is already offering outstanding opportunities. With the construction of the FAIR facility in Darmstadt, we want to expand and further develop this potential in global cooperation." (BP)

About TRON:

TRON gGmbH is a biopharmaceutical research organization that pursues new diagnostics and drugs for the treatment of cancer and other severe diseases with high medical need. A focus of TRON is the development of novel platforms for individualized therapies and biomarkers, translating basic research into drug applications. TRON partners with academic institutions, biotech companies and the pharmaceutical industry, executing research with leading-edge technologies and supporting the development of innovative drugs to promote human health.

About GSI/FAIR:

The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt operates a world unique accelerator facility for ions. Some of the best-known results are the discovery of six new chemical elements and the development of a new type of cancer therapy. The new international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), one of the largest research projects worldwide, is currently under construction at GSI. At FAIR, matter that usually only exists in the depth of space will be produced in a lab for research. Scientists from all over the world will use the facility for experiments to gain new insights about the building blocks of matter and the evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to the present. They will also develop new applications in medicine and technology.

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Presse Aktuelles
news-5084 Fri, 18 Jun 2021 09:00:00 +0200 Research project in New Delhi: Fellowship for GSI scientist Dr. Rahul Singh https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5084&cHash=23715604f492a5d3162b01e363249a18 GSI scientist Dr. Rahul Singh was awarded a Research Fellowship “Visiting Advanced Joint Research (VAJRA) Faculty Scheme”. In this context, he received an invitation to spend several months of research in India within a year funded by the Indian government. At the Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) in New Delhi, he will research on the field of longitudinal beam optics and diagnostics for High Current Injector (HCI) development together with collaborators from IUAC. GSI scientist Dr. Rahul Singh was awarded a Research Fellowship “Visiting Advanced Joint Research (VAJRA) Faculty Scheme”. In this context, he received an invitation to spend several months of research in India within a year funded by the Indian government. At the Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) in New Delhi, he will research on the field of longitudinal beam optics and diagnostics for High Current Injector (HCI) development together with collaborators from IUAC.

The VAJRA Faculty Scheme for scientists will allow Dr. Rahul Singh to conduct a joint research project together with his peers at the IUAC in New Delhi within 2021. This prestigious research grant of the Science and Engineering Research Board, Government (SERB), a statutory body under the Indian Department of Science and Technology, is a special funding program to enable talented researchers of Indian origin (It can also be German citizens) to engage in scientific exchange and research collaboration in India consequential to closer cooperation among partner institutes.

Dr Rahul Singh is in the Beam Diagnostics department at GSI and FAIR, working as a work package leader for closed orbit feedback for future Synchrotron machine of FAIR: SIS-100. His current research focus is on signal processing algorithms for synchrotrons and storage rings, feedback systems and optimization of slow extraction at FAIR. Further research interests include application of transition radiation for transverse and longitudinal diagnostics in different parts of GSI accelerator facility, inverse modelling of the accelerator as well as application of machine learning techniques towards performance improvements of diagnostic devices.

VAJRA (Visiting Advanced Joint Research) Faculty Scheme from Science and Engineering Research Board, Government (SERB) India is a dedicated program exclusively for overseas scientists and academicians with emphasis on Non-resident Indians (NRI) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) to work as adjunct / visiting faculty for a specific period of time in Indian Public funded academic and research institutions.

The Indian host research institute, the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), is the first Inter-University Centre (IUC) of University Grant Commission (UGC) of India - established in 1984 as an autonomous institution called Nuclear Science Centre after dual approval of planning commission with an objective to provide within the university system world class accelerator systems along with experimental facilities and to create basic infrastructure to facilitate internationally competitive research in the area of Nuclear Physics, Material Science, Atomic Physics, Radiation Biology, Radiation Physics and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The center became a national user facility in 1991 and has India’s largest tandem accelerator and added subsequently other accelerators including a superconducting Linear accelerator, a 1.7MeV Pelletron accelerator, an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion source based Low Energy Ion Beam Facility.

Further information

Interested to know more of the program can contact program coordinator Dr. Pradeep Ghosh.

Related links

GET_INvolved Program

VAJRA Program – India

IUAC New Delhi – India

Excellence Award to Dr Rahul Singh by GSI/FAIR management

 

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FAIR News (DEU) Aktuelles FAIR
news-5082 Wed, 16 Jun 2021 09:00:00 +0200 Perspectives for future tumor therapy: New FLASH method for ultrafast, high-dose heavy ion irradiation tested for the first time https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5082&cHash=d0c4904e0251b17f04b8e4f86d5747f2 It could become a breakthrough for future tumor treatments with heavy ions and pave new ways: In the current experiment period FAIR-Phase 0, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR succeeded in performing a carbon ion FLASH experiment for the first time. The scientists involved were able to achieve the very high dose rates required and to irradiate tumors. The success was a collective effort of the GSI Biophysics Department and the accelerator crew on the GS It could become a breakthrough for future tumor treatments with heavy ions and pave new ways: In the current experiment period FAIR-Phase 0, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR succeeded in performing a carbon ion FLASH experiment for the first time. The scientists involved were able to achieve the very high dose rates required and to irradiate tumors. The success was a collective effort of the GSI Biophysics Department and the accelerator crew on the GSI/FAIR campus in close collaboration with the German Cancer Research Center DKFZ and the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) center.

The topic of FLASH irradiation is in strong focus worldwide and is also a main research topic within clinical radiobiology at GSI Biophysics. The FLASH method is a new highly promising radiation therapy method. The word “flash” refers to lightning. Fitting to that, in radiation medicine, this means ultra-short and ultra-high radiation, where the treatment dose is delivered in sub-second timescales. The aim of FLASH irradiation is to apply a very high dose in a very short time. Traditional radiation therapy, as well as proton or ion therapy, deliver smaller doses of radiation to a patient over an extended period, whereas FLASH radiotherapy is thought to require only a few short irradiations, all lasting less than 100 milliseconds.

Recent in-vivo investigations have shown, in the field of electron radiation, that the FLASH method with an ultra-high dose rate is less harmful to healthy tissue, but just as efficient as conventional dose-rate radiation to inhibit tumor growth. Such an effect has not yet been demonstrated for proton and for ion beam irradiation, which is the basis of the tumor therapy with carbon ions developed at GSI. There is still a lot of research to be done here. The results of the current experiment at GSI are now being evaluated and will contribute to new knowledge.

However, the topic is not only a great challenge scientifically, but also technically: Until now, FLASH technique has only been applicable using electron and proton accelerators. While the required dose rates for electrons and protons can be achieved with a cyclotron (circular accelerator), this is more difficult with the synchrotrons required in heavy ion therapy, such as the SIS18 at GSI. That is why the current FAIR Phase 0 experiment is a very crucial step: Thanks to the improvements at the existing GSI accelerator facility as part of the preparations for FAIR, the necessary dose rate in millisecond range can now also be achieved for carbon. However, a lot of technical development and research is still needed, before the procedure is technically advanced enough to be routinely used on patients.

Professor Marco Durante, Head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department, was very pleased with the important success in FLASH irradiation: “It is a forward-looking method that could significantly increase the therapeutic window in radiotherapy. I am very happy that the researchers and the accelerator team were able to demonstrate the possibility to create conditions with carbon beams that are necessary for FLASH therapy of tumors. If we can combine the great effect and precision of heavy ion therapy with FLASH irradiation while maintaining efficacy and causing little damage to healthy tissue, this could pave the way of a future radiation therapy several years from now".

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, is also very delighted: „The combination of expertise in biophysics and medicine as well as engineering excellence allows the first world-class experiments FLASH irradiation with ion beams to be performed. This could result in important complements to existing radiation therapies. Applications in tumor therapy are one of the research areas that can benefit from the recent increased intensities of GSI accelerators. However, modern radiobiology will substantially benefit from beams with even higher intensities, such as we will have at the FAIR facility currently under construction. FLASH is a first example of these future directions of work”. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-5080 Wed, 02 Jun 2021 09:00:00 +0200 Ring closure for large FAIR accelerator: structural work is completed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5080&cHash=c14457c572a7e76c0265e21bb564eeff It is a central part of the future accelerator center FAIR, currently being built in international collaboration at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt, and at the same time the heart of one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide: the large underground FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 on the northern FAIR construction site with a circumference of 1,100 meters. On the same place where the groundbreaking ceremony was held a few years ago, representing the start of the building and civil en It is a central part of the future accelerator center FAIR, currently being built in international collaboration at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt, and at the same time the heart of one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide: the large underground FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 on the northern FAIR construction site with a circumference of 1,100 meters. On the same place where the groundbreaking ceremony was held a few years ago, representing the start of the building and civil engineering works, a decisive step has now been reached: The structural work for the SIS100 is completed. The ring closure of the tunnel system has been made, and the concrete layer of the last tunnel slab has been poured. The ring closure marks an important milestone in the realization process of the entire FAIR project.

The large ring tunnel consists of the two tunnel areas running next to each other, one for the accelerator machine and the other for the corresponding technical and supply facilities. The base lies at a depth of 18 meter. The ring tunnel for the accelerator was built in several segments, each about 25 meters long. After the completion of the load-bearing parts, the ground slabs, walls and ceiling structure, the assembly of the technical building equipment (TGA) such as electrical supply, air-conditioning technology, safety technology etc. is upcoming. The excavation pit will now be backfilled progressively, and additional storage and lay-down areas for the TGA companies will be prepared above ground. After the last slab has been concreted, a logistics opening is still being kept open so that the majority of the formwork for the tunnel can be lifted through. Later, it will also be closed.

SIS100 is a project of superlatives, which is also reflected in some key data: In the northern excavation pit, with its underground ring accelerator as the central building structure, almost one million cubic meters of earth were excavated for construction, to a large part it will be backfilled on site. Around 159,000 cubic meters of concrete were used for the SIS100 accelerator ring, and 27,000 tons of steel ensure the reliable stability of the underground structure.

The Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock, was pleased with the completion of this stage, which is so important for the entire FAIR project: “FAIR is a scientifically and technically extraordinary construction project. It requires customized solutions, and numerous individual trades have to mesh. Therefore, structural and civil engineering, accelerator development and construction, and the scientific experiments are closely coordinated in our integrated overall planning. The recent ring closure is the result of precise planning and implementation and a substantial progress for the entire project. The close interlocking and integrated coordination with all parties and stakeholders involved is a decisive milestone of the realization strategy for the FAIR project”. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-5078 Thu, 20 May 2021 12:35:36 +0200 Europium stars in the dwarf galaxy Fornax: Physics research team succeeds in gaining new insight into the origin of the elements https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=5078&cHash=bdb6843f68007b34bff1efcdc3247473 A physics research team led by the TU Darmstadt has discovered the highest ever observed europium content in stars. The results of the EUROPIUM group led by Professor Almudena Arcones from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and TU Darmstadt, who was awarded a grant by the European Research Council, has now been published in "The Astrophysical Journal". Co-authors are Dr. Moritz Reichert (member of EUROPIUM) and Dr. Camilla Hansen from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg. This news is based on a press release of the TU Darmstadt

A physics research team led by the TU Darmstadt has discovered the highest ever observed europium content in stars. The results of the EUROPIUM group led by Professor Almudena Arcones from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and TU Darmstadt, who was awarded a grant by the European Research Council, has now been published in "The Astrophysical Journal". Co-authors are Dr. Moritz Reichert (member of EUROPIUM) and Dr. Camilla Hansen from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg.

Europium is the key for understanding the formation of the heavy elements by the fast neutron capture process, the so-called r-process.  This is crucial both for the formation of half of the elements heavier than iron and for the total abundance of thorium and uranium in the universe. The EUROPIUM group has combined theoretical astrophysical simulations with observations of the oldest stars in our Galaxy and in dwarf galaxies. The latter are small, dark-matter dominated galaxies orbiting our Galaxy. Dwarf galaxies are excellent test objects for studying the r-process, as some of the oldest metal-poor stars, those that have existed for 10 to 13 billion years, have exhibited an overabundance of r-process elements. Studies have even postulated that only a single neutron-rich event could be responsible for this enrichment in the smallest dwarf galaxies.

With their discovery, the researchers in Darmstadt and Heidelberg have succeeded in determining the highest europium content ever observed – and they have created a new name for these stars: "europium stars". These stars belong to the dwarf galaxy Fornax – a dwarf spheroidal galaxy with a high stellar content. In their publication, the group also reports the first ever observation of lutetium in a dwarf galaxy and the largest sample of observed zirconium.

The "europium stars" in Fornax were born shortly after an explosive production of heavy elements. Based on the high stellar metal abundance, the extreme r-process event must have occurred as recently as four to five billion years ago. This is a very rare finding, as most europium-rich stars are much older.  Therefore, europium stars provide insight into the origin of elements in the universe at a very specific and late time.

Heavy elements are formed by the r-process in the merger of two neutron stars or in the explosive end of massive stars with strong magnetic fields. The EUROPIUM group has analyzed these two high-energy events and performed detailed studies of element production in these environments. However, due to the still large uncertainties in the nuclear physics data, it is not possible to unambiguously assign the heavy elements in the "europium stars" to one of these astrophysical environments. Future experiments in the new accelerator center FAIR at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt will significantly reduce these uncertainties. The FAIR facility promises unique opportunities in this field of research: With its motto "The Universe in the Laboratory", it is intended to reproduce conditions as they occur in astrophysical environments on Earth, thus expanding the knowledge about our cosmos.

In addition, the new Hessian cluster project ELEMENTS, in which Professor Arcones is a principal investigator, will uniquely combine simulations of neutron star fusion, nucleosynthesis calculations with the latest experimental information and observations to investigate the long-standing question: Where and how are heavy elements produced in the universe? (TUD/BP)

Further information

Scientific publication in "The Astriphysical Journal"

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3789 Tue, 04 May 2021 10:00:48 +0200 Exploring the strong interaction in the universe https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3789&cHash=8552f2d21de3bd7b305d4d8116801a16 Achim Schwenk, Professor of Physics at the Technical University (TU) Darmstadt and Max Planck Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, has been awarded a prestigious Advanced Grant by the European Research Council (ERC). His research project "Exploring the Universe through Strong Interactions" (EUSTRONG) will be funded with around 2.3 million euros over a period of five years. This is already the second ERC grant for Professor Schwenk. This news is based on a press release of the Technical University Darmstadt.

Achim Schwenk, Professor of Physics at the Technical University (TU) Darmstadt and Max Planck Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, has been awarded a prestigious Advanced Grant by the European Research Council (ERC). His research project "Exploring the Universe through Strong Interactions" (EUSTRONG) will be funded with around 2.3 million euros over a period of five years. This is already the second ERC grant for Professor Schwenk.

The goal of the EUSTRONG project is to explore the Strong Interaction, one of the four fundamental forces of nature, in the Universe. The Strong Interaction is responsible for holding neutrons and protons together in the atomic nucleus and for understanding the densest observable matter inside neutron stars. In addition, atomic nuclei play a key role in the search for dark matter and in the study of the lightest neutrino particles. EUSTRONG will enable new discoveries in the physics of the Strong Interaction by developing innovative theories and methods.

The equation of state of dense nuclear matter, for example, sets the scale for the mass and radius of neutron stars. At extreme densities beyond those achieved in atomic nuclei, astrophysical observations are particularly interesting. For example, information about the radius of neutron stars, which is sensitive to high densities, can be obtained from LIGO/Virgo observations of gravitational waves from neutron star mergers, as well as from new observations with NASA's NICER instrument on the International Space Station.

“So far, this fits very well with our understanding about the equation of state of nuclear matter,” explains Professor Schwenk. “With EUSTRONG, we want to for the first time derive direct constraints on the dense-matter interactions from these astrophysical observations, and thus develop a unified description of matter in nuclei and stars.”

Another milestone of the ERC project is the acceleration of many-body calculations with new emulation and network methods to enable systematic and global ab initio calculations based on the Strong Interaction for heavy nuclei. One focus are extremely neutron-rich heavy nuclei (around neutron number 126), which play a central role in the synthesis of elements in the Universe. The accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt will be leading in this region of the nuclear chart.

Based on these new developments, Professor Schwenk and his team also want to investigate key nuclei that are used in extremely sensitive detectors that search for dark matter and for the discovery of coherent neutrino scattering, which was recently achieved for the first time. In the exploration of dark matter in the Universe and of new physics beyond the Standard Model, the Strong Interaction therefore also plays an essential role.

“The second award by the ERC underlines how outstanding Professor Achim Schwenk's research achievements are,” emphasizes Professor Barbara Albert, Vice President for Research and Young Scientists at TU Darmstadt. Professor Schwenk is particularly excited to be working with excellent young scientists in the new EUSTRONG team, “because the conditions in nuclear physics are unique here and the students and postdocs are great”. (TUD/CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3786 Mon, 26 Apr 2021 12:06:55 +0200 New mega crane for the FAIR construction project https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3786&cHash=5faa8542850a871729c0fcd3b604f202 It can lift loads up to 32 tons, measures more than 67 meters in height and offers a cantilever of up to 80 meters in length: The central tower crane for the south construction area recently assembled on the FAIR construction site is really huge. It serves one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide, the international accelerator center FAIR, which is currently under construction at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. Currently, further major realization step It can lift loads up to 32 tons, measures more than 67 meters in height and offers a cantilever of up to 80 meters in length: The central tower crane for the south construction area recently assembled on the FAIR construction site is really huge. It serves one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide, the international accelerator center FAIR, which is currently under construction at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. Currently, further major realization steps are imminent. Following the development of the north construction site with its large SIS100 ring accelerator and the central transfer building, the development of the southern area of the FAIR construction site is now increasingly getting into focus.

The new large tower crane for the southern area was delivered on twelve semitrailers, the installation team consisted of seven men, and the assembly time including preparation on the ground and calibration and adjustment works was two days. The new Potain MDT 809 crane is the largest so-called topless tower crane ever built by POTAIN (Manitowoc group). Tower cranes of this type are already in service on several construction sites in Europe, North America and Asia-Pacific, including the reconstruction of Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris, which was destroyed by a major fire. The tower crane MDT 809 at FAIR is the first to be put into service in Germany.

It will carry out its work there during the next years, lifting large loads that need to be moved on the mega construction site. The special features of the powerful crane — it is one of the largest at the FAIR construction site — include high load capacity and the use of high-performance technology such as very precise driving and remote diagnostics with Crane Control System (CCS). There were also particularities in the assembly by the company STRABAG BMTI. Due to the large unit weights, all components of the tower crane were assembled in the air in individual parts. This assembly process took 7 hours, which is fast for such a large tower crane. The weight of the complete tower crane is 155 tons.

STRABAG BMTI GmbH & Co. KG is a service company within the STRABAG Group responsible for the scheduling, procurement, rental and maintenance of all construction machinery and vehicles. Machines, equipment/plant technology and vehicles from all areas of activity of the Group are managed and supervised.

Founded in 1902, Manitowoc Company Inc. is a crane manufacturer with more than 115 manufacturing, sales and service facilities in 26 countries. The global company is a supplier of crawler cranes (Manitowoc brand), tower cranes (Potain), mobile telescopic cranes (Grove) and truck-mounted cranes (National Crane).

The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt operates a large accelerator facility for ions that is unique in the world. The best-known results are the discovery of new chemical elements and the development of a new type of cancer therapy. The new international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), one of the largest research projects worldwide, is currently under construction at GSI. Scientists from all over the world will use the facility for experiments to gain new insights about the building blocks of matter and the evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to the present. They will also develop new applications in medicine and technology. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3784 Fri, 23 Apr 2021 07:03:00 +0200 Record participation at the virtual Girls'Day of GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3784&cHash=bcdd23bcca293dc0546b7bb4e75f64cd GSI and FAIR participated in the Germany-wide day of action Girls'Day on April 22. Due to the Corona pandemic, the Girls'Day took place as a video conference in which 90 girls participated. For GSI and FAIR, this is a new participation record; additionally, due to the online format, there was also a chance for participants living far away all over Germany to take part in the event. GSI and FAIR participated in the Germany-wide day of action Girls'Day on April 22. Due to the Corona pandemic, the Girls'Day took place as a video conference in which 90 girls participated. For GSI and FAIR, this is a new participation record; additionally, due to the online format, there was also a chance for participants living far away all over Germany to take part in the event.

First thing in the morning at 9 a.m., the video conference kicked off with a welcome from the organizing Public Relations department and a greeting from Dorothee Sommer, Head of Human Resources. "Gender equality is very important for us here at GSI and FAIR," Sommer explained. "Our goal is to get girls excited about working in science and technology and to encourage them to include these fields of activity in their career choices. We offer apprenticeships and the opportunity to conduct final theses for bachelor's, master's or PhD degrees together with our university partners. We‘d be delighted if the participants later chose to apply to work with us!"

The event continued with a get-to-know-you game and an online tour of GSI's accelerator facilities and experiments, as well as the construction site for the international research center FAIR. Whether it was the linear accelerator, the tumor therapy, the production of new elements or the HADES experiment — the girls were able to take a look at all the facilities via pre-recorded videos. The construction of FAIR was presented via clips of the tests of magnets and of the FAIR construction work and via a drone flight over the construction site.

As in a real science conference, two different sessions then went into detail: the girls could choose from two modules in which specialist departments presented their fields of work and job profiles. In these, research departments such as materials research and the ALICE detector introduced themselves, and many of the technical departments on campus gave an insight into their activities. The participants learned how the small targets for the particle accelerator are produced in the target lab, how cryotechnology is used to obtain extremely low temperatures and thus operate superconducting magnets, how components can be manufactured by turning, milling and drilling in the mechanical workshop, or how huge amounts of data are processed in the computing center. In addition, there was information about how a PhD thesis at GSI/FAIR is conducted. And here, too, an insight into the FAIR construction site and the everyday work of the architects and civil engineers was part of the proceedings.

The participants had the opportunity to ask questions to the experts during each presentation and made good use of it: "What are all the professional fields you have?", "How much do physicists earn and how long did you study per day?", "Can you also research a supernova with a particle accelerator?" or "How many particles are sent through a particle accelerator on average?” That it was a successful day was shown by comments such as "Thank you for the great presentations, it was super great!" or "The day was cool, you learned a lot, and you could understand the lectures well."

"It was a different Girls'Day than we are used to from the on-site events. But we had a lot of fun!" reported physicist and organizer Carola Pomplun from the Public Relations department of GSI/FAIR. "We were very pleased about the great response to our online offer and, of course, the lively participation of the girls on the day of the event. The many colleagues from the technical departments who supported us so energetically during the event were able to convey their enthusiasm for working in research and technology and gave fascinating insights into their everyday professional life. I hope this helped us inspire a few girls to pursue careers in STEM fields."

Girls’Day is a day of action all over Germany. On this day, businesses, universities, and other institutions all over Germany open their doors to schoolgirls from grade 5 and above. The participants learn about courses of study and training in professions in the areas of IT, natural sciences, and technology — areas in which women have rarely been employed in the past. GSI and — since its foundation — also FAIR have been participating in the annual event since the early days of Girls'Day. (CP)

Further information
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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3782 Thu, 01 Apr 2021 10:00:00 +0200 Online visits at GSI and FAIR will be continued https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3782&cHash=acf6692bab570117a1734749ee862da7 As there is a lot of interest in the online visits at GSI and FAIR, the popular offer will be continued: The next date is April 8 (Thursday) at 2 pm; further dates are in preparation and will be published on our homepage. The live moderated events offer a comprehensive insight into current research and the experimental facilities at GSI/FAIR and allow individual questions to be asked, which will be answered by the presenters. Also included is an exclusive view at the mega construction site for the future a As there is a lot of interest in the online visits at GSI and FAIR, the popular offer will be continued: The next date is April 8 (Thursday) at 2 pm; further dates are in preparation and will be published on our homepage. The live moderated events offer a comprehensive insight into current research and the experimental facilities at GSI/FAIR and allow individual questions to be asked, which will be answered by the presenters. Also included is an exclusive view at the mega construction site for the future accelerator center FAIR, one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide.

Following an introductory lecture, a guided video tour will take the participants to several research sites and facilities on campus: Among other things, the participants can visit the 120-meter-long linear accelerator UNILAC or the main control room online and learn a lot about the unique research at GSI and FAIR. Interesting facts inform about the construction of components for the international accelerator center FAIR, currently being built at GSI.

Detailed information on technical requirements and access modalities to participate in the digital discovery tour into the world of GSI and FAIR is available at www.gsi.de/en/besichtigung. Registration for the event dates is not necessary. Up to 500 people can participate. Further questions about the online offer can be sent by e-mail to besichtigung(at)gsi.de. (BP)

Further Information

All details about the online visits

Next date: 08.04.2021, 14:00

Further dates: im preparation (to be published here)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3780 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 07:03:00 +0100 ALICE Masterclass in virtual format https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3780&cHash=2a644a8a2a661648ad47b773bd68c6fc Also in this year GSI and FAIR participated in the International Masterclasses for particle physics. Within the framework of an ALICE Masterclass, 30 students were able to get an insight into the daily work and data analysis in particle physics. ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the accelerator LHC located at the European research center CERN in Geneva. ALICE investigates in particular collisions of nuclei of heavy lead atoms. Due to the Corona pandemic, the event was held in a virtual format. Also in this year GSI and FAIR participated in the International Masterclasses for particle physics. Within the framework of an ALICE Masterclass, 30 students were able to get an insight into the daily work and data analysis in particle physics. ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the accelerator LHC located at the European research center CERN in Geneva. ALICE investigates in particular collisions of nuclei of heavy lead atoms. Due to the Corona pandemic, the event was held in a virtual format. It was conducted in cooperation with the German ALICE university sites in Frankfurt and Münster as well as the AG MINT-Zentrum at the Schuldorf Bergstraße.

Responsible for the organization of the ALICE Masterclasses at GSI/FAIR is Dr. Ralf Averbeck from the research department "ALICE". "GSI has been involved in the development of new detector instruments for ALICE and in the scientific program from the very beginning. The GSI computing center is an integral part of the computing network for data analysis of the ALICE experiment. An ALICE International Masterclass, which we are now conducting for the tenth time, therefore fits well into the program," explains the physicist. "In our Masterclass, the students have the opportunity to become researchers themselves and analyze real experimental data from ALICE, which was recorded in collisions of lead nuclei. Since the analysis takes place on the computer anyway, we could convert the usual in-person activity into a virtual format and thus continue it during the pandemic."

When lead atomic nuclei collide with unimaginable energy in the LHC collider, conditions like those prevailing in the first moments of the universe are created. During the collisions, a so-called quark-gluon plasma is formed for a very short time — a state of matter that existed in the universe shortly after the Big Bang. This plasma transforms back into normal matter within fractions of a second. The particles produced in the process provide information about the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. Thus, the measurements can look into the birth of the cosmos and reveal information about the basic building blocks of matter and their interactions.

In addition to data analysis on two consecutive afternoons, the program also included introductory lectures on particle physics and computer-based data analysis as well as a live tour of the ALICE experiment in Geneva.

The Masterclasses are organized by the IPPOG (International Particle Physics Outreach Group), of which GSI is an associate member. Each year, more than 13,000 students from 60 countries come to one of about 225 nearby universities or research centers for a day to unlock the mysteries of particle physics. Many of the otherwise on-site events have been transformed into online formats due to the Corona pandemic. All events in Germany are held in collaboration with the Netzwerk Teilchenwelt, of which GSI/FAIR is a member. The goal of the nationwide network for communicating particle physics to young people and teachers is to make particle physics accessible to a broader public. (CP)

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news-3774 Tue, 23 Mar 2021 07:05:00 +0100 Closed Hypersurfaces — Technology Transfer Project Receives Funding from the Hessian Digital Ministry https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3774&cHash=c0f260492a02f8aecd374e88bc7046ba Within the framework of the funding initiative Distr@l of the Hessian Ministry for Digital Strategy and Development, a project of GSI/FAIR is funded this year with a sum of about 45,000 Euros. The so-called RoSEN methods are a software developed for the description of closed surfaces in multidimensional spaces. In a feasibility study the funding is to be used to test and evaluate application scenarios together with collaboration partners from industry. For example, the method could be used for ... Within the framework of the funding initiative Distr@l of the Hessian Ministry for Digital Strategy and Development, a project of GSI/FAIR is funded this year with a sum of about 45,000 Euros. The so-called RoSEN methods are a software developed for the description of closed surfaces in multidimensional spaces. In a feasibility study the funding is to be used to test and evaluate application scenarios together with collaboration partners from industry. For example, the method could be used for applications in the medical and business management sectors or in photogrammetry.

With the help of RoSEN (Robust (hyper)Surface Extraction Prodecures in N Dimensions), data sets of any number of dimensions can be analyzed for similar data features. The resulting hypersurfaces of equal characteristic values can be identified, visualized and described, which, with the help of the results, enables a further digital processing, be it in the algebraic, numeric or graphical sense. The method was originally developed to evaluate experimental data and simulate complex physical phenomena in heavy ion physics, as they occur in accelerator experiments at GSI/FAIR.

"Compared to other methods, the RoSEN methods have been shown to have many advantages, such as a much lower error frequency, a more efficient computational performance, or the generality of being able to be used for data sets of arbitrary dimensionality," explains theoretical physicist Dr. Bernd Schlei. He develops software for the "System Design SIS 18 / SIS 100" department and is the inventor of the RoSEN method. "In particular, the efficiency and unlimited application bandwidth are properties that could be used for significant process innovations in existing digital tools and as product innovations in potential future application areas in the form of new digital tools."

In a feasibility study for future commercial use in four to five technical-economically relevant application fields, both potential process and product innovations are to be identified at an early stage to lay the foundation for a subsequent technology transfer project. The application scenarios will be tested in partnerships with cooperation partners, some of whom have already been preselected. "RoSEN is a good example of how findings derived from basic research can also be used for applications that can benefit society as a whole," says Dr. Tobias Engert, head of Technology Transfer at GSI/FAIR, in praise of the method. "We are interested in further cooperation partners, especially from the fields of medical technology, pharmacology and business administration, for the test phase."

GSI contracted TREAVES Research & Consult GmbH as a door opener to potential users and to coordinate the feasibility study. Treaves itself is a spin-off of graduates of the University of Applied Sciences and the Technical University Darmstadt and acts as a service provider for applied natural sciences. Particularly in the field of digitization, the company has already gained extensive experience in the implementation of funded projects and brings a wide range of contacts from industry.

Half of the project costs of around 91,000 euros will be financed by GSI/FAIR and the other half will be funded by the Distr@l funding from the Hessian Ministry for Digital Strategy and Development. The Distr@l funding program offers a needs-based funding program in the areas of digital innovations and research and development.

The fields of application currently planned for the RoSEN feasibility study are, on the one hand, the numerical simulation of technically relevant fluid and structural dynamic problems, such as the simulation of energy storage systems for regenerative energy supply, and, on the other hand, pharmacokinetic population modeling, which plays a major role in drug development and is also being used, for example, in the context of the current Covid 19 pandemic. In the view of Dr. Arthur Rudek, the founder and managing director of Treaves GmbH, further applications could lie in industrial photogrammetry, business management control or, more generally and across industries, in the more efficient execution of optimization studies with large data populations.

Photogrammetry is used, for example, to digitize technical facilities and buildings for computer-aided process or failure analysis. Image data processing also plays an important role in medical technology, for example in the time-dependent processing of three- to four-dimensional CT, MRI or X-ray images, in the diagnosis of diseases or injuries, or in the context of the Covid 19 pandemic, for example to investigate the late effects of impaired lungs. In the context of a use for business management control, multivariant parameter spaces of business key figures are to be used for the evaluation of the economic performance of individual parts of the company, thus enabling more efficient business management processes and increased profitability. (CP)

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news-3776 Fri, 19 Mar 2021 07:17:00 +0100 "target" magazine issue 19 published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3776&cHash=0e969802574542407296de8a6c5f97a1 Our now published issue No. 19 of our GSI/FAIR magazine "target" shows the diversity of our scientific work. Research on tumor therapy, superheavy elements, black holes and exotic nuclear states in collaboration with many partner institutions is expanding our knowledge of our world and our cosmos true to our motto: the universe in the laboratory. Our now published issue No. 19 of our GSI/FAIR magazine "target" shows the diversity of our scientific work. Research on tumor therapy, superheavy elements, black holes and exotic nuclear states in collaboration with many partner institutions is expanding our knowledge of our world and our cosmos true to our motto: the universe in the laboratory.

At the same time, the construction of FAIR is progressing both on the construction field and in the production of components for accelerators and experiments. In three interviews, we introduce people whose stories are representative of all our dedicated employees and researchers. By moving to online formats, we were also able to maintain our event program for the public and expand it to new audiences. (CP)

Download of "target" – Issue 19, March 2021 (PDF, 20 MB)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3778 Wed, 17 Mar 2021 09:22:48 +0100 FAIR Industry Liaison Officers' meeting https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3778&cHash=44478572c97e028fbd334f83a7ab133e The Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR) hosted Industrial Liaison Officers (ILOs) from its partner countries on March 15th. The meeting provided the participating ILOs with the opportunity to get the latest update on topics related to the FAIR project, including progress on FAIR subprojects, and as well significant information about procurement and in-kind contributions. They also received informed about the other networking platforms and events, taking place in foreseeable future The Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR) hosted Industrial Liaison Officers (ILOs) from its partner countries on March 15th. The meeting provided the participating ILOs with the opportunity to get the latest update on topics related to the FAIR project, including progress on FAIR subprojects, and as well significant information about procurement and in-kind contributions. They also received informed about the other networking platforms and events, taking place in foreseeable future.

FAIR and GSI Technical Managing Director Joerg Blaurock along with FAIR and GSI Administrative Managing Director Ulrich Breuer welcomed the Industry Liaison Officers. Technical Managing Director opened the meeting and presented the FAIR project status update and the progress of the construction work and informed the ILOs with the substantial progress made in the project execution. The meeting continued with an information on the mandate from the FAIR Council and objectives of the ILO meeting, presented by David Urner, Head of the GSI/FAIR In-Kind. Anna Hall, Director of Big Science Sweden moderated a lively discussion among ILOs.

An update on the procurement guidelines and options at FAIR was given by Michele Spatar, Head of Procurement, a presentation on upcoming FAIR tender opportunities was presented by David Urner, Head of In-Kind. Their presentations were followed by a moderated session of questions and answer section where each ILO could clarify issues with the Head of Procurement and Head of In-Kind. The representatives from Swedish ILO Big Science Sweden, Frida Tibblin-Citron and UK ILO from UKRI-STFC, Carol Watts presented their scope of work and provided useful resources and insights how these ILOs are organised in their country. The ILOs were informed about other ILO centric platform and events in foreseen future to generate closer engagements between ILOs of FAIR and other mega-science facilities in procurement stage.

The ILOs agreed to have biannual meetings to keep themselves informed. The main significance of the biannual meetings is to provide the ILOs with information to promote discussions with industry and partners in their respective countries on collaboration opportunities at FAIR. The ILOs will meet again on 17th September 2021 in Darmstadt.

Further information

Latest Drone Video of the FAIR construction site

Information on FAIR/GSI procurement 

In-Kind and Procurement / ILOs information from partner countries

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3772 Mon, 15 Mar 2021 13:32:00 +0100 Science publication: Meteorites remember the conditions of stellar explosions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3772&cHash=0e0bb3dc329d29ee503b03520b4bd9e1 A team of international researchers, including Professor Almudena Arcones from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and TU Darmstadt and Dr. Marius Eichler, went back to the formation of our Solar System, 4.6 billion years ago, and gained new insights into the cosmic origin of the heaviest elements on the periodic table, as reported in a study published in the journal Science. This news is based on a press release by the TU Darmstadt

A team of international researchers, including Professor Almudena Arcones from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and TU Darmstadt and Dr. Marius Eichler, went back to the formation of our Solar System, 4.6 billion years ago, and gained new insights into the cosmic origin of the heaviest elements on the periodic table, as reported in a study published in the journal Science.

The question of which astronomical events can host the rapid neutron-capture process, r-process in short, that produces the heaviest elements in the Universe such as iodine, gold, platinum, uranium, plutonium, and curium has been a mystery for decades. Presently, it is thought that the r-process can occur during violent collisions between two neutron stars, one neutron star and a black hole, or during rare supernova explosions following the death of massive stars.

Some of the nuclei produced by the r-process are radioactive and take millions of years to decay into stable nuclei. Iodine-129 and curium-247 are two of such radioactive nuclei. They were incorporated into meteorites during the formation of the Sun and have an amazing peculiarity: they decay at almost exactly the same rate. This means that the iodine-129 to curium-247 ratio did not changed since their production, billions of years ago. “With the iodine-129 to curium-247 ratio being frozen in time, like a prehistoric fossil, we can have a direct look into the last wave of heavy element production that built up the composition of the Solar System” says Benoit Côté, the first author of the study.

The team calculated the iodine-129 to curium-247 ratios created by collisions between neutron stars and black holes, and compared their model predictions to the value found in meteorites. They concluded that the number of neutrons during the last r-process event that preceded the birth of the Solar System cannot be too high, otherwise too much curium is produced relative to iodine. This implies that very neutron-rich sources, such as the material ripped off the surface of a neutron star during a collision, likely did not play an important role, while moderately neutron-rich conditions, often found in ejecta from the discs that form around the merging event are more consistent with the meteoritic value.

Because nucleosynthesis predictions rely on uncertain nuclear and stellar properties, the final answer to which astronomical object was the exact source is still elusive. However,  “the ability of the iodine-129 to curium-247 ratio to peer more directly into the fundamental nature of heavy element nucleosynthesis is an exciting prospect” says Dr. Marius Eichler, who was also part of the investigating team and postdoc in the group of Prof. Almudena Arcones.

Following this work, future astrophysical simulations of stellar mergers and explosions combined with nuclear experiments – such as those planned at GSI and the international accelerator center FAIR being built here – can now also be tested against meteoritic constraints to reveal the source of the heaviest elements of the Solar System.

The work of Dr. Marius Eichler and Prof. Almudena Arcones was supported in part by the ERC Starting Grant EUROPIUM and the DFG Collaborative Research Center 1245.(TUD/BP)

Further information

Scientific publication in the journal Science

 

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3768 Thu, 11 Mar 2021 07:44:00 +0100 FAIR-GENCO Awards 2021 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3768&cHash=043f8c5497b717a79d4fba4cea070733 Recently, the annual meeting of the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) took place via videoconference. Part of the event — as every year — was the presentation of the Young Scientist Award as well as the admission of new members. The special colloquium "Ode to projectile fragmentation" was given by Professor Marek Pfuetzner from the University of Warsaw. Recently, the annual meeting of the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) took place via videoconference. Part of the event — as every year — was the presentation of the Young Scientist Award as well as the admission of new members. The special colloquium "Ode to projectile fragmentation" was given by Professor Marek Pfuetzner from the University of Warsaw.

The FAIR-GENCO Young Scientist Award went to Dr. Ruben de Groote, who received his PhD in 2017 at the University in Leuven, Belgium, and is currently conducting research in laser spectroscopy of exotic atomic nuclei in Jyväskylä, Finland. The Young Scientist Award is bestowed annually by the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community to outstanding young researchers working in the field of experimental or theoretical nuclear physics or chemistry. The winners are selected by an international jury. It is endowed with 1,000 euros and is awarded during the NUSTAR annual meeting.

With the Membership Award, the GENCO community honored the following new members:

  • Dr. Anu Kankainen (University of Jyväskylä) for her research on exotic atomic nuclei using mass spectrometry and its applications in nuclear astrophysics to better understand stellar and explosive nucleosynthesis.
  • Dr. Takehiko Saito (RIKEN and GSI) for his pioneering achievements in the production and study of hypernuclei in heavy ion reactions and the discoveries of electrically neutral nuclei.
  • Prof. Dr. Achim Schwenk (TU Darmstadt) for his outstanding theoretical work in the field of nuclear physics and his excellent contributions also to experimental work, as well as being a driving force behind many new developments at GSI.
  • Dr. Kathrin Wimmer (IEM-CSIC Madrid) for her remarkable results on the study of the shell structure of unstable atomic nuclei far from the valley of stability, and new methodological developments for experiments dealing with the investigation of the structure of very short-lived atomic nuclei at the Super-FRS at FAIR. (CP)
Further information
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news-3770 Tue, 09 Mar 2021 09:00:00 +0100 Renowned European research funding with close links to GSI/FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3770&cHash=a30f08e941d210a7316cb08a80fe7ee1 Each year, the European Research Council (ERC) awards several extremely prestigious research funding prizes for cutting-edge research. The outstanding quality of scientific research at GSI and FAIR was directly recognized last year with two "ERC Advanced Grants" for GSI physicists Marco Durante and Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo. In addition, GSI and FAIR also attract ERC grant laureates from other research institutions who are closely connected to GSI/FAIR through their specialist topics or who realize the exper Each year, the European Research Council (ERC) awards several extremely prestigious research funding prizes for cutting-edge research. The outstanding quality of scientific research at GSI and FAIR was directly recognized last year with two "ERC Advanced Grants" for GSI physicists Marco Durante and Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo. In addition, GSI and FAIR also attract ERC grant laureates from other research institutions who are closely connected to GSI/FAIR through their specialist topics or who realize the experimental part of their project here. The most recent examples of this: Professor Evgeny Epelbaum from Ruhr University Bochum and Dr. Kathrin Wimmer from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC).

Dr. Kathrin Wimmer from the Institute for Structure of Matter (IEM-CSIC) coordinates the project LISA (Lifetime measurements with Solid Active targets), which aims to measure rare atomic nuclei with innovative detectors and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. For the practical research part, she will also use the GSI/FAIR facilities in the framework of her just awarded "ERC Consolidator Grant".

The aim of the LISA project is to develop a novel method for lifetime measurements in atomic nuclei. Lifetimes probe the collectivity of a nucleus through its electromagnetic transition properties. The experimental approach is based on active solid targets employing novel diamond detectors and will dramatically enhance the scope of measurements in exotic nuclei. Coupled to the state-of-the-art gamma-ray tracking detector AGATA, LISA will overcome the present challenges of lifetime measurements with low-intensity beams of unstable nuclei.

LISA will exploit the unique capabilities of the FAIR accelerator center, being built at GSI. The future fragmentation facility will deliver the most exotic and highest intensity radioactive ion beams. LISA will greatly expand the nuclear structure program of HISPEC, a prominent project within the NUSTAR science pillar at FAIR. The results will have significant impact on the theoretical descriptions and modelling of atomic nuclei making their predictions more reliable.

The award winner Dr. Kathrin Wimmer, currently working at CSIC Madrid, and Dr. Jürgen Gerl, NUSTAR coordinator and head of the nuclear structure department at GSI, are very much looking forward to working together on the exciting LISA project at GSI.

Professor Evgeny Epelbaum is thematically closely connected to GSI/FAIR via his project "Nuclear Theory from First Principles", which is funded by an ERC Advanced Grant. In the project, the holder of the Chair of Theoretical Physics at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) wants to use theoretical methods to describe the forces between three nuclear particles.

Pairwise interactions between two nucleons are already relatively well understood. This enables physicists to describe what is going on inside the simplest atomic nucleus, i.e. one that consists of two nucleons. The opposite is true for more complicated atomic nuclei consisting of three or more nucleons. Here, the interactions are still a mystery. This is where Evgeny Epelbaum's research project comes in. He and his team hope to describe the forces acting in a system of three or more nucleons. To this end, the researchers are using a theoretical method known as effective field theory, which is widely used in particle physics. With this approach, the Bochum-based group already described precisely the interactions between two nucleons in the past. Now, they intend to extend the approach to three-particle forces.

Based on the theory developed under the ERC Grant, the team also wants to analyse the existing experimental data for the three-nucleon system. Experiments to understand multi-nucleon systems are an essential part of the FAIR research program in nuclear structure. The team's goal is to resolve discrepancies between theory and experiment. Moreover, numerical simulations are planned for more complex nuclear systems, which consist of even more particles, in order to explore relationships between the nuclear forces and their properties. Such simulations also provide insights into areas that are not accessible to experimental research. For example, it is possible to explore how the properties of atomic nuclei or processes in the stars depend on the constants of nature  – such as the masses of quarks.

Another example from 2020 of outstanding researchers honored with an ERC grant is Professor Beatriz Jurado from the Centre Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG), who received an ERC Advanced Grant at the same time as GSI physicists Professor Marco Durante and Professor Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo. She will also use the research facilities of GSI/FAIR to conduct the experimental part of her ERC Grant project.

Her project aims to develop a new methodology to indirectly infer neutron-induced cross sections of unstable nuclei. These cross sections are essential for nuclear astrophysics. The experimental part of Beatriz Jurado´s project will be realized at the accelerator facility on the GSI/FAIR campus as part of FAIR Phase 0, using the storage rings ESR and CRYRING.

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, expressed his enthusiasm that in addition to GSI/FAIR’s own scientists, several EU award-winning researchers are closely associated with GSI/FAIR: "I am very happy that the research community demonstrates its interest in the GSI/FAIR research facilities and the science conducted here, and that the world-class value of these themes is recognized by the ERC grant committees." (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3766 Mon, 01 Mar 2021 14:09:49 +0100 Successful High-Energy-Density Physics with laser and ion beams Workshop, “PHEDM-Hirschegg”, in online format https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3766&cHash=e7b0f2460297224e1937ff51bbe4f869 About 220 experts from all over the world participated in the "PHEDM-Hirschegg Workshop 2021": With the new meeting format as an online event, the organizers were able to make accessible the five-day meeting to a large number of participants and at the same time take the corona situation into account. About 220 experts from all over the world participated in the "PHEDM-Hirschegg Workshop 2021": With the new meeting format as an online event, the organizers were able to make accessible the five-day meeting to a large number of participants and at the same time take the corona situation into account.

For the last 40 years, the workshop on High-Energy-Density Physics with laser and ion beams has taken place as an annual event at the Darmstädter Haus of the Technical University Darmstadt in Hirschegg, Austria, where the number of participants is limited to 90. It provides an international forum to discuss high energy density physics including fundamental science, intense laser and particle beams interaction with matter and inertial confinement fusion. Many of the participants are active members of the HED@FAIR collaboration, one of the collaborations responsible for the implementation of the experimental program at the FAIR facility.

In total, this year's event included 56 talks, two poster sessions with 15 posters each, and two tutorial sessions for students, a format that was newly introduced this year. The workshop gathered participants spanning over 19 time zones, from New South Wales in Australia to California. This was made possible not only through the live streaming of the contributions but also via recording and swift availability of these through GSI’s server. At peak times, more than 120 participants were online together, and some of the researchers were connected directly from the GSI/FAIR campus in compliance with Corona rules.

FAIR has been at the forefront of preoccupations of the community gathering at the workshop for many years. As such, the presentation by the Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Paolo Giubellino on the status of the project was highly expected and the news on the recent progress were very well received. Academician Vladimir Fortov, after his tragic death in 2020,  one of the fathers of plasma physics at GSI and high-energy density research at FAIR was celebrated by many speakers, in memory of his work and engagement for science.

Current topics this year included the properties of high-energy dense matter created by intense ion beams and lasers, beam-plasma interactions, diagnostic methods for high-energy density matter, and accelerator issues of intense beams. New and upcoming high energy density (HED) facilities were also a topic.

The four Poster Awards for young scientists were presented on the last day of the event. This year, the awards were given to students from Germany, India and Russia. Professor Paolo Giubellino on this occasion emphasized the significance of junior staff development: "It is important to promote young, international talents at an early stage in order to attract the scientists of the future and offer them opportunities to develop their talent. Today's students are tomorrow's researchers, who will also work in the field of high-energy density physics. For science and also for research at the future FAIR accelerator facility, it is existential to attract and motivate the best minds." (BP)

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news-3764 Thu, 25 Feb 2021 10:00:00 +0100 Funding excellent research: dynamics of neutron stars is the focus of the cluster project ELEMENTS https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3764&cHash=14c598d6327995a18c33a732fc4c06f7 The Hessian state government is supporting cutting-edge research in Hesse with almost 40 million euros over a period of four years. Six projects of the universities in Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Giessen and Marburg together with further universities and non-university research institutions will be supported in the funding line "Cluster Projects" launched by the state from April 2021. In this way, the state is strengthening the research areas that shape the profile of Hessen's universities, including particle ph This news is based on press releases of the Hessian Ministry of Higher Education, Research, Science and the Arts and the TU Darmstadt

The Hessian state government is supporting cutting-edge research in Hesse with almost 40 million euros over a period of four years. Six projects of the universities in Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Giessen and Marburg together with further universities and non-university research institutions will be supported in the funding line "Cluster Projects" launched by the state from April 2021. In this way, the state is strengthening the research areas that shape the profile of Hessen's universities, including particle physics. One of the funded projects is ELEMENTS, in which the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung is involved.

In 2017, gravitational waves from merging neutron stars and their electromagnetic signals were detected for the first time — a turning point in multi-messenger astronomy. The cluster project ELEMENTS (Exploring the Universe from microscopic to macroscopic scales) brings together scientists from different fields of physics to investigate the origin of chemical elements in the universe. In the process, physics questions about the fundamental properties of matter will be answered. Experimentally, the project benefits from the worldwide unique infrastructure of particle accelerators in Hesse, including the FAIR facility currently under construction at GSI.

The project combines the strong research forces of several international leading institutions. It is being funded with 7.9 million euros until 2025 as part of the "Cluster Projects" funding line of the State of Hesse in preparation for the next round of the Bund-Länder Excellence Strategy. Besides Goethe University Frankfurt and TU Darmstadt, which are equally leading the project, the University of Gießen and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt are also involved. This collaboration will allow the researchers to combine their outstanding expertise in gravitational physics and in the physics of nuclear reactions, as well as to make synergistic use of the accelerator facilities in Darmstadt — the FAIR facility at GSI and the TU's electron accelerator S-DALINAC at the Institute of Nuclear Physics.

"I am delighted with this decision of the State of Hesse," said the Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino. "In the State of Hesse we understand how to bring together the right people and the right topics. We provide research structures at international top level. That enables us to achieve a leading standing in important future research fields. The current research program at GSI and FAIR offers excellent opportunities, and in the coming years the FAIR accelerator center will open up further innovative potential."

"I am extremely pleased with the decision," TU President Professor Tanja Brühl said. "It honors the synergies between outstanding university and non-university research. The globally unique particle accelerator infrastructures established here, including the future FAIR facility, will contribute to a successful future." Brühl added that the project also strengthens the alliance of Rhine-Main universities formed by the universities of Mainz, Frankfurt and Darmstadt.

ELEMENTS will study neutron stars, the barely visible little brothers of black holes. They are formed after a star has burned out when it was not massive enough to be compressed into a black hole by its own gravitational pressure after its end. Neutron stars, like black holes, are the cause of extreme space-time curvature, and when neutron stars or black holes merge, detectable gravitational waves are created. Because of their cosmic effects and extreme conditions, both phenomena are very exciting for researchers around the world. However, unlike black holes, neutron stars also allow conclusions about their interior.

Thus, neutron star mergers are visible in the sky as extremely light-intense processes, kilonovae, where the heaviest chemical elements are produced through nuclear reactions under extreme conditions. The ELEMENTS project investigates the dynamics in the fusion of two neutron stars and in this context also examines the gravitational field, nuclear matter and — the main topic of the physicists at GSI/FAIR and the TU Darmstadt — the heavy chemical elements that are created in the process. For example, the luminosity of a kilonova as a fingerprint for the production of heavy elements was successfully predicted a few years ago by physicists working in Darmstadt. (HMWK / TUD / BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3762 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 10:14:52 +0100 Doors wide open for PANDA: Yoke of solenoid magnet assembled https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3762&cHash=2ae323a2cf3bcaa0aa204cabb4f44e6b The developments for PANDA, one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR, are progressing steadily. Another important stage has now been reached: The yoke of the PANDA solenoid magnet was fully assembled at the steel construction company SET in Novosibirsk. The final tests of doors were done recently. The developments for PANDA, one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR, are progressing steadily. Another important stage has now been reached: The yoke of the PANDA solenoid magnet was fully assembled at the steel construction company SET in Novosibirsk. The final tests of doors were done recently.

The assembly of the yoke octants is aided by a star shaped installation tool. After its removal, the octants stayed in place with minimal deviation. All parts are surveyed with a laser tracker employing fixed fiducial marks even during the assembly process, which facilitates the whole operation providing much better precision. No mechanical stoppers are used, as their precision would be too low.

The four doors, two downstream and two upstream, are bolted to the yoke in their closed position. Before opening the doors, the bolts are unfastened and the doors are lowered to the sliding rails resting then on heavy weight rollers. The 22 tons door wings were opened sliding on the rollers with a friction of only about 0.5%: Two persons were able to move one wing with a simple manual winch.

In the final configuration, the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) will equip the doors with hydraulic jacks and actuators, which were not part of the deliverables of SET. The yoke was again disassembled and the parts will be transported to BINP. There, they will be assembled into the complete magnet.

Currently the cryostat of the superconducting solenoid is in production. At the same time, the production of the superconducting wire is in preparation. The assembly of the entire magnet at BINP will take place next year and allow first tests. It is finally planned, to perform a precision field mapping of the large active volume of the magnet, where in future particle tracks will bend to be detected by the PANDA experiment. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3760 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 10:00:00 +0100 EU funds four research infrastructure projects with strong GSI/FAIR participation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3760&cHash=a180a7ca3bd389f105f3eab5d59f438a Several GSI/FAIR research areas receive EU funding in the millions. Four planned infrastructure projects in the fields of tumor therapy with heavy ions, innovative methods for industrial radiation testing and new technology developments for accelerator facilities were successful in current EU tenders and have received funding commitments. FAIR and GSI play a decisive role in each of these projects, which are carried out in international collaborations. Several GSI/FAIR research areas receive EU funding in the millions. Four planned infrastructure projects in the fields of tumor therapy with heavy ions, innovative methods for industrial radiation testing and new technology developments for accelerator facilities were successful in current EU tenders and have received funding commitments. FAIR and GSI play a decisive role in each of these projects, which are carried out in international collaborations.

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, was enthusiastic about these successes: "Once again, the excellence of GSI and FAIR is underlined by the success in these calls. I am delighted about this funding, which the EU has made available to support extremely promising thematic areas. With their expertise, our researchers are among the key players in the fields now being funded. The integration of GSI and FAIR in the projects confirms the attractivity of our research infrastructures for the international community".

HITRIplus (Heavy Ion Therapy Research Integration plus) will receive the highest amount of funding, i.e. 680,000 euros. The project will be realized in the Research Department Biophysics under the leadership of Professor Marco Durante and coordinated by the National Center for Oncological Hadron Therapy CNAO in Pavia, Italy, as consortium leader. The aim of HITRIplus is to integrate pre-clinical and clinical research in cancer treatment with heavy ion beams while jointly developing its high technology.

Heavy ion beams are an extremely promising treatment method because they are more effective than any other treatment for radioresistant tumors. The ion beam focuses on the malignant tissue while sparing the healthy organs. The goal of HITRIplus is to improve heavy  ion therapy as a cutting-edge tool to treat those tumors that are not curable with X-rays or protons, and that have better survival rates, lower recurrence or milder toxicity with ions.

The HITRIplus consortium brings together for the first time all major European heavy ion therapy centers with leading European industries, academia and research laboratories. The aim is to jointly build a strong pan-European Heavy Ion Therapy Research Community. The resulting networks will structure and foster the research in heavy ion therapy, including clinical and pre-clinical research, and also develop new accelerator and beam delivery technologies. Lower costs and dimensions of new facilities should help to make cancer ion therapy more accessible to even more patients and at the same time open up new markets for European industry.

The project RADNEXT (RADiation facility Network for the EXploration of effects for indusTry and research), which is funded with 342,000 euros in the GSI/FAIR part, deals with innovative radiation testing methodologies. The project at GSI/FAIR is conducted by the research departments Biophysics and Materials Research and with its leaders Professors Marco Durante and Christina Trautmann. RADNEXT is coordinated by CERN. The project focuses on irradiation at accelerators of electronic devices for the industrial sectors of space, automotive, communication technologies, medical and accelerators, among others, which require coordinated and streamlined testing.

At present, the European economy does not yet have a coordinated network of testing facilities for these purposes. For example, such a network could provide crucial support to small and medium-sized enterprises, which in many cases have difficulty in gaining access to the required facilities. Novel testing methodologies can also pave the way for generating new radiation standards, since the existing ones are mainly restricted to classical space applications and radiation-hardened components.

Research infrastructures can play a key role in the field of radiation testing by taking the first steps towards the creation of a sustainable, coordinated irradiation testing facilities network. Finally, it will also respond to the need of establishing a radiation hardness evaluation based on risk assessment and mitigation rather than on complete risk avoidance.

353,000 Euro will be made available to GSI/FAIR with the project I.FAST (Innovation Promotion in Accelerator Science and Technology). The EU tender focuses on the particle accelerators themselves. Their use spans from the large installations devoted to fundamental science, to a wealth of facilities providing X-ray or neutron beams to a wide range of scientific disciplines.

Almost 50 institutions are involved in the successor project to the ARIES program coordinated at CERN, in which GSI is also involved. CERN is also coordinating I.FAST. GSI/FAIR is again part of the consortium with a broad-based team of researchers from different areas, which underlines the varied expertise on-site. The project is advanced by numerous accelerator groups and research departments. It aims to advance new developments in the field of accelerator-based research infrastructures and to promote innovative technologies.

In scientific laboratories, but also in medicine and industry the use of accelerators is rapidly growing. Particle accelerators are now facing critical challenges, for example with regard to the size and performance of the planned facilities and the increasing demands to accelerators for applied science. The project aims to help developing more performant and affordable technologies, and reducing power consumption. This could pave the way to a sustainable next generation of accelerators.

By involving industry via the 17 industrial companies in the consortium, I.FAST aims to generate innovation and thus support the long-term evolution of accelerator technologies in Europe. Alternative accelerator concepts will be explored and the prototyping of key technologies will be promoted. These include techniques for increasing brightness and reducing dimensions of synchrotron light sources, advanced superconducting technologies to produce higher fields with lower consumption, and strategies and technical solutions for improving energy efficiency.

Finally, the Biophysics Department under the leadership of Professor Marco Durante has a small participation in the European medical isotope programme PRISMAP (PRoduction of high purity Isotopes by mass Separation for Medical Application), coordinated by CERN. In this context, 17,000 euros go to GSI and FAIR. PRISMAP will bring together key European intense neutron sources, isotope mass separation facilities, and high-power accelerators and cyclotrons with leading biomedical research institutes and hospitals. Together they will create a sustainable source of high purity new radionuclides to advance early-phase research into radiopharmaceuticals, targeted drugs for cancer, theranostics, and personalized medicine in Europe.

Referring to the fact that all of these projects are realized in international consortia, Scientific Managing Director Paolo Giubellino remarks: "Science is a World enterprise, in which progress in frontier initiatives can only be successful if carried out at the international level. For GSI/FAIR this is a vital, strategic way of operating, and we will be able to contribute actively with our specific competence and experience in these programs which will shape future research“. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3750 Thu, 11 Feb 2021 07:41:00 +0100 BASE opens up new possibilities in the search for cold dark matter https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3750&cHash=3e72a06e2d697e9e4974494462b01ab2 The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory has set new limits on the mass of axion-like particles – hypothetical particles that are candidates for dark matter – and constrained how easily they can turn into photons, the particles of light. This is especially significant as BASE was not designed for such studies. This news is based on a press release of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg.

The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory has set new limits on the mass of axion-like particles – hypothetical particles that are candidates for dark matter – and constrained how easily they can turn into photons, the particles of light. This is especially significant as BASE was not designed for such studies. The experiment’s new result, published by Physical Review Letters, describes this pioneering method and opens up new experimental possibilities in the search for cold dark matter. GSI is involved in BASE, among other things, by manufacturing some components of the experimental setup.

“BASE has extremely sensitive tuned circuit detection systems to study the properties of single trapped antiprotons. We realized that these detectors can also be used to search for signals of other particles. In this recently published work we used one of our detectors as an antenna to search for a new type of axion-like particles,” explains Jack Devlin, a CERN research fellow working on the experiment.

Axions or axion-like particles are candidates for cold dark matter. From astrophysical observations, we believe that around 26.8 percent of the matter-energy content of the Universe is made up of dark matter and only about 5 percent of ordinary – visible – matter; the remainder is the mysterious dark energy. These unknown particles feel the force of gravity, but they barely respond to the other fundamental forces, if they experience these at all. The best accepted theory of fundamental forces and particles, called the Standard Model of particle physics, does not contain any particles which have the right properties to be cold dark matter. However, since the Standard Model leaves many questions unanswered, physicists have proposed theories that go beyond, some of which explain the nature of dark matter. Among such theories are those that suggest the existence of axions or axion-like particles. These theories need to be tested and there are many experiments set up around the world to look for these particles. For the first time, the BASE experiment at CERN has turned the tools developed to detect single antiprotons to the search for dark matter.

Compared to the large detectors installed in the LHC, BASE is a much smaller experiment. It is connected to CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator, which supplies the experiment with antiprotons. BASE captures and suspends these particles in a Penning trap, a combination of electric and strong magnetic fields. To avoid collisions with ordinary matter, the trap is operated at 5 Kelvin (~−268 °C) where exceedingly low pressures, similar to those in deep space are reached (10−18 mbar). In this extremely well-isolated environment, clouds of trapped antiprotons can exist for years at a time. By carefully adjusting the electric fields, the physicists at BASE can isolate individual antiprotons and move them to a separate part of the trap. In this region, very sensitive superconducting resonant detectors can pick up the tiny electrical currents generated by single antiprotons as they move around the trap.

In the now published work, the BASE team looked for unexpected electrical signals in their sensitive antiproton detectors. At the heart of each detector is a small, approximately 4cm diameter, donut-shaped coil, which looks similar to the inductors you might find in many ordinary electronics. However, the BASE detectors are superconducting and have almost no electrical resistance, and all the surrounding components are carefully chosen so that they do not cause electrical losses. This makes the BASE detectors extremely sensitive to any small electrical fields. Physicists used the antiproton as a quantum sensor to precisely calibrate the background noise on their detector. They then began to search for unusual signals, however faint, that could hint at those induced by axion-like particles and their possible interactions with photons. Nothing was found at the frequencies that were recorded, which means that BASE succeeded in setting new limits for the mass of axion-like particles and in investigating their possible interactions with photons.

With this study, BASE opens up possibilities for other Penning trap experiments to participate in the search for dark matter. Since BASE was not built to look for these signals, several changes could be made to improve the probability of finding an axion-like particle in the future. “With this new technique, we’ve combined two previously unrelated branches of experimental physics: axion physics and high-precision Penning trap physics. Our laboratory experiment is complementary to astrophysics experiments and especially very sensitive in the low axion mass range. With a purpose-built instrument we would be able to increase the bandwidth and sensitivity to broaden the landscape of axion searches using Penning trap techniques,” says Stefan Ulmer, spokesperson for the BASE experiment collaboration.

The BASE collaboration consists of scientists from RIKEN Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory, the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg, the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), the University of Tokyo, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, the Leibniz University Hannover, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig. The research was performed as part of the work of the Max Planck-RIKEN-PTB Center for Time, Constants and Fundamental Symmetries, an international group established to develop high-precision measurements to better understand the physics of our Universe. (CP)

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news-3758 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 11:30:00 +0100 Accelerator in operation — FAIR Phase 0 experiments underway https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3758&cHash=f9aaf34e12b360e3cdb246c8d99c4b67 Today, the GSI/FAIR accelerator facilities successfully started a new operating phase to conduct scientific experiments of the FAIR Phase 0 program. From February to July, scientists from all over the world will investigate numerous research questions in the fields of nuclear physics, atomic physics, biophysics, materials research and plasma physics in the framework of approximately 80 approved experiments. We look forward to a rich harvest of scientific results. Today, the GSI/FAIR accelerator facilities successfully started a new operating phase to conduct scientific experiments of the FAIR Phase 0 program. From February to July, scientists from all over the world will investigate numerous research questions in the fields of nuclear physics, atomic physics, biophysics, materials research and plasma physics in the framework of approximately 80 approved experiments. We look forward to a rich harvest of scientific results.

The complete accelerator facility will be in operation: the linear accelerator UNILAC, the ring accelerator SIS18, the experimental storage ring ESR, the fragment separator FRS, the high-power laser PHELIX and, for the first time, the new FAIR storage ring CRYRING will be available for use by the researchers. A large number of experimental sites will be served, partly in parallel operation, with different ion beams from hydrogen to uranium. The science run at the GSI facilities is part of the FAIR experimental program, the so-called FAIR Phase 0, which already offers excellent experimental opportunities while FAIR is still under construction.

During the previous shutdown, numerous maintenance and modernization measures could be implemented to further prepare the existing facility for future operation as a pre-accelerator of the FAIR facility. Due to the Corona pandemic, the usual travel of domestic and foreign guest scientists remains limited during this experiment period. However, the shutdown was also used to expand remote access to parts of the facility for the researchers and improve electronic communication in order to enable the best possible performance of the scientific work. (CP)

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news-3752 Fri, 05 Feb 2021 09:00:00 +0100 Jörg Blaurock starts second term as Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3752&cHash=dca67d1a29930d9188f0649809cfa12f Jörg Blaurock will continue his successful work as Technical Managing Director of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) for the next five years. His second term has begun on February 1, 2021. The FAIR Council and the GSI Supervisory Board have acknowledged his achievements and expressed their wish for him to continue for another term. Jörg Blaurock will continue his successful work as Technical Managing Director of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) for the next five years. His second term has begun on February 1, 2021. The FAIR Council and the GSI Supervisory Board have acknowledged his achievements and expressed their wish for him to continue for another term.

“The GSI Supervisory Board, the FAIR Council and I personally are very delighted that Mr. Blaurock has accepted our proposal to serve in this position for another five years. The very good progress in the construction of FAIR in the last years is the result of the great commitment of the employees of GSI and FAIR, but in particular also his personal success. We are convinced that with his leadership the FAIR construction project will be successfully completed,” emphasized Ministerialdirigent Dr. Volkmar Dietz, who is the Chair of the GSI Supervisory Board and the FAIR Council and director in the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

The personnel decision is also a guarantee for continuity and stable conditions in the GSI and FAIR management: Together with Professor Paolo Giubellino as Scientific Managing Director and Ulrich Breuer as Administrative Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock will continue to form the joint top management of GSI and FAIR. The goal of the management team is to enable cutting-edge research at the existing facility and to realize the future accelerator facility FAIR in international collaboration.

Jörg Blaurock is looking forward to his second term with a lot of energy: "I am very pleased about the trust placed in me and the opportunity to continue to advance and shape the FAIR project." He cites solid, reliable and efficient project implementation and the on-going continuation of execution work as important goals on the way to realizing FAIR.

In the recent years, Jörg Blaurock led the FAIR project, one of the world's largest construction projects for science, through numerous challenging development processes, always keeping in view the special requirements of this extraordinary large construction site. Great progress was made in the north construction field and important stages were completed. The focus was on excavation work, concrete and structural work for crucial buildings such as the large ring accelerator SIS100, the central transfer building and the first experiment for the FAIR research program. Even under difficult corona conditions, the conditions for the progress of the work on the construction site were maintained.

In Jörg Blaurock's second term, further major realization steps are moving into the focus, such as the development of the southern construction field and the technical building equipment. The global high-tech component development for the experiments and the accelerator machine, as well as their implementation and assembly in the buildings, are also a central task for the future. The coming years will thus be dominated by further progress in order to expand even more the excellent development.

Before Jörg Blaurock, born in 1964, took up his position at GSI and FAIR, he has been working in international large-scale plant construction for over 20 years, overseeing full planning, delivery, assembly and commissioning of large technical facilities worldwide. He studied mechanical engineering at the Helmut Schmidt University in Hamburg during his career as an officer in the Bundeswehr, where he worked until 1994. He went on to work for large-scale plant construction firms Uhde GmbH and Lurgi GmbH in the turnkey production of petrochemical industrial plants at various international locations. In 2007, he joined Alstom, today General Electric, where he worked in a number of positions – most recently for General Electric Deutschland GmbH in Stuttgart. There, as Managing Director he was responsible for the turnkey delivery of utility steam generators for electricity-generating fossil-fuel power stations. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3756 Wed, 03 Feb 2021 13:00:00 +0100 Expertise in demand: Substantial GSI/FAIR participation in international review article on the origin of the heaviest elements https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3756&cHash=fefb3cd493f797c0811a86f1ebbede26 Where and how does nature produce noble metals such as gold and platinum? This is one of the most exciting questions in physics. Astrophysical observations were able to unveil this mystery only a few years ago. The worldwide attention was immense; the interest in the topic has grown strongly since then. A group of top-class experts now evaluated and summarized the current state of knowledge and presented a review article in the renowned scientific journal "Reviews of Modern Physics". More than half of the Where and how does nature produce noble metals such as gold and platinum? This is one of the most exciting questions in physics. Astrophysical observations were able to unveil this mystery only a few years ago. The worldwide attention was immense; the interest in the topic has grown strongly since then. A group of top-class experts now evaluated and summarized the current state of knowledge and presented a review article in the renowned scientific journal "Reviews of Modern Physics". More than half of the authors are researchers at GSI/FAIR or have close connections here.

The place of origin of the heavy and heaviest elements, which include gold and platinum, has long occupied the scientific community. The U.S. National Research Council had listed this question as one of the eleven biggest unsolved problems in physics in the 21st century. A breakthrough came in August 2017, when a previously never observed astrophysical phenomenon was detected by both gravitational waves and a burst of light (known as a kilonova). Analysis of the gravitational waves showed that the observed event could be identified as the merger of two neutron stars, while the light curve gave evidence for the production of heavy elements in the so-called astrophysical r-process.

The r-process, a sequence of neutron capture reactions and beta decays by extremely neutron-rich nuclei, has been postulated as the origin of the heavy elements for a long time, but now a location where this occurs in the universe is finally known. The identification of neutron star mergers as an astrophysical site of the r-process has thus opened the door to a fascinating new field of scientific research that is attracting considerable global attention. This is one of the reasons why the prestigious scientific journal "Reviews of Modern Physics", published by the American Physical Society, invited a group of experts to comprehensively summarize and evaluate the latest knowledge on the formation of the heavy elements. Among the eight authors are three researchers working at GSI and two others closely associated with GSI/FAIR.

"It was, of course, a great honor to provide a review of this rapidly evolving field of research for ‘Reviews of Modern Physics’. Especially, it was a challenge to present in a balanced way the wide spectrum from astrophysical observations to nuclear and atomic physics laboratory measurements and simulations of such events. I am glad that competent colleagues from the different disciplines supported me with their expertise," says Professor Friedrich-Karl Thielemann, who also conducts research at GSI since his retirement from the University of Basel and who was recently awarded the Karl Schwarzschild Medal of the German Astronomical Society not least for his pioneering work on the r-process.

However, Thielemann also emphasizes that there are still many unresolved questions about the r-process, which the review also addresses. This particularly concerns the nuclear processes that are essential in the fusion of neutron stars as well as in r-process nucleosynthesis. Exciting findings can be expected here once new large-scale accelerator facilities have begun operation. At FAIR, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, which is currently being built at GSI as an international accelerator project, matter can be compressed to extreme densities and temperatures in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions and studied under conditions that exist in neutron star mergers just before the transition to a black hole.

"At FAIR, we will also produce many of the exotic nuclei for the first time and measure their properties at the storage rings and detectors available there," says co-author Gabriel Martinez-Pinedo, head of the GSI theory department and professor at TU Darmstadt. Professor Martinez-Pinedo had led with Brian Metzger of Columbia University the team that predicted the kilonova signal as a fingerprint of the r-process several years before it was observed.

Until now, the properties of the short-lived nuclei, which are important in the r-process, had to be modeled theoretically, which is always associated with a certain degree of uncertainty. Another co-author, Professor Michael Wiescher from Notre Dame University, who is connected to GSI through a prestigious Humboldt Research Award, is working on changing this in the future. Together with other researchers, primarily from Goethe University Frankfurt and GSI, Wiescher is developing plans to use the unique storage rings at FAIR to generate important experimental data for the r-process. “I am fascinated by the idea of my colleague Professor René Reifarth from Frankfurt, that the FAIR rings will make it possible to measure neutron captures at short-lived nuclei," Wiescher points to a long-held dream of nuclear astrophysics that could come true at FAIR. The FAIR storage rings also promise first-time access to measuring atomic physics data from heavy element ions, as needed to model the kilonova light curve.

The review article appears in the new volume 93 (February 1, 2021) of “Reviews of Modern Physics". Because of the actuality and complexity of the subject, the editors have allowed the page limit to be significantly exceeded. The text summarizes in 85 pages what is currently known about the formation of the heavy elements by the astrophysical r-process. However, it also shows which questions are still unsolved and what progress can be expected from improved astronomical observations, from computer simulations, and above all from the unique possibilities opened up by the next generation of accelerator facilities in Europe, America, and Asia.

The scientists involved are looking to the future: "When another review article on the r-process will appear in the ‘Reviews of Modern Physics’ in a decade or two, it will probably answer many of today's unanswered questions on the basis of the knowledge now described. But surely, as is typical and fruitful for science, it also will identify new open questions." (BP)

Further information

Scientific publication in the journal „Reviews of Modern Physics“

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news-3754 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 11:39:00 +0100 New digital offer: GSI and FAIR invite to online visits https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3754&cHash=20c04db1af8daa6fd6d2256f2f81f6eb The GSI Helmholtzzentrum and the future accelerator center FAIR start the New Year with an exciting new digital offer: Beginning in February, special online visits will be organized. The live moderated events offer a comprehensive insight into current research and the experimental facilities at GSI/FAIR and allow questions to be asked and discussed in real time. Also included is an exclusive view at the mega construction site for the future accelerator center FAIR, one of the largest construction projects The GSI Helmholtzzentrum and the future accelerator center FAIR start the New Year with an exciting new digital offer: Beginning in February, special online visits will be organized. The live moderated events offer a comprehensive insight into current research and the experimental facilities at GSI/FAIR and allow questions to be asked and discussed in real time. Also included is an exclusive view at the mega construction site for the future accelerator center FAIR, one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide. The first three dates are February 12, 18 and 23.

Due to the Corona situation, no public tours with on-site presence on the campus and the viewpoint of the construction site can currently be offered. Therefore, GSI and FAIR want to give all interested persons the opportunity to continue visiting us virtually and interactively with this specially compiled online offer. The new digital format adapts the guided tour offer, which has been in high demand for many years, to new times. A live event is organized, each lasting 90 minutes and offering the opportunity to ask individual questions, answered by the presenters.

After a short introductory lecture, a guided video tour will take the participants to several selected research sites and facilities on campus: Among other things, the participants can visit the 120-meter-long linear accelerator UNILAC or the main control room online and learn a lot about the unique research at GSI and FAIR. There are also interesting facts about the construction of components for the international accelerator center FAIR, currently being built at GSI.

A highlight of the new offer is the online premium place directly at the mega construction site FAIR: From the viewpoint there, participants can enjoy an impressive video panorama of the always-busy construction site and an impressive insight into the future of international cutting-edge research, which will be carried out there. With FAIR, researchers from all over the world will be able to produce and study cosmic matter directly in the laboratory and thus unravel unsolved secrets about the structure and evolution of the universe.

Detailed information on technical requirements and access modalities to participate in the digital discovery tour into the world of GSI and FAIR is available at www.gsi.de/en/besichtigung. Registration for the event dates is not necessary. Up to 500 people can participate. Further questions about the new online offer can be sent by e-mail to besichtigung(at)gsi.de. (BP)

Further Information

All details about the new online visits

Dates: 12.02.2021, 10:00, 18.02.2021, 15:00 and 23.02.2021, 13:00

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3742 Thu, 28 Jan 2021 08:24:00 +0100 First long multiplet for FAIR Super Fragment Separator in the test stand https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3742&cHash=3bca56b38e9b758dedada7ac8de998fc The first long multiplet for the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) of the new FAIR accelerator, produced by the company ASG Superconductors in Italy, was delivered to the test stand at the European research center CERN in Switzerland. A cooperation agreement exists between GSI/FAIR and CERN for the testing of accelerator magnets, under which the multiplet will undergo a series of detailed quality tests before delivery to Darmstadt. The first long multiplet for the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) of the new FAIR accelerator, produced by the company ASG Superconductors in Italy, was delivered to the test stand at the European research center CERN in Switzerland. A cooperation agreement exists between GSI/FAIR and CERN for the testing of accelerator magnets, under which the multiplet will undergo a series of detailed quality tests before delivery to Darmstadt.

A total of nine superconducting single magnets are integrated into the multiplet, and it is a real heavyweight: It is seven meters long, has a diameter of 2.5 meters and weighs over 60 tons (video of the magnet). Accordingly, the delivery to CERN was made by means of a heavy goods transport on a low loader. Following installation in the test stand, the multiplet will be cooled and subjected to extensive testing of operating parameters and magnetic field qualities, which is expected to take about six to nine months. After successful completion of the acceptance tests, the multiplet is to be transported to GSI and prepared for the subsequent tunnel installation as part of a pre-assembly. Until the final installation, the multiplet and also its successors will be temporarily stored.

The multiplets are later used in the Super-FRS to guide and shape the beam to achieve a high-precision particle beam. The Super-FRS of the future FAIR accelerator center is an important component of the overall facility with great discovery potential for science: This part of the accelerator complex is about experiments with extremely rare exotic nuclei in the framework of FAIR’s experimental pillar NUSTAR (Nuclear Structure, Astophysics and Reactions). For this purpose, ions of the heaviest elements are initially accelerated onto a material sample (target) and crushed by the impact. Among the resulting fragments are exotic nuclei, which are sorted out at the Super-FRS and made available for further experiments. With the new separator nuclei up to uranium can be produced at relativistic energies, monoisotopically separated and analyzed. Since this entire process takes only a few hundred nanoseconds, the Super-FRS allows access to very short-lived nuclei.

The multiplets produced in La Spezia, Italy, as well as the subsequent test procedure, are an important contribution (in-kind) of GSI to the FAIR project. GSI is the main German shareholder in the international FAIR GmbH. All superconducting magnets required for the Super-FRS will be tested in the new test facility at CERN in alternating sequence. This includes both the total of 32 multiplett units as well as 24 superconducting dipole magnets, which are needed for deflecting the particle beam. A first short multiplet had already been delivered to CERN in 2019, used for commissioning of the first of a total of three test stands. In the meantime, the acceptance test of the short multiplet was successfully completed despite difficult conditions due to the corona pandemic. Currently, the second test stand is being commissioned with the multiplet in preparation for series testing of all multiplets. From spring of this year, further multiplet deliveries are planned at approximately monthly intervals. (BP/CP)

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news-3748 Tue, 26 Jan 2021 08:09:00 +0100 Change of course on the journey to the island of stability https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3748&cHash=2e48ee96544e98a4b95857eafcc489e9 An international research team succeeded in gaining new insights into the artificially produced superheavy element flerovium, element 114, at the accelerator facilities of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the leadership of Lund University in Sweden and with significant participation of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) as well as the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) in Germany and other partners, flerovium was produced and investigated. Joint press release of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, in collaboration with Lund University

An international research team succeeded in gaining new insights into the artificially produced superheavy element flerovium, element 114, at the accelerator facilities of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the leadership of Lund University in Sweden and with significant participation of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) as well as the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) in Germany and other partners, flerovium was produced and investigated to determine whether it has a closed proton shell. The results suggest that, contrary to expectations, flerovium is not a so-called "magic nucleus". The results were published in the journal Physical Review Letters and additionally highlighted with a synopsis by the American Physical Society.

In the late 1960s, Sven-Gösta Nilsson, then a physics professor at Lund University, and others formulated a theory about the possible existence of still unknown superheavy elements. In the meantime, such elements have been created and many predictions have been confirmed. The discovery of the six new elements 107 to 112 was achieved at GSI in Darmstadt, and further ones up to element 118 are now known as well. Strongly increased half-lives for the superheavy elements due to a "magic" combination of protons and neutrons were also predicted. This occurs when the shells in the nucleus, each holding a certain number of protons and neutrons, are completely filled. "Flerovium, element 114, was also predicted to have such a completed, 'magic' proton shell structure. If this were true, flerovium would lie at the center of the so-called 'island of stability’, an area of the chart of nuclides where the superheavy elements should have particularly long lifetimes due to the shell closures," explains Professor Dirk Rudolph of Lund University, who is the spokesperson of the international experiment.

Atomic nuclei of flerovium show unusual decay channels

Nilsson's theories inspired the international collaboration led by the Lund group to investigate whether flerovium nuclei indeed exhibit the predicted magical properties. Their experiments, performed at the UNILAC accelerator at GSI in Darmstadt in the framework of the FAIR Phase 0 experimental program, lasted 18 days. Every second, four trillion calcium-48 nuclei with 20 protons were accelerated to ten percent of the speed of light. They irradiated a thin foil containing rare plutonium-244 with 94 protons to produce atomic nuclei of flerovium, which has 114 protons, by nuclear fusion. This so-called target was produced at the Department of Chemistry at JGU, using, plutonium provided, among others, by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Strong magnets of the GSI recoil separator TASCA separated the flerovium nuclei from the intense calcium ion beam; subsequently they were registered in a detector setup specifically developed in Lund for this experiment.

The detector measured the radioactive decay of 30 flerovium nuclei — i.e., the emission of nuclear fragments of flerovium — with high efficiency and accuracy. By precisely analyzing these fragments and their emission times, the team was able to determine unusual decay channels of flerovium nuclei that could not be reconciled with its originally predicted "magical" properties. "Our study shows that element 114 is no more stable than others in its vicinity. This is a very important piece of the puzzle in the continued search for the center of the coveted island of stability," said Professor Christoph Düllmann, professor of nuclear chemistry at JGU and head of the research groups at GSI and HIM.

The new results will be of great benefit to science. Instead of continuing to search for the center of the island of stability in the region of element 114, even heavier ones like the as yet undiscovered element 120, will now move into the spotlight. (CP)

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news-3746 Thu, 21 Jan 2021 07:34:00 +0100 Helium nuclei at the surface of heavy nuclei discovered https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3746&cHash=2a3a732fc1c512c64de7b63110887ff3 Scientists are able to selectively knockout nucleons and preformed nuclear clusters from atomic nuclei using high-energy proton beams. In an experiment performed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) in Osaka in Japan, the existence of preformed helium nuclei at the surface of several tin isotopes could be identified in a reaction. The results confirm a theory, which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei. This news is based on a press release by the Technical University Darmstadt.

Scientists are able to selectively knockout nucleons and preformed nuclear clusters from atomic nuclei using high-energy proton beams. In an experiment performed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) in Osaka in Japan, the existence of preformed helium nuclei at the surface of several tin isotopes could be identified in a reaction. The results confirm a theory, which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei. A research team, lead by scientists from TU Darmstadt and the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy-Ion Research, and from the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, discuss the new findings in a contribution to the latest issue of the journal “Science”.

The strong interaction binds neutrons and protons together to atomic nuclei. The knowledge of properties of nuclei and their theoretical description is basis for our understanding of nuclear matter and the development of the universe. Laboratory-based studies of reactions between atomic nuclei provide means to explore nuclear properties. These experiments allow to test and verify theories that describe properties of extended nuclear matter at different conditions, as present, for instance, in neutron stars in the universe.

Several theories predict the formation of nuclear clusters like helium nuclei in dilute nuclear matter. This effect is expected to occur at densities significantly lower than saturation density of nuclear matter, as present in the inner part of heavy nuclei. A theory developed in Darmstadt by Dr. Stefan Typel predicts that such a condensation of helium nuclei should also occur at the surface of heavy nuclei. Goal of the experiment, which is presented in the latest issue of “Science”, was the verification of this prediction.

Prediction confirmed

The present experiment bombarded tin isotopes with high-energy protons and detected and identified the scattered protons as well as knocked-out helium nuclei. Dr. Junki Tanaka and Dr. Yang Zaihong could demonstrate that the reaction occurs as a direct “quasi-elastic” scattering of the protons off preformed helium nuclei in the surface of tin nuclei. The extracted cross sections for different tin isotopes reveal a decrease of the formation probability with the neutron excess of the nuclei, which impressively confirms the theoretical prediction.

This new finding, which has far-reaching consequences for our understanding of nuclei and nuclear matter, will now be studied in more detail in experimental programs planned at RCNP, and in inverse kinematics at RIKEN and the new FAIR facility at GSI, where also unstable heavy neutron-rich nuclei are accessible. (CP)

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news-3744 Mon, 18 Jan 2021 08:34:00 +0100 Limits of atomic nuclei predicted https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3744&cHash=7585481fdd27d2de61792bccf08936e5 Novel calculations have enabled the study of nearly 700 isotopes between helium and iron, showing which nuclei can exist and which cannot. In an article published in Physical Review Letters, scientists report how they simulated for the first time using innovative theoretical methods a large region of the chart of nuclides based on the theory of the strong interaction. The ExtreMe Matter Institure EMMI of GSI and TU Darmstadt is also involved in the research efforts. This news is based on a press release of Technical University Darmstadt.

Novel calculations have enabled the study of nearly 700 isotopes between helium and iron, showing which nuclei can exist and which cannot. In an article published in Physical Review Letters, scientists from TU Darmstadt, the University of Washington, the Canadian laboratory TRIUMF, and the University of Mainz report how they simulated for the first time using innovative theoretical methods a large region of the chart of nuclides based on the theory of the strong interaction. The ExtreMe Matter Institure EMMI of GSI and TU Darmstadt is also involved in the research efforts.

Atomic nuclei are held together by the strong interaction between neutrons and protons. About ten percent of all known nuclei are stable. Starting from these stable isotopes, nuclei become increasingly unstable as neutrons are added or removed, until neutrons can no longer bind to the nucleus and “drip” out. This limit of existence, the so-called neutron “dripline”, has so far been discovered experimentally only for light elements up to neon. Understanding the neutron dripline and the structure of neutron-rich nuclei also plays a key role in the research program for the future accelerator facility FAIR at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt.
In a new study, “Ab Initio Limits of Nuclei,” published in the journal Physical Review Letters as an Editors‘ Suggestion with an accompanying synopsis in APS Physics, EMMI Professor Achim Schwenk of TU Darmstadt and a Max Planck Fellow at the MPI for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, together with scientists from the University of Washington, TRIUMF and the University of Mainz, succeeded in calculating the limits of atomic nuclei using innovative theoretical methods up to medium-mass nuclei. The results are a treasure trove of information about possible new isotopes and provide a roadmap for nuclear physicists to verify them.

The new study is not the first attempt to theoretically explore the extremely neutron-rich region of the nuclear landscape. Previous studies used density functional theory to predict bound isotopes between helium and the heavy elements. Professor Schwenk and colleagues, on the other hand, explored the chart of nuclides for the first time based on ab initio nuclear theory. Starting from microscopic two- and three-body interactions, they solved the many-particle Schrödinger equation to simulate the properties of atomic nuclei from helium to iron. They accomplished this by using a new ab initio many-body method – the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group –, combined with an extension that can handle partially filled orbitals to reliably determine all nuclei.

Starting from two- and three-nucleon interactions based on the strong interaction, quantum chromodynamics, the researchers calculated the ground-state energies of nearly 700 isotopes. The results are consistent with previous measurements and serve as the basis for determining the location of the neutron and proton driplines. Comparisons with experimental mass measurements and a statistical analysis enabled the determination of theoretical uncertainties for their predictions, such as for the separation energies of nuclei and thus also for the probability that an isotope is bound or does not exist (see figure).

The new study is considered a milestone in understanding how the chart of nuclides and the structure of nuclei emerges from the strong interaction. This is a key question of the DFG-funded Collaborative Research Center 1245 “Nuclei: From Fundamental Interactions to Structure and Stars” at the TU Darmstadt, within which this research was conducted. Next, the scientists want to extend their calculations to heavier elements in order to advance the input for the simulation of the synthesis of heavy elements. This proceeds in neutron-rich environments in the direction of the neutron dripline and occurs in nature when neutron stars merge or in extreme supernovae. (TUD/CP)

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news-3740 Thu, 14 Jan 2021 11:00:00 +0100 New longterm drone video: The progress on the FAIR construction site in a time lapse https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3740&cHash=d00275302098893edd4b85fe980b8c49 Great progress has been made and important stages are completed within the FAIR project, one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide. A new time lapse video created with a sophisticated filming technique makes particularly tangible these developments on the mega construction site during the last three years. Several videos, recorded with regular drone flights over the site, were superimposed precisely with GPS support and thus combined to one single video. Great progress has been made and important stages are completed within the FAIR project, one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide. A new time lapse video created with a sophisticated filming technique makes particularly tangible these developments on the mega construction site during the last three years. Several videos, recorded with regular drone flights over the site, were superimposed precisely with GPS support and thus combined to one single video. The progress of the construction activities can be experienced in an impressive way with this "Longterm Dronelapse".

One of the biggest milestones of recent times is the development of the southern construction site. Despite the corona pandemic, construction work there could start after the awarding of the contract for excavation and shell construction for the first part in the southern area. The construction work includes the shell constructions for six buildings and a unique experimental facility – the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super FRS). It will focus on research topics concerning the nuclear structure and interactions of extremely rare, exotic particles.

Meanwhile, the shell construction for the heart of the future facility, the 1.1-kilometer ring accelerator SIS100, is progressing steadily. The excavation work for the entire length of the tunnel is completed. The central transfer building is expanding over several floors. It is the most complex building of the facility, up to 17 meters deep and 20 meters high, and the central hub for the facility’s beamline. The civil underground work is also completed and the structural engineering is in full progress.

Furthermore, the foundation and walls for the future experiment CBM are completed. CBM is one of the four research pillars of the FAIR accelerator facility. The focus is on the investigation of highly compressed baryonic matter, as it exists in neutron stars and in the center of supernova explosions. An important step is reached in the central connection of the future accelerator FAIR and the existing facilities of GSI. As planned, a crucial connecting piece was delivered by heavy-duty transport. The 4.5-ton steel component was put in with a mobile crane. It will provide sealing the connection between GSI and FAIR.

To fill the newly constructed buildings with life, another important task gets increasingly into focus: the assembly of the accelerator machine. Regarding the development and manufacturing of high-tech components for FAIR, series production is already completed in some parts, while in others this is about to happen. A specially installed planning group will prepare this next phase in project realization, while the accelerator structures and buildings on the FAIR construction site continue to take shape. Up-to-date drone footage will continue to accompany this substantial progress also in the future. (BP)

Video

FAIR Construction Site Time Lapse – Longterm Dronelapse

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3738 Thu, 07 Jan 2021 07:53:00 +0100 Series production of SIS100 accelerator cavities, power amplifiers and power supply units completed — All components delivered https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3738&cHash=e1a2412d608320a7b6ca2539da341b7a The heavy ion accelerator SIS100 with a circumference of 1.1 kilometers is the heart of the future accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI. In the future, it will accelerate the heaviest ions to their maximum velocity within half a second. All the necessary cavities, power amplifiers and power supply units have now been delivered to GSI/FAIR. This completes the series production of the SIS100 main acceleration systems. The heavy ion accelerator SIS100 with a circumference of 1.1 kilometers is the heart of the future accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI. In the future, it will accelerate the heaviest ions to their maximum velocity within half a second. All the necessary cavities, power amplifiers and power supply units have now been delivered to GSI/FAIR. This completes the series production of the SIS100 main acceleration systems.

The fast acceleration time of the SIS100 is a major difference compared to other superconducting synchrotrons, in particular the large collider synchrotrons, whose acceleration ramp typically takes several minutes. To enable this, SIS100 is equipped with a large number of high-frequency accelerator units. For the initial commissioning, 14 cavities were planned and ordered for the acceleration of the heavy ions; in the final configuration, 20 cavities will be needed. In addition to the radio-frequency systems for beam acceleration, SIS100 has another nine cavities for compression of the accelerated ion pulses and four other special systems. The latter are used on the one hand to stabilize the beam at high intensities and on the other hand to create radiofrequency barriers that enclose a rectangular beam pulse prior to extraction. With this equipment of high-frequency systems, the straight lines of SIS100 are more like a linear accelerator than a synchrotron.

The design and construction of the accelerating cavities was contracted to RI Research Instruments GmbH. A design phase, in which RI worked closely with specialists from GSI's Ring RF department, was followed by the production and acceptance of the first-of-series system. Based on the results of these activities, manufacturing of the 13 series systems, consisting of cavities and power amplifiers, started last fall. At the same time, the associated power supply units were produced in Switzerland by RI's cooperation partner, Ampegon Power Electronics AG, now part of the Aretè & Cocchi Technology Group.

In the beginning of December, the final components for the SIS100 acceleration system were delivered by RI. As a result, all components of the procurement — 14 cavities and power amplifiers each from RI and 14 power supply units from Ampegon — have now arrived at GSI/FAIR. Together with the "low level RF", the electronic system for control and synchronization, they form the acceleration system of the SIS100 synchrotron, which can generate a total peak acceleration voltage of 280 000 volts at the ceramic gaps of the cavities.

Production and acceptance testing faced unexpected challenges in early 2020 due to the corona pandemic, but thanks to shift work, flexible customization, and, most importantly, close cooperation among the teams at GSI/FAIR, RI, and Ampegon, the activities were successfully completed despite the difficult circumstances. In addition to the completion of the series production of the superconducting dipole modules, another important milestone for the construction of the SIS100 synchrotron has thus been reached. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3736 Tue, 22 Dec 2020 16:05:53 +0100 Obituary of Professor Akito Arima https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3736&cHash=2c4b3d6fc97055d17fd4ac386918faea Former President of the Japanese Research Institute RIKEN Professor Akito Arima passed away on 6 December at the age of 90. In addition to his outstanding contributions to science, his achievements for RIKEN's international relations will be a lasting legacy. During his presidency from 1993 to 1998, he essentially strengthened the cooperation between GSI and RIKEN (Tokyo). The management of GSI/FAIR sends heartfelt condolences to his family and friends. Former President of the Japanese Research Institute RIKEN Professor Akito Arima passed away on 6 December at the age of 90. In addition to his outstanding contributions to science, his achievements for RIKEN's international relations will be a lasting legacy. During his presidency from 1993 to 1998, he essentially strengthened the cooperation between GSI and RIKEN (Tokyo). The management of GSI/FAIR sends heartfelt condolences to his family and friends.

Professor Akito Arima contributed significantly to the development of the research landscape in Japan as a nuclear physicist and as a politician and held a lot of important positions over many years. During his term as RIKEN President, he focused on intensifying RIKEN's international relations. During this time, the long-standing, successful cooperation between GSI and RIKEN was significantly deepened through his support.

In addition to his work at RIKEN, he also served as president of the University of Tokyo, president of the Japan Association of National Universities, Minister of Education, and Minister of State for Science and Technology. In these various roles, he made great contributions to the development of science and technology. He received numerous prizes and awards for his services. Additionally, he was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Besides his outstanding achievements in science and science policy making, Akito Arima was also a highly respected authority in haiku, the traditional Japanese poetry. (LW)

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news-3732 Mon, 21 Dec 2020 12:00:00 +0100 FAIR-GSI PhD Award 2020 for Dr. Ivan Miskun https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3732&cHash=20bf8820c37ae5b5a4e47bcba919623f Dr. Ivan Miskun has been honored with the FAIR-GSI PhD Award 2020. The recognition, which is awarded annually, is endowed with 1000 euros donated by Pfeiffer Vacuum. The award was handed over in December during a virtual FAIR-GSI colloquium by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, and Daniel Sälzer, Managing Director of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH. Dr. Ivan Miskun has been honored with the FAIR-GSI PhD Award 2020. The recognition, which is awarded annually, is endowed with 1000 euros donated by Pfeiffer Vacuum. The award was handed over in December during a virtual FAIR-GSI colloquium by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, and Daniel Sälzer, Managing Director of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH.

Ivan Miskun's PhD thesis on "A Novel Method for the Measurement of Half-Lives and Decay Branching Ratios of Exotic Nuclei with the FRS Ion Catcher" was carried out at the University of Giessen in the research group of Professor Christoph Scheidenberger. The key element of this novel application is a so-called gas-filled stopping cell, which — this is the new development — is used as an ion trap with different storage times for the exotic nuclei produced and separated at the GSI fragment separator FRS.

The exotic nuclei are stopped in the gas-filled stopping cell of the FRS ion trap and stored for a certain variable period of time ranging from a few milliseconds to a few seconds. If during this time the unstable nuclei decay into different daughter nuclides in the ground state or into their excited levels, these are also stored and can subsequently be detected, identified (by highly accurate determination of their respective nuclear binding energies) and their intensity ratios be determined together with the remaining parent nuclei using a multireflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Metastable excited states (isomers) can also be detected and their excitation energies be precisely measured.

In his dissertation, Dr. Miskun verified that the method works reliably on several known examples, and furthermore he was able to determine the branching ratios for the energetically possible decay channels. This novel method can be used to determine a wide range of data that play a role in astrophysical nucleosynthesis processes, especially in the r-process in which fast neutron capture reactions in supernova explosions or neutron star mergers form all elements above iron up to the heaviest chemical elements within a few seconds.

GSI has a long-standing partnership with Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, producer of vacuum technology and pumps. Vacuum solutions from Pfeiffer Vacuum have been successfully used in GSI's facilities for decades. The annual FAIR-GSI PhD Award honors the best PhD thesis completed during the previous year.

Eligible for nominations are dissertations that were financially supported by GSI as part of its strategic partnerships with the universities of Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Giessen, Heidelberg, Jena, and Mainz, or through the research and development program. In the framework of the Graduate School HGS-HIRe (Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research), more than 300 PhD students currently perform research for their PhD theses on topics closely related to GSI and FAIR. (CP)

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news-3734 Mon, 21 Dec 2020 09:49:00 +0100 Fellowship of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for Danyal Winters https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3734&cHash=38b0d26638f4dc47a1db061779b41327 GSI scientist Danyal Winters was awarded a Fellowship of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this context, he received an invitation to spend several months of research in China within two years. At the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in Lanzhou, he will research on the field of laser cooling of stored relativistic ions and further intensify the already successful collaboration between GSI and IMP. GSI scientist Danyal Winters was awarded a Fellowship of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this context, he received an invitation to spend several months of research in China within two years. At the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in Lanzhou, he will research on the field of laser cooling of stored relativistic ions and further intensify the already successful collaboration between GSI and IMP.

The Visiting Scientist Fellowship for Associate Professors will allow Danyal Winters to conduct research in Professor Xinwen Ma's group at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP, Lanzhou) within 2021 to 2022. The prestigious award under the President's International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is a special funding program to enable talented foreign researchers to engage in scientific exchange and research collaboration in China.

Danyal Winters is the deputy head of the storage rings department at GSI and FAIR, work package leader "SIS100 laser cooling pilot facility" and work group coordinator "laser cooling" of the SPARC collaboration (APPA). At IMP, he will extend his research in the field of laser cooling and fluorescence diagnosis of stored relativistic ions at the Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe). He will use new detector and laser systems developed in the long-standing collaboration between IMP and GSI together with other groups at German universities (Darmstadt, Dresden, Münster). The FAIR project is also strengthened by this research exchange: further developments in laser cooling are significant for the FAIR accelerator SIS100 and the SPARC collaboration, of which the Chinese researchers are also active members. (LW)

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news-3730 Mon, 14 Dec 2020 09:00:00 +0100 Site Acceptance Test: Important detector part for FAIR experiment pillar CBM successfully handed over https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3730&cHash=a823e45123a1d35e3d042b08784ea81a An important component for the future CBM experiment, one of the four central pillars of the FAIR research program, has successfully performed the Site Acceptance Test (SAT) on the GSI/FAIR campus. On behalf of a team from the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CAS) and from the Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Dr. Petr Chudoba (NPI) handed over the manipulator for PSD detector, an in-kind contribution for FAIR. An important component for the future CBM experiment, one of the four central pillars of the FAIR research program, has successfully performed the Site Acceptance Test (SAT) on the GSI/FAIR campus. On behalf of a team from the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CAS) and from the Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Dr. Petr Chudoba (NPI) handed over the manipulator for PSD detector, an in-kind contribution for FAIR. For CBM, this is the first in-kind contribution of a foreign partner delivered to Germany.

The Czech Republic is a partner state of the FAIR project and joined FAIR as an "Aspirant Partner" in spring 2019. At that time, the partnership could already build on a long-standing and very good working cooperation between Czech research institutions and GSI/FAIR. Czech scientists are involved, for example, in the large detector HADES as well as in nuclear astrophysics and are active in all four FAIR research pillars, including CBM. Here, they are significantly contributing to research, development and construction of the PSD detector (Projectile Spectator Detector), which is part of the experimental setup of CBM.

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is one of the key experiments at FAIR and aims to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities. The focus is on the investigation of highly compressed nuclear matter, as it exists in neutron stars and in the center of supernova explosions, with unprecedented precision and over a very wide density range. The Projectile Spectator Detector (PSD) serves for measuring the geometry of heavy ion collisions at the CBM experiment. The now delivered component, the manipulator, is the movable part of this detector.

PSD will be able to detect particles from the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with a target. Therefore, it will be located at a distance of about 8 to 12 meters from the interaction point around beam pipe. As the beam pipe is movable, also the detector has to be movable in several directions as well as able to rotate in the range of several degrees. The weight of PSD is about 25 tons, so it was a demanding task to design and build a corresponding support frame, the PSD manipulator.

The Czech team successfully achieved this complex requirement. The manipulator of PSD now allows horizontal and vertical movement with the precision of millimeters as well as rotation of the whole PSD detector. After installation, it will be able to support about 25 tons of calorimeter modules. After successful testing, the detector part is stored at GSI/FAIR until installation in the CBM cave. (BP)

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news-3728 Wed, 09 Dec 2020 17:00:00 +0100 CERN experiment: ALICE opens avenue for high-precision studies of the strong force https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3728&cHash=8a0d02bac81e9469e80a214063ad95ce It is the entry in a new chapter in hadron physics: In a paper published today in the Journal “Nature”, the ALICE collaboration at the European Research Center CERN describes a technique that opens a door to many new high-precision studies at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the dynamics of the strong force between hadrons. From the beginning, GSI has played a leading role in the construction and scientific program of ALICE, one of the largest experiments at CERN. It is the entry in a new chapter in hadron physics: In a paper published today in the Journal “Nature”, the ALICE collaboration at the European Research Center CERN describes a technique that opens a door to many new high-precision studies at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the dynamics of the strong force between hadrons. From the beginning, GSI has played a leading role in the construction and scientific program of ALICE, one of the largest experiments at CERN.

With the publication "Unveiling the strong interaction among hadrons at the LHC" the ALICE collaboration presents interesting new findings about hadrons and their interactions. Hadrons are composite particles made of two or three quarks bound together by the strong interaction, which is mediated by gluons. This interaction also acts between hadrons, binding nucleons (protons and neutrons) together inside atomic nuclei. One of the biggest challenges in nuclear physics today is understanding the strong interaction between hadrons with different quark content from first principles, that is, starting from the strong interaction between the hadrons’ constituent quarks and gluons.

Calculations known as lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be used to determine the interaction from first principles, but these calculations provide reliable predictions only for hadrons containing heavy quarks, such as hyperons, which have one or more strange quarks. In the past, these interactions were studied by colliding hadrons together in scattering experiments, but these experiments are difficult to perform with unstable (i.e. rapidly decaying) hadrons such as hyperons. This difficulty has so far prevented a meaningful comparison between measurements and theory for hadron–hadron interactions involving hyperons.

Enter the new study from the collaboration behind ALICE, one of the main experiments at the LHC. The study shows how a technique based on measuring the momentum difference between hadrons produced in proton–proton collisions at the LHC can be used to reveal the dynamics of the strong interaction between hyperons and nucleons, potentially for any pair of hadrons. The technique is called femtoscopy because it allows the investigation of spatial scales close to 1 femtometre (10−15 metres) – about the size of a hadron and the spatial range of the strong-force action.

This method has previously allowed the ALICE team to study interactions involving the Lambda (Λ) and Sigma (Σ) hyperons, which contain one strange quark plus two light quarks, as well as the Xi (Ξ) hyperon, which is composed of two strange quarks plus one light quark. In the new study, the team used the technique to uncover with high precision the interaction between a proton and the rarest of the hyperons, the Omega (Ω) hyperon, which contains three strange quarks.

“The precise determination of the strong interaction for all types of hyperons was unexpected,” says ALICE physicist Laura Fabbietti, professor at the Technical University of Munich“. This can be explained by three factors: the fact that the LHC can produce hadrons with strange quarks in abundance, the ability of the femtoscopy technique to probe the short-range nature of the strong interaction, and the excellent capabilities of the ALICE detector to identify particles and measure their momenta”.

The nuclear physicist Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, Scientific Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at GSI and longstanding chair of the collaboration board of ALICE, is significantly involved in the current investigations. He also emphasizes the importance of the now published research: “Out findings open the door to a new chapter in hadron physics, and with the factor 100 increase in statistics for the coming Run3 and Run4 at the LHC many new investigations will be possible”.

The relationship between GSI and ALICE is traditionally very close: GSI's research department ALICE shares responsibility for the operation of ALICE's two largest detector systems. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) were designed and built with significant contribution of GSI’s ALICE department and Detector Laboratory. Currently, GSI gives an essential contribution to the ALICE upgrade program, specifically in the TPC project and in the development of the new Online-Offline (O2) software framework. To do this, GSI’s ALICE department, Detector Laboratory and IT department work closely together. GSI scientists have several leading roles in data analysis and in the physics program of ALICE. GSI scientist and professor at Heidelberg University, Silvia Masciocchi currently chairs the ALICE Collaboration Board.

“Our new measurement allows for a comparison with predictions from lattice QCD calculations and provides a solid testbed for further theoretical work,” says ALICE spokesperson Dr. Luciano Musa. “Data from the next LHC runs should give us access to any hadron pair”. He concludes: “ALICE has opened a new avenue for nuclear physics at the LHC – one that involves all types of quarks”. (CERN/BP)

Further information

Scientific publication „Unveiling the strong interaction among hadrons at the LHC" in the journal Nature

The ALICE experiment at CERN

ALICE at GSI

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news-3726 Mon, 07 Dec 2020 14:31:09 +0100 Obituary for Professor Vladimir Fortov https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3726&cHash=d50e53cd6a7407e62a015c2af9863772 The world has lost an outstanding and devoted scientist, which has left a legacy in science and particularly strengthened GSI and the FAIR project through his staunch support. The GSI/FAIR management is saddened by the news that academician Vladimir Fortov passed away on 29 November 2020 and sends heartfelt condolences to his family and friends. The world has lost an outstanding and devoted scientist, which has left a legacy in science and particularly strengthened GSI and the FAIR project through his staunch support. The GSI/FAIR management is saddened by the news that academician Vladimir Fortov passed away on 29 November 2020 and sends heartfelt condolences to his family and friends.

He was a renowned researcher in the fields of thermal physics, shock waves, and plasma physics, with a particular focus on energy generation. As such, he held a lot of important positions in Russia, e.g., as director of the Institute of High-Temperature Physics, Research Minister and member and president of the Russian Academy of Sciences. At the same time, he fostered international relations and received many international awards and recognitions. For his contribution to the partnership with German universities, the Max-Planck society and the Helmholtz association, he received the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2006 and among the honorary PhDs he received one was awarded to him by the University of Frankfurt. Despite his workload, he was a regular visitor and supporter of GSI/FAIR and served on its committees for a long period.

Vladimir Fortov was a key figure in our scientific field, a warm-hearted and reliable partner for GSI/FAIR and a good friend. We will miss him very much! (GSI/FAIR)

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news-3724 Mon, 07 Dec 2020 10:00:00 +0100 Promoting young scientists: GSI/FAIR and JINR establish joint international school https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3724&cHash=4a508358618dbec97b8371fd7e9a5f16 It is a strong signal for the future: GSI/FAIR and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) are promoting young talents in international cooperation and therefore jointly establish the "International Joint FAIR/GSI-JINR School". Representatives of both institutions have now concluded a corresponding agreement. It is a strong signal for the future: GSI/FAIR and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) are promoting young talents in international cooperation and therefore jointly establish the "International Joint FAIR/GSI-JINR School". Representatives of both institutions have now concluded a corresponding agreement.

The very good collaboration between GSI and JINR has a long tradition and includes science and technology at the existing accelerator and experimental facilities of both partners as well as research and development activities for the two accelerator centers FAIR and NICA, currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt and at JINR in Dubna. The new school shall cover the current and future scientific programs and its high quality offer is addressed to young participants from all member states of GSI/FAIR and JINR/NICA.

The school is organized alternately once a year for a period of 10 to 14 days in Germany or Russia or one of the FAIR or JINR member states. It offers 40 to 50 PhD students the unique opportunity to immerse themselves in the research areas and technological developments at FAIR/GSI and JINR, especially in the topics Hadron and Nuclear Physics, Atomic Physics, Plasma Physics, Materials Research, Biophysics and Radiation Medicine, Accelerator Physics, Detector Research and Development, Micro/Nano-Electronics, Information Technology and High-Performance Computing and more. Thus, the young scientists will learn about the entire scientific and technological scope of the research programs pursued at FAIR/GSI and JINR.

Professor Paolo Giubellino was enthusiastic about the new cooperation and underlined the importance of scientific education: "The school will offer excellent opportunities and open up promising new perspectives. That is essential. Because the students from today are the FAIR scientists of tomorrow. With our new offer, we will attract the researchers of the future. Moreover, the new offer will further strengthen the close and very good cooperation between the two institutes in Darmstadt and Dubna".

The "International FAIR/GSI-JINR School" benefits from the experience of both institutions with such offers, for example the „joint Helmholtz-Rosatom Schools dedicated to FAIR physics“ and several „International FAIR-Schools“. The new project will bring together excellent young students and familiarize them with FAIR/GSI and JINR research and technologies. As the experiences from the existing offers show, students and lecturers highly appreciate this multidisciplinary structure.

The International FAIR/GSI-JINR School combines excellent pedagogical lectures given by international GSI, FAIR, and JINR experts with workshop sessions where the students will solve problems and tackle projects in the presence of the lecturers. Participants are selected based on individual applications and recommendation letters by their scientific supervisors. The focus will lie also on getting a good mix of nationalities in order to foster consistently more international collaboration. The offer aims at PhD students, who will be able to gain concentrated experience in small groups with direct feedback from their supervisors and will get a full overview far beyond their own field of research.

Professor Giubellino stressed, “This, together with the very open discussion culture of the event, leads to discussions across the border of research groups, disciplines and countries. We jointly promote new talents, bring together young people from all over the world and even in COVID times go forward in a focused way building the future”.

In their agreement, the two partner institutions emphasize, “Especially in today’s environment of a more and more global world, the competence to discuss, collaborate and cooperate within international teams will become increasingly more important. The community of scientists always has been on the forefront of global partnership and will continue to do so”. The "International Joint FAIR/GSI-JINR School" will make an important contribution to this. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3722 Mon, 30 Nov 2020 08:42:00 +0100 Lecture series „Wissenschaft für Alle“ by GSI and FAIR goes digital https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3722&cHash=b7f8f9d3e63f2b83e6918fba78033ebf As part of corona prevention, GSI and FAIR decided in March to suspend the lectures of the series “Wissenschaft für Alle” until further notice. Since the lecture events can still not be held on the campus, a digital offer is now taking their place. Starting December, the speakers will offer their lectures as video conferences. Interested parties can join in via a dial-in link using a web-enabled device. As part of corona prevention, GSI and FAIR decided in March to suspend the lectures of the series “Wissenschaft für Alle” until further notice. Since the lecture events can still not be held on the campus, a digital offer is now taking their place. Starting December, the speakers will offer their lectures as video conferences. Interested parties can join in via a dial-in link using a web-enabled device such as a laptop, smartphone or tablet.

As a prelude, Professor Thomas Walther of the Technical University of Darmstadt with his lecture “Das ‚Quanten‘ in Quantenkryptographie – na und?” will report on the use of quantum mechanical effects as a component of cryptographic procedures. Further lectures in the first half of 2021 will then focus on space: Astronaut Thomas Reiter (ESA) will report on the exploration of space. So not only the "universe in the laboratory" in the experiments at FAIR, GSI and at ALICE at the research center CERN, but also the moon and gravitational waves will be the subject of the lectures. A short topical excursion leads into the cold and to superconductivity for FAIR's accelerator magnets.

The lectures start at 2 p. m., further information about access and the course of the event can be found on the event website at www.gsi.de/wfa

The lecture series “Wissenschaft für Alle” is aimed at all persons interested in current science and research. The lectures report on research and developments at GSI and FAIR, but also on current topics from other fields of science and technology. The aim of the series is to prepare and present the scientific processes in a way that is understandable for laypersons in order to make the research accessible to a broad public. The lectures are held by GSI and FAIR staff members or by external speakers from universities and research institutes. (CP)

Further information

Website of lecture series "Wissenschaft für Alle" (German)

Current program
  • Wednesday, 9.12.2020, 2 p.m.
    Das ‚Quanten‘ in Quantenkryptographie – na und?
    Thomas Walther, Technische Universität Darmstadt
     
  • Wednesday, 20.01.2021, 2 p.m.
    Das Weltall im Labor – Kosmische Strahlung am Teilchenbeschleuniger und Strahlenschutz für Astronauten
    Ulrich Weber, GSI
     
  • Wednesday, 24.02.2021, 2 p.m.
    Was uns elektromagnetische Strahlung über den Zustand sichtbarer Materie unter extremen Bedingungen verrät
    Tetyana Galatyuk, GSI/ Technische Universität Darmstadt
     
  • Wednesday, 17.03.2021, 2 p.m.
    Die Bedeutung des Mondes – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Snoopy
    Marc Hempel, Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY
     
  • Wednesday, 21.04.2021, 2 p.m.
    Exploration des Weltraums – Aktuelle Höhepunkte und zukünftige Entwicklungen
    Thomas Reiter, European Space Agency ESA
     
  • Wednesday, 12.05.2021, 2 p.m.
    Kühlschrankmagnete mal anders: die supraleitende Teilchenoptik von FAIR (mit einem Vorwort von Hans Christian Oerstedt)
    Christian Roux, GSI
     
  • Wednesday, 16.06.2021, 2 p.m.
    Mit Gravitationswellen das Universum belauschen
    Andreas Bauswein, GSI
     
  • Wednesday, 14.07.2021, 2 p.m.
    Eine Reise zum Urknall – Untersuchung von Schwerionenkollisionen mit dem ALICE-Experiment
    Ralf Averbeck, GSI
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Presse Aktuelles
news-3720 Fri, 27 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100 PANDA Collaboration honors PhD: Theory Prize for Dr. Antoni Woss https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3720&cHash=53ab2cfa408eebc6fe153aadd5374fa2 Dr. Antoni Woss has been honoured with the PANDA Theory PhD Prize 2020 for his doctoral thesis at the University of Cambridge. The award was presented at the most recent Online PANDA Collaboration Meeting. Physicist Antoni Woss received the prize of €200 and a certificate for her dissertation titled "The scattering of spinning hadrons from lattice QCD". Dr. Antoni Woss has been honoured with the PANDA Theory PhD Prize 2020 for his doctoral thesis at the University of Cambridge. The award was presented at the most recent Online PANDA Collaboration Meeting. Physicist Antoni Woss received the prize of €200 and a certificate for her dissertation titled "The scattering of spinning hadrons from lattice QCD". His doctoral advisor was Professor Dr. Christopher Thomas from the University of Cambridge.

The PANDA Collaboration has awarded the Theory PhD Prize for the second time in order to honor the best theory dissertation written in connection with the PANDA Experiment and its science program. PANDA will be one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR. The experiment focuses on antimatter research as well as on various topics related to the weak and the strong force, exotic states of matter, and the structure of hadrons. More than 450 scientists from 18 countries currently work in the PANDA Collaboration. In his dissertation, Dr. Woss developed and then applied state-of-the-art lattice QCD methods to determine precisely the properties and interactions of hadronic resonances - a very important topic for the PANDA physics program. Candidates for the Prize are nominated by their doctoral advisors.

In addition to being directly related to the PANDA Experiment, the nominees’ doctoral degrees must have received a rating of “very good” or better. Up to three candidates are shortlisted for the award and can present their dissertations at the PANDA Collaboration meeting. The winner is chosen by a committee that is appointed for this task by the PANDA Collaboration. The PANDA Collaboration awards the Theory PhD Prize to specifically honor students’ contributions to the PANDA project and to highlight the importance of cooperation with theory groups. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3716 Wed, 25 Nov 2020 08:22:00 +0100 Expedition to the world of elementary particles — Virtual Masterclass with GSI/FAIR at Schuldorf Bergstraße https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3716&cHash=8f257e6f5425f4240a9a1fb7a8f5ea49 How was the universe created? What are we made of? What does the "world machine" at CERN investigate? These were the questions that science enthusiasts were able to pursue during the “Week of the Particle World” (Woche der Teilchenwelt) from November 2 to 8, 2020. All over Germany, the locations of Netzwerk Teilchenwelt invited visitors to explore research in the field of particle and astroparticle physics. GSI and FAIR also took part in an online Masterclass. How was the universe created? What are we made of? What does the "world machine" at CERN investigate? These were the questions that science enthusiasts were able to pursue during the “Week of the Particle World” (Woche der Teilchenwelt) from November 2 to 8, 2020. All over Germany, the locations of Netzwerk Teilchenwelt invited visitors to explore research in the field of particle and astroparticle physics. GSI and FAIR also took part in an online Masterclass for the analysis of measurement data from the CERN experiment ALICE, which was conducted together with the “AG MINT-Zentrum” at the school Schuldorf Bergstraße.

30 science locations, including GSI and FAIR, have joined forces to form the Netzwerk Teilchenwelt (engl. Network Particle World). For this year's tenth anniversary of the network, the participating research institutions combined a particularly large number of events and presented the entire spectrum of research — from Higgs particles and neutrinos to black holes and supernovae as gigantic particle catapults.

GSI and FAIR participated in an online Masterclass on November 5 and 6 to analyze measurement data from particle collisions of the ALICE experiment. Seven students of the AG MINT-Zentrum at Schuldorf Bergstraße took part in the virtual event. In addition to data analysis, the program included an exchange with other Masterclass groups via video conference as well as a virtual tour of the ALICE experimental site. ALICE is one of CERN's four large-scale experiments and in particular investigates heavy-ion collisions of lead atomic nuclei. From the very beginning GSI has played a major role in the construction and operation of ALICE.

About 200 researchers are active in Netzwerk Teilchenwelt. Their aim is to inspire young people and teachers with their enthusiasm for particle physics and to get them excited about MINT subjects. To this end, they offer project days in schools, student laboratories or museums throughout the year. As particle physicists, the young people can spend a day analyzing real data from CERN, tracking down particles from outer space or discussing the origins and structure of the universe with scientists. Workshops and project weeks for particularly interested students take place at CERN in Geneva and at research institutes in Germany.

The “Week of the Particle World” is part of the anniversary program of the German Physical Society (DPG). The world's largest physics society is the patron of Netzwerk Teilchenwelt and this year is looking back on 175 years of activity. The “Week of the Particle World” is supported by the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation.

Netzwerk Teilchenwelt is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) as part of the project KONTAKT (Communication, Attraction of Young Scientists and Participation of the General Public in Knowledge in the Field of Smallest Particles). The project management is at the TU Dresden. (Netzwerk Teilchenwelt/CP)

Further information
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3718 Mon, 23 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100 Two young researchers receive Christoph Schmelzer Award 2020 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3718&cHash=524028a554095fe2bf6df3e08dd50fb0 This year, the Christoph Schmelzer Award goes to two young female scientists: The medical physicist Dr. Alina Bendinger from the German Cancer Research Center DKFZ Heidelberg and the engineer Dr. Giorgia Meschini from the biomedical department of the State Polytechnic University in Milan (Politecnico di Milano) receive the prize in recognition of their doctoral theses. With this award, the Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions e.V. annually honors outstanding master's and doctoral This year, the Christoph Schmelzer Award goes to two young female scientists: The medical physicist Dr. Alina Bendinger from the German Cancer Research Center DKFZ Heidelberg and the engineer Dr. Giorgia Meschini from the biomedical department of the State Polytechnic University in Milan (Politecnico di Milano) receive the prize in recognition of their doctoral theses. With this award, the Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions e.V. annually honors outstanding master's and doctoral theses in the field of tumor therapy with ion beams. The traditional award ceremony on the GSI/FAIR campus in Darmstadt was postponed until next year due to current restrictions.

In her dissertation at DKFZ Heidelberg, Dr. Alina Bendinger established various imaging techniques to characterize the oxygenation status in experimental tumors and to quantify their response to irradiation with carbon ions in comparison to photons. The oxygen supply of tumors is of great importance, since an oxygen deficiency, which often prevails in tumors, makes the cancer resistant to radiation therapy. Dr. Bendinger has contributed decisive methodological improvements. For example, she has extended the evaluation of photoacoustic imaging from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional procedure. This allows a substantially improved characterization of the heterogeneity of oxygen supply in tumors. In addition, she has developed a new method to improve the dynamic, contrast-agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and validated it with extensive simulations. The results obtained with the new imaging methods have also been validated by extensive histological examinations.

In her doctoral thesis, Dr. Giorgia Meschini has developed sophisticated, model-based strategies for the analysis of respiration-induced movements in particle therapy. These movements can lead to undesired distortions of the dose distribution, which need to be taken into account in treatment planning and compensated by appropriate mitigation procedures. For this purpose, Dr. Meschini used the time-resolved 4D magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) method to convert movement information into virtual 4D computed tomography (4D-CT) data using a special procedure. The 4D-CT is the basis for the precise determination of the range of ion beams inside the body during the various phases of respiration or movement. Furthermore, she has developed modeling approaches that allow the estimation of respiratory movements even at times that are not explicitly captured by the imaging procedures. This allows in particular the analysis of irregular respiratory processes. Finally, Dr. Meschini used these approaches to investigate the effects of respiratory movement on dose distribution and proposed an improved definition of the target volume, which leads to a greater robustness of irradiation plans with respect to movement artifacts.

The prize money is 1500 Euro each. The promotion of young scientists in the field of tumor therapy with ion beams has meanwhile been continuing for many years, and the award, named after Professor Christoph Schmelzer, the co-founder and first Scientific Director of GSI, was presented for the 22nd time. The topics of the award-winning theses are of fundamental importance for the further development of ion beam therapy and often find their way into clinical application.

The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy supports research activities in the field of tumor therapy with heavy ions with the aim of improving the treatment of tumors and making it available to general patient care. At the accelerator facility at GSI, more than 400 patients with tumors in the head and neck area were treated with ion beams as part of a pilot project from 1997 to 2008. The cure rates of this method are sometimes over 90 percent and the side effects are very low. The success of the pilot project led to the establishment of clinical ion beam therapy centers in Heidelberg and Marburg, where patients are now regularly treated with heavy ions. (BP)

Further information

Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions e.V.

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3714 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 12:30:00 +0100 Saturday Morning Physics 2020 — Virtual event with GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3714&cHash=e166a08cc911b06b41a9f7a5d2296ef6 The popular event series “Saturday Morning Physics” was also held in 2020, but due to the corona pandemic in a purely virtual format. Around 200 high-school students from all over the State of Hesse took the opportunity to participate and gain exciting insights into current physics research. The long-standing series organized by the Technical University of Darmstadt also included the traditional visit of GSI and FAIR on November 21, 2020, this time, however, on video. The popular event series “Saturday Morning Physics” was also held in 2020, but due to the corona pandemic in a purely virtual format. Around 200 high-school students from all over the State of Hesse took the opportunity to participate and gain exciting insights into current physics research. The long-standing series organized by the Technical University of Darmstadt also included the traditional visit of GSI and FAIR on November 21, 2020, this time, however, on video.

On four dates this year, the participants attended the lectures of “Saturday Morning Physics” via video conference. Today, they had the opportunity to learn more abut the facilities and research at GSI and to gain an insight into the construction of components and buildings for the future international research facility FAIR. After a short introductory lecture, they were taken via a guided video tour to the linear accelerator UNILAC, the main control room, the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18, the storage ring ESR, the tumor therapy and the large-scale experiment HADES. There was also a virtual visit to the test facility for superconducting FAIR magnets and to the viewpoint of the FAIR construction site. A drone flight over the construction site rounded off the event. Questions and comments could be submitted via a chat function and answered live, which was very well received by the students.

The event series “Saturday Morning Physics” is a project of the Physics Faculty of the TU Darmstadt. It takes place annually and aims to strengthen the interest of young people in physics. In lectures and experiments on consecutive Saturdays, the students learn about current developments in physics research at the university. Those who take part in all events receive the “Saturday Morning  Physics” diploma. GSI has been one of the sponsors and supporters of the project since the start of the event series. (CP)

Further information
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3712 Thu, 19 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100 Laser physicist Dr. Jan Rothhardt from the Helmholtz Institute Jena receives Röntgen Prize https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3712&cHash=9a03a7f7f9cdf3fd7d7f91422070060e The laser physicist Dr. Jan Rothhardt from the Helmholtz Institute Jena (HI Jena), an institute of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, located on the campus of the Friedrich Schiller University (FSU) Jena, receives the renowned Röntgen Prize. The prize will be awarded during the digital academic ceremony of the Justus-Liebig-University Gießen. The 39-year-old leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigator Group, who works at HI Jena and the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, receives the award The laser physicist Dr. Jan Rothhardt from the Helmholtz Institute Jena (HI Jena), an institute of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, located on the campus of the Friedrich Schiller University (FSU) Jena, receives the renowned Röntgen Prize. The prize will be awarded during the digital academic ceremony of the Justus-Liebig-University Gießen. The 39-year-old leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigator Group, who works at HI Jena and the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, receives the award in recognition of his outstanding contributions in the field of laser technology, in particular for the development and application of laser sources for extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and soft X-ray radiation.

Dr. Jan Rothhardt intensively conducts research in applications of these laser systems and was able to show both mathematically and experimentally for the first time that efficient conversion into the XUV spectral range is also possible with high-power lasers of high pulse repetition frequency. The XUV sources developed by him were already successfully used for high-resolution lensless imaging processes. In addition to applications in nanotechnology, these methods in future should also be able to track ultra-fast processes on the nanoscale, which are the basis of future data memories.

Furthermore, the new XUV sources will enable worldwide unique laser spectroscopy experiments on heavy ion storage rings. Quantum electrodynamics (QED), relativistic effects, but also nuclear properties and ultrafast processes are at the center of these interdisciplinary experiments. First pioneering experiments were already realized at the CRYRING in Darmstadt. CRYRING is one of the storage rings in the unique portfolio of traps and storage facilities for heavy ions of the future accelerator center FAIR, currently under construction at GSI.

Dr. Rothhardt studied physics in Jena and received his doctorate in 2011. Since 2014, the internationally renowned laser physicist is leader of a junior research group at the Helmholtz Institute Jena and author and co-author of almost 70 publications in scientific journals. He regularly receives excellent student evaluations for his lectures and seminars at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena. In addition, he is engaged in inspiring school students for laser technology with a special experimental lecture at schools.

In memory of Nobel Prize winner Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who was a professor in Giessen from 1879 to 1888, Justus Liebig University Giessen (JLU) has been awarding the renowned Röntgen Prize since 1960. It is endowed with prize money of € 15,000, which is jointly donated by Pfeiffer Vacuum and the Ludwig Schunk Foundation. This year there will be a "hands-on" prize for the first time: To mark the Röntgen Year, JLU and the founders initiated the production of a miniature of the famous Gießen Röntgen monument.

JLU traditionally gives the Röntgen Prize winners the opportunity to present their research area in a public lecture event on the eve of the Academic Ceremony. Due to the corona pandemic, the prizewinner will not travel to Gießen this year. The Röntgen lecture with the title "High-resolution lensless microscopy with extreme ultraviolet radiation" will take place on Thursday, November 26, 2020, as a Webex stream. At the digital academic ceremony on the following Friday, November 27, Dr. Rothhardt will be connected via video. (BP)

Dates

Röntgen lecture (digital): Thursday, November 26, 2020, 6 p.m. via Webex Meeting identification number/access code: 174 043 9232, Meeting passwort: uvUbY3Fqz53

Akademic ceremony with award ceremony (digital): Friday, November 27, 2020, 10.30 a.m. via Livestream

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3708 Mon, 16 Nov 2020 12:27:00 +0100 Understanding astrophysics with laser-accelerated protons https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3708&cHash=e7340d0ddb51ad2b434a7e8f277bbb9a Bringing huge amounts of protons up to speed in the shortest distance in fractions of a second — that's what laser acceleration technology, greatly improved in recent years, can do. An international research team has succeeded in using protons accelerated with the GSI high-power laser PHELIX to split other nuclei and to analyze them. The results could provide new insights into astrophysical processes. Bringing huge amounts of protons up to speed in the shortest distance in fractions of a second — that's what laser acceleration technology, greatly improved in recent years, can do. An international research team from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a branch of GSI, in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, has succeeded in using protons accelerated with the GSI high-power laser PHELIX to split other nuclei and to analyze them. The results have now been published in the journal Scientific Reports of Nature Research and could provide new insights into astrophysical processes.

For less than one picosecond (one trillionth of a second), the PHELIX laser shines its extremely intense light pulse onto a very thin gold foil. This is enough to eject about one trillion hydrogen nuclei (protons), which are only slightly attached to the gold, from the back-surface of the foil, and accelerate them to high energies. "Such a large number of protons in such a short period of time cannot be achieved with standard acceleration techniques," explains Pascal Boller, who is researching laser acceleration in the GSI research department Plasma Physics/PHELIX as part of his graduate studies. "With this technology, completely new research areas can be opened that were previously inaccessible".

These include the generation of nuclear fission reactions. For this purpose, the researchers let the freshly generated fast protons impinge on uranium material samples. Uranium was chosen as a case study material because of its large reaction cross-section and the availability of published data for benchmarking purposes. The samples have to be close to the proton production to guarantee a maximum yield of reactions. The protons generated by the PHELIX laser are fast enough to induce the fission of uranium nuclei into smaller fission products, which remain then to be identified and measured. However, the laser impact has unwanted side effects: It generates a strong electromagnetic pulse and a gammy-ray flash that interfere with the sensitive measuring instruments used for this detection.

At this stage, the researchers are assisted by the expertise of another GSI research group. For the chemical investigation of superheavy elements, a transport system has been in use for quite some time that can transport the desired particles over long distances from the reaction area to the detector. The reaction chamber is flushed through by a gas which — in the case of fission experiments — carries the fission products with it and, within only a few seconds, transports them via small plastic tubes to the measuring apparatus, which is now several meters away. In this way, generation and measurement can be spatially separated and interference can be prevented.

For the first time, it was possible in the experiments to combine the two techniques and thus to generate a variety of cesium, xenon and iodine isotopes via the fission of uranium, to reliably identify them via their emitted gamma radiation and to observe their short life time. This provides a methodology for studying fission reactions in high-density plasma-state matter. Comparable conditions can be found, for example, in space inside stars, stellar explosions or neutron star mergers. "Understanding the reaction processes of nuclei interacting with each other in plasma can give us insights into the origin of atomic nuclei, the so-called nucleosynthesis, in our universe. Nucleosynthesis processes such as s-process or r-process take place in exactly such media," explains Boller. "The role fission reactions play in these processes has not yet been researched in detail. Here, the laser-accelerated protons can provide new information".

Further measurements with the methods are planned for future experiments of the PHELIX laser at GSI as well as at other research centers around the world. The investigation of highly dense matter with ion and laser beams will also be one of the topics pursued at the future research facility FAIR. FAIR is currently being built at GSI in international cooperation. With its motto "The Universe in the Laboratory", it is intended to reproduce conditions as they occur in astrophysical environments on Earth, thus expanding the knowledge about our cosmos. (CP)

Further information
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Presse Aktuelles
news-3710 Mon, 16 Nov 2020 11:36:19 +0100 GSI and FAIR support "Your story counts” https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3710&cHash=49485120e0d1d0c1aa45d309d1961a2f On the campus of GSI and FAIR, one of the symbolic desks of the campaign "Your story counts" is located. They are supposed to raise attention in the district of Darmstadt-Dieburg for the topic of violence against women. The campaign which was initiated on the occasion of Women's Day 2020 is supported by Frauen helfen Frauen e.V., the women's home Notwaende and "Mäander - individuelle Jugendhilfe". On the campus of GSI and FAIR, one of the symbolic desks of the campaign "Your story counts" is located. They are supposed to raise attention in the district of Darmstadt-Dieburg for the topic of violence against women. The campaign which was initiated on the occasion of Women's Day 2020 is supported by Frauen helfen Frauen e.V., the women's home Notwaende and "Mäander - individuelle Jugendhilfe".

These days, symbolic desks can be seen at various locations in the Darmstadt-Dieburg district as part of the campaign "Your story counts - Letters against violence against women". They encourage people who experienced violence against women and girls to write down their story. On the campus of GSI and FAIR a desk with a mailbox is located until 18 December 2020. "We want to create awareness that violence against women happens everywhere and at all times and that behind every experience of violence there is an individual story and thus also a fate. The desk should attract attention and sharpen the view for everyday aggression and violence," says the equal opportunities committee of GSI and FAIR.

The campaign is supported by Frauen helfen Frauen e.V., the women's home Notwaende and "Mäander - individuelle Jugendhilfe". The project was inspired by the action "Cartas de Mujeres" from Quito in Ecuador, where many thousands of women addressed politics with letters and messages. The letters received at the desks in Darmstadt-Dieburg are treated in strict confidence and are only read and evaluated by employees of the project cooperation. For Women's Day 2021, the results are to be brought to public space through art initiatives. Ideas and demands to politicians are to be passed on to the local political committees. The goal is to reach as many people as possible with the campaign "Your story counts" and to initiate changes. (LW)

More Information

"Your story counts" (German only)

 

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3702 Fri, 13 Nov 2020 09:03:00 +0100 Verification of treatment plans in tumor therapy https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3702&cHash=c9b929959d0a78b5bbcab8e5234002ca In the tumor therapy with ion beams developed by GSI, so-called treatment plans are prepared prior to the treatment of individuals. Their validity is checked on models to guarantee a correct and safe procedure. The investigation of a new test option has now been published in the scientific journal "Physics in Medicine and Biology". What’s special about this: Dea Aulia Kartini and Gianmarco Camazzola, GET_INvolved participant and summer student at GSI and FAIR, are among the authors. In the tumor therapy with ion beams developed by GSI as well as in other radiation therapies, so-called treatment plans are prepared prior to the treatment of individuals. Their validity is checked on models to guarantee a correct and safe procedure. The investigation of a new test option has now been published in the scientific journal "Physics in Medicine and Biology". What’s special about this: Dea Aulia Kartini and Gianmarco Camazzola, GET_INvolved participant and summer student at GSI and FAIR, are among the authors of the publication.

Treatment plans for radiotherapy are calculated with special software. So-called phantoms are used to verify the plans. They can consist simply of water or be prepared cell cultures which are irradiated under the same conditions under which the therapy is to be performed on humans. Subsequently, it is checked how many of the cells have survived where in the cultures. This allows to assess whether the treatment plan has been optimized in the best possible way. In research, they are especially relevant to test new treatment planning strategies or optimizations before they are applied in the clinical environment. Until now, phantoms from monolayered cell cultures have been used for this purpose. The new technique makes it possible to irradiate three-dimensional cell volumes.

“Instead of allowing the cells to grow flat, we place them into three-dimensional containers. For this we use multiwell plates, a standard accessory from laboratory supplies, with 96 wells — these are the small indentations that are on the plates,” explains Dea Aulia Kartini, who is in charge of the experiment. “They are first filled with a layer of a substance called Matrigel, then with an added cell and Matrigel mixture, and then sealed again with another layer of Matrigel. In this way we make sure that there really is a volume of cells inside”. Kartini, who originally comes from Indonesia and is studying in Thailand, is currently writing her PhD thesis and this is her third visit to GSI and FAIR in the framework of the GET_INvolved Programme. The program promotes international exchange for students and researchers and supports their education and career.

“Our experiments show that the new phantoms work flawlessly and could improve the verification of treatment plans in the future", Kartini adds. Further experiments with 3D phantoms are planned in the near future both at GSI and in cooperation with the Marburger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum MIT.

The publication also features the name of Gianmarco Camazzola, who came to GSI and FAIR in 2019 as part of the Summer Student Program, where he spent eight weeks gaining insight into the research of the Biophysics Department. The Summer Student Program is aimed at international students before graduation and allows them to get a taste of the research at GSI and FAIR independently from the universities. During his stay, he mainly worked on software modeling for the experiments at the 3D phantoms. Currently he has also returned to the GSI/FAIR campus within the GET_INvolved Programme. The publication clearly shows the success and the importance of the student and scientific exchange programs, which give the participants an early insight and entry into the research community. (CP)

Weitere Informationen
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3706 Wed, 11 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100 Dr. Walter Ikegami Andersson receives the PhD Award of the PANDA Collaboration https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3706&cHash=279f499af115e76565103fd32a7c3821 Dr. Walter Ikegami Andersson has received the PANDA PhD Prize 2020 for his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the University Uppsala. The award was announced by the spokesperson of the PANDA Collaboration, Klaus Peters from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum, at the most recent Online PANDA Collaboration meeting. Dr. Walter Ikegami Andersson has received the PANDA PhD Prize 2020 for his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the University Uppsala. The award was announced by the spokesperson of the PANDA Collaboration, Klaus Peters from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum, at the most recent Online PANDA Collaboration meeting.

Physicist Walter Ikegami Andersson received the prize of €200 and a certificate for his dissertation titled "Exploring the Merits and Challenges of Hyperon Physics with PANDA at FAIR". His doctoral advisor was Professor Dr. Karin Schönning from the Uppsala University.

The Panda Collaboration has awarded the PhD Prize once per year since 2013 in order to honor the best dissertation written in connection with the PANDA experiment. PANDA will be one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR. The experiment focuses on antimatter research as well as on various topics related to the weak and the strong force, exotic states of matter, and the structure of hadrons. More than 450 scientists from 18 countries currently work in the PANDA Collaboration. In his dissertation, Dr. Andersson studied the production and study of hyperons - baryons with at least one strange quark - which is an important research program at the PANDA detector, which is being built at the FAIR accelerator facility.

Candidates for the PhD Prize are nominated by their doctoral advisors. In addition to being directly related to the PANDA Experiment, the nominees’ doctoral degrees must have received a rating of “very good” or better. Up to three candidates are shortlisted for the award and can present their dissertations at the PANDA Collaboration meeting. The winner is chosen by a committee that is appointed for this task by the PANDA Collaboration. The PANDA Collaboration awards the PhD Prize to specifically honor students’ contributions to the PANDA project. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3703 Mon, 09 Nov 2020 09:24:27 +0100 Perspectives of tumor treatment: Researchers investigate combination of carbon ion and immunotherapy https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3703&cHash=70f0bd3b26b5b3e2f52ee5441448578e It is still a glance into the future: The combination of carbon ion and immune therapy could become an effective tool in the fight against cancer. Promising results for the potential benefit of this treatment combination have now been published in the renowned radiation therapy journal "International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics" of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). The authors are an international team of researchers, led by the Department of Biophysics at It is still a glance into the future: The combination of carbon ion and immune therapy could become an effective tool in the fight against cancer. Promising results for the potential benefit of this treatment combination have now been published in the renowned radiation therapy journal "International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics" of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). The authors are an international team of researchers, led by the Department of Biophysics at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, and including the Parthenope University of Naples and the Japanese National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS-QST) in Chiba.

Even though the results are only preclinical and the way to clinical application is still long, the current findings point into a promising direction: It was shown that carbon ions, as used in the cancer therapy developed at GSI, can be very effective when used in combination with specific molecules, called checkpoint blockers, that stimulate the immune system against the tumor metastases.

The aim of the published research work was to compare the efficacy of conventional radiation therapy (high-energy X-rays) and carbon ion therapy in combination with immunotherapy. The immune system plays an important role in the prevention of cancer. Usually, it recognizes degenerated cells and can “sort them out". At the same time, it is equipped with highly complex control mechanisms to avoid overreactions. This is exactly what cancer cells can sometimes use to their advantage and to down-regulate immune surveillance. They disappear from the radar, so to speak. Immunotherapy can reactivate the immune system in the fight against cancer. It is now frequently used for advanced malignancies and metastatic patients, but unfortunately is effective only in some tumor types.

In the other cases, conventional radiation therapy is added as a second component, which under certain conditions can release such brakes on the immune system. The radiation-induced triggering of an immune response and its amplification by immunotherapy can lead to good results especially in the control of metastases, such as a slowdown of growth. But only parts of the patients respond to this combination of therapies.

Can radiotherapy with carbon ions, which was developed very successfully at GSI and is now in clinical application in Heidelberg and Marburg and in other nine centers worldwide, for certain types of tumors, open up new perspectives and help to control metastasis? It is possible that this form of therapy is more immunogenic, i.e. it could trigger an even stronger immune response than conventional radiation therapy and, together with immunotherapy, might result in more patients responding to this therapy combination. Based on such considerations, the team with lead author Dr. Alexander Helm (GSI) in the current experiment, conducted at the accelerator in Chiba, Japan, for the first time has directly compared carbon ions with conventional X-rays in a mouse model.

In the control of the primary tumor (here osteosarcoma, a bone tumor), carbon ions and X-rays, each combined with immunotherapy, produced similar results. However, when looking at the growth of metastases, the results show that metastases are significantly reduced if the primary tumor is treated with carbon ion radiation and a following immunotherapy. The researchers were able to demonstrate that carbon ions plus immunotherapy is more effective in controlling lung metastases than both therapies alone and more effective than X-rays plus immunotherapy.

In order to better assess this potential, further research has to be conducted and finally, together with international partners, the application in clinical studies must be tested. Professor Marco Durante, head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department, explained the future research: “At GSI/FAIR, the focus of our research is on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that trigger a strong immune response. The goal is to answer the central question: How should irradiation be applied to achieve the most efficient, the best immune response in the fight against cancer.”

The possibilities of combining cutting-edge molecular biology with high-energy heavy ion physics at the GSI/FAIR campus and the future accelerator center FAIR promise unique scientific knowledge. The Scientific Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, emphasized "The present results show the great potential of carbon ion therapy, which is far from being exhausted. Together with our national and international partners, we will continue to conduct research on this highly relevant topic in the coming years. The first stage of the FAIR experimental program, FAIR Phase 0, already offers outstanding opportunities in this field". (BP)

Further information

Scientific publication in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3700 Fri, 06 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100 Next steps for the FAIR ring accelerator: From production to installation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3700&cHash=e77f6a5c86d02d3bbd1012c1f938f9f9 The next decisive milestones for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 are set: While the structural work on the construction site is progressing and the development and production of the high-tech components for the future FAIR accelerator center is running simultaneously, another crucial aspect is now moving more and more into focus: the assembly of the accelerator machine in the new buildings. The next decisive milestones for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 are set: While the structural work on the construction site is progressing and the development and production of the high-tech components for the future FAIR accelerator center is running simultaneously, another crucial aspect is now moving more and more into focus: the assembly of the accelerator machine in the new buildings.

Although the current focus is still on the procurement of accelerator components, the first important steps towards machine assembly are currently being taken. The SIS100/SIS18 project group, consisting of the work package leaders, representatives of international providers and the subproject management, had placed their latest three-day closed meeting under the motto "From production to installation". Representatives of the new subproject "Site Management SMG" were also involved with the aim of jointly preparing the next phase of the project realization.

In which sequences should the installation of the machine take place? What is the best sequence for assembling the accelerator components? How will the heavy parts be moved to their correct position in the new buildings? These are just a few of the questions to be answered with high precision. The focus is on the production of ready-to-install assemblies, the construction and testing of a complete SIS100 unit cell consisting of two dipole, two quadrupole and several correction magnets, the development of transport and lifting equipment and the consideration of technology-specific boundary conditions when defining installation sequences. In addition, other important milestones such as the completion of the technical building services (TGA), the completion of central facilities, the delivery dates and the readiness for installation of all accelerator components must be included in the planning.

Special attention is given to cryogenics. The ring accelerator SIS100 requires superconducting magnets to guide the extremely fast particles. Superconductivity can only be achieved with sophisticated cryotechnology: It has to constantly maintain a cryogenic temperature of -268.6 °C throughout the SIS100 ring system, which is required for operation.

The installation of such cryogenic systems, cryomagnetic modules and local cryogenics requires special quality assurance measures. European directives must be complied with, for example the Pressure Equipment Directive, which is applied to numerous work steps.

Therefore, the recent meeting of the project group and the new subproject also discussed ways to efficiently exploit the extended installation phase of cryogenic systems by starting the hardware commissioning of warm systems in parallel. Efficient planning for the installation and commissioning of the individual technical systems is a precondition for timely cold commissioning, as well as for the commissioning of the main power supply in conjunction with the then superconducting magnetic chain.

Overall, these complex plans are driven by a decisive goal: the realization of a first pilot beam through SIS100, the heart of the future FAIR accelerator center. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3694 Tue, 03 Nov 2020 08:42:00 +0100 Research during corona crisis — Successful experiment program of FAIR Phase 0 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3694&cHash=6b8515e68bc8918cdac24313b5cf0164 Very successful experiments, high-quality ion beams for research — the current experiment period on the GSI and FAIR campus has ended with a positive outcome despite the corona pandemic. At the existing accelerator facility researchers were able to conduct experiments with a wide variety of ion beams on numerous topics. This opened the way for new discoveries and excellent research opportunities in the future. Very successful experiments, high-quality ion beams for research — the current experiment period on the GSI and FAIR campus has ended with a positive outcome  despite the corona pandemic. At the existing accelerator facility researchers were able to conduct experiments with a wide variety of ion beams on numerous topics. This opened the way for new discoveries and excellent research opportunities in the future. Scientific operations at the modernised accelerators are part of the FAIR experimental program, the so-called "FAIR Phase 0", which already offers outstanding experimental opportunities while FAIR is still under construction.

Although the experimental program had to be restricted from March 2020 onwards due to the corona pandemic, operation could be partially continued under strict regulations according with the official requirements. Approximately two thirds of the planned experiments could be conducted. Scientists from all over the world, who usually come to the campus for the experiments, were no longer able to travel from that date. However, they supported the research program and the GSI/FAIR staff on site with advice and assistance remotely wherever possible.

In addition to the GSI facilities UNILAC (linear accelerator), SIS18 (ring accelerator), FRS (fragment separator) and ESR (experimental storage ring) as well as the existing experiment setups and the Petawatt high energy laser PHELIX, FAIR developments and detectors, measuring apparatus and other high-tech facilites specially manufactured for FAIR could already be used. Additionally, the commissioning of the first FAIR storage ring CRYRING has progressed to the point, where it is now ready for scientific experiments. Thus, the current FAIR Phase 0 scientific program already represents a major step towards future research at FAIR.

The experiments dealt with topics from a wide range of scientific disciplines, from medicine and materials research to the properties of superheavy elements and the complex structure of short-lived isotopes that play a role in element synthesis in the universe.

In a biophysics experiment, for example, it was shown for the first time that it is possible to use carbon beams to create conditions that are necessary for a so-called FLASH therapy of tumors. In FLASH therapy, a very high dose is applied in a very short time (high dose rate). Studies with proton beams have shown that this technique  reduces damage to healthy tissue while maintaining the same level of effectiveness. Until now, FLASH therapy  has only been applicable using electron and proton accelerators. Thanks to the improvements at the GSI accelerator facility as part of the preparations for FAIR, the necessary dose rate of five billion ions per 200 milliseconds can now also be achieved for carbon.

Another field of research that benefits from the increased intensities of the GSI accelerators is the study of isotopes that play a role in the synthesis of elements in the universe. Light nuclei up to iron are produced by fusion reactions in stars, heavy elements possibly in explosions of massive stars at the end of their evolution (supernova explosions) or in the collision of neutron stars, extremely compact objects that unite the mass of up to two suns in a radius of a few kilometers. The actual synthesis of elements takes place via nuclear reactions of a multitude of mostly unstable nuclei along specific reaction paths. In a dedicated experiment, extremely neutron-rich nuclei were studied that could not be produced in an accelerator laboratory until now. Isotopes with mass numbers around 200 near the magic neutron number N=126 play a crucial role in the synthesis of even heavier nuclei. Several isotopes in this range have been detected for the first time and their properties determined, among them possibly 200-tungsten. This would be the first time that such a heavy nucleus could be produced in the laboratory, which is directly on one of the element synthesis pathways.

Another experiment with a similar objective was conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR using the entire accelerator chain of UNILAC, SIS18 and FRS. The importance of the bound beta decay of thallium in element formation processes has been emphasized in many scientific publications, and has now been measured for the first time.

The investigation of superheavy elements has been part of GSI's scientific portfolio for many years. In the nuclear reaction of 48Ca+244Pu (calcium and plutonium), among others, two flerovium isotopes are produced: 288Fl and 289Fl. Flerovium is an atomic nucleus with atomic number Z=114 and was first produced in 1999 in a research laboratory in Dubna. However, its nuclear structure is not yet fully understood, so the TASCA setup at GSI was used for the first time to measure alpha and photon emissions of flerovium isotopes in coincidence. In this experiment as many Flerovium isotopes were detected as in all experiments since the first detection of this nucleus.

While heavy nuclei are produced in stars, stellar explosions and the laboratory by nuclear reactions, on dust particles complex molecules are produced from simple organic ones by cosmic rays and are subsequently destroyed again. In an experiment of materials research, it could be shown that these destruction processes can be temperature-dependent and that higher temperatures possibly lead to a longer lifetime of complex molecules under the influence of cosmic radiation.

This is only a small excerpt of the scientific findings of the past experimental period. All in all, the "FAIR Phase 0" program allows a forward-looking combination of important tests of FAIR instrumentation on the one hand and high-quality experiments on the other. In this way, outstanding scientific results can be achieved and the FAIR community can be further developed. On the way to the commissioning of the FAIR accelerator center, further regular experimental periods at the existing and continuously modernized facilities are planned for the coming years. (BP/CP/YL)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3698 Mon, 02 Nov 2020 14:00:00 +0100 More than 37,000 kilometers: Again first place in the campaign City Cycling https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3698&cHash=8365fabaaae110fe6bd068294ccd67ab The cycling season is slowly coming to an ending, time for an annual balance: This year again, team GSI/FAIR has achieved a great success in city cycling campaign and has reached first place in the team ranking. A total mileage of 37,181 kilometers was covered. 142 employees from GSI, FAIR and externals participated in the campaign as team GSI/FAIR. The kilometers travelled avoided the emission of 5.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide. The cycling season is slowly coming to an ending, time for an annual balance: This year again, team GSI/FAIR has achieved a great success in city cycling campaign and has reached first place in the team ranking. A total mileage of 37,181 kilometers was covered. 142 employees from GSI, FAIR and externals participated in the campaign as team GSI/FAIR. The kilometers travelled avoided the emission of 5.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide. Second and third places were taken by "Merck fährt Rad" (36,919 kilometers) and the Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences (25,720 kilometers).

This year's result of team GSI/FAIR once again is a clear improvement on the very successful results of the last years: Already in 2019, the cyclists could reach the first place with also 142 participants and 35,049 covered kilometers. In 2018, there were 102 cyclists in the team, who had covered 25,766 kilometers, taking second place.

Traditionally, the winning prizes for the best teams and individual cyclists are presented by Barbara Akdeniz, head of the environment department of Darmstadt, during the bike action day on the market square in Darmstadt. Due to Corona, the event was cancelled this year.

More than 1980 people in 117 teams took part in the 21-day campaign in May and June. Overall, the previous year's result was significantly exceeded in Darmstadt: The participants covered a total of 420,000 kilometers, thus avoiding 62 tonnes of CO2 compared with driving a car. Environment department head Akdeniz expressed her delight that so many citizens took part in city cycling: “Our decision to run the city cycling this year in spring was a very conscious one. In addition to the possibility of being able to promote climate protection, quality of life and the mobility turnaround by participating in city cycling, cycling in times of Corona is also ideal for staying physically and mentally fit – of course within the scope of the currently valid regulations” (BP)

Further information

Website of the campaign City Cycling

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3696 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 16:28:48 +0100 Mainz University and GSI to play an important role in the EU-funded network of doctoral students for research on radioactive elements https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3696&cHash=c1b6e8831197d7b200478f9b9863d14e In the context of an international network funded by the European Union, scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) are participating in the education of young postgraduate students in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics and nuclear chemistry. The goal of this Innovative Training Network (ITN) on Laser Ionization and Spectroscopy of Actinide Elements (LISA) is to decipher the structure of actinides, i.e., the heavy, mostly short-live Joint press release by GSI, HIM and JGU

In the context of an international network funded by the European Union, scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) are participating in the education of young postgraduate students in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics and nuclear chemistry. The goal of this Innovative Training Network (ITN) on Laser Ionization and Spectroscopy of Actinide Elements (LISA) is to decipher the structure of actinides, i.e., the heavy, mostly short-lived elements at the bottom of the periodic table, and thus put in place the prerequisite for their future use in biomedical physics, in nuclear applications, and for environmental monitoring. Members of the consortium are some of the world's leading experts in fundamental atomic and nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry. The EU is supporting the LISA project for a period of four years with a total funding worth EUR 4 million.

LISA is coordinated by the CERN research center. As for Mainz University, Professor Christoph Düllmann and Professor Klaus Wendt are involved as is Professor Michael Block at GSI. "Of the 15 early-stage researchers being funded, six are expected to obtain their doctorates at JGU. We thus play a significant role within the new LISA network," said Professor Klaus Wendt. "Thanks to the highly effective collaboration between our nuclear chemistry and physics disciplines here at JGU with the Helmholtz Institute Mainz in the field of actinide research we are also expecting interesting and important results here." Wendt himself will supervise three doctoral students. This is the second time he has become involved in an EU training network.

EU Innovative Training Network (ITN) involving many national partners

In addition to the universities in Mainz, Hanover, Jena, Gothenburg in Sweden, and Leuven in Belgium, major research institutions such as CERN, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, the heavy ion accelerator Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) in France, and the accelerator facility in Jyväskylä in Finland are also participating in the ITN. There are also two commercial partners based in Kassel and Glasgow. Moreover, there are 12 other partner organizations from Canada all the way to Japan, who can contact the doctoral students for scientific exchange.

In the initial phase, Professor Christoph Düllmann's group at the JGU Department of Chemistry is to chemically purify exotic actinide isotopes that are available in sufficient quantities and are adequately stable. "We will develop techniques to then convert them to a form optimized for the intended experiments within the LISA network in Jyväskylä and at GANIL, also in Mainz and at GSI," explained Düllmann, head of the joint Superheavy Element Chemistry Group of JGU, GSI, and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM).

At GSI in Darmstadt, Professor Michael Block's group will be employing laser spectroscopy to study the heaviest actinides. These can only be produced artificially and are generally very short-lived. With the help of lasers, the optical excitation of energy levels in the elements' atomic shells will be measured in detail in order to determine their atomic and nuclear properties. "The ITN is an optimal research environment for doctoral candidates to systematically and comprehensively study these exotic actinides," said Block. The first candidate has already started her work at GSI this summer.

Manufacture and analysis of actinides using novel laser technologies

Uranium and plutonium are probably the best known actinides, but curium, einsteinium, fermium, and mendelevium also belong to this group of radioactive elements. They all are usually extremely unstable and at present can only be produced synthetically in research reactors or particle accelerators. Due to their short-lived nature, they still provide science with major puzzles. Researching them should therefore improve our understanding of their atomic and nuclear properties. Building on this, the LISA network intends to develop new laser technologies to be able to create and investigate actinides for the development of innovative applications. LISA will promote the coherent and symbiotic collaboration between the participants, which is intended to continue after the end of the project.

Due to the on-going coronavirus crisis, the doctoral students from abroad will not yet be able to begin their research in Germany. It is expected that one doctoral student from Poland and another doctoral student from Mexico, as well as candidates from Canada, UK, and the USA, who are all to be supervised in Mainz, will be able to start in late fall 2020. The team is currently planning an academic training session for all 15 doctoral students and other guests in Mainz in the fall of 2021. (JL)

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Aktuelles
news-3692 Tue, 27 Oct 2020 12:07:00 +0100 Now available: GSI and FAIR annual calendar for the year 2021 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3692&cHash=4385f7093ea652402424980ce91782b9 [Translate to English:] Der praktische Jahresplaner von GSI/FAIR erfreut sich seit vielen Jahren großer Beliebtheit. Darin sind alle gesetzlichen Feiertage und die Schulferien aufgeführt. Er bietet eine gute Übersicht über das Jahr und ist für viele eine nützliche Planungshilfe. The practical annual planner has enjoyed great popularity for many years. It lists all public and school holidays. It offers a good overview of the year and is a useful planning aid for many people.

GSI and FAIR employees can get a copy at the foyer or at the reception in Borsigstraße. If you want to order the DIN-A2-sized calendar from FAIR and GSI, please contact  gsi-kalender(at)gsi.de (Data Protection) directly via e-mail and receive the calendar by post. Please include the following information: your name, your address and the number of calendars you wish to order. We kindly ask for your understanding that because of the limited quantity a maximum of three calendars can be sent per request (while stocks last). (JL)

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Aktuelles
news-3690 Tue, 20 Oct 2020 13:39:48 +0200 "Birthplaces" of the heaviest elements: Cluster project ELEMENTS investigates the dynamics of neutron stars https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3690&cHash=a75ddfecb2085a89df9e164d968d38a7 The ELEMENTS project combines the strong research forces of several international leading institutions. Besides the Goethe University Frankfurt as consortium leader the TU Darmstadt, the University of Gießen and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt are also involved. This news is based on a press release of TU Darmstadt

The ELEMENTS project combines the strong research forces of several international leading institutions. Besides the Goethe University Frankfurt as consortium leader the TU Darmstadt, the University of Gießen and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt are also involved.

This network gives the scientists access to unique conditions: expertise in gravitational physics and in the physics of nuclear reactions as well as infrastructure such as the accelerator facilities in Darmstadt - the accelerator center FAIR currently under construction at GSI and the S-DALINAC electron accelerator at the TU in the Institute of Nuclear Physics. In addition, the physicists want to close a gap with ELEMENTS.

As one of the main measures, the project is seeking to establish a joint Alexander von Humboldt Professorship at the universities in Frankfurt and Darmstadt. This professorship is to be dedicated to the astronomical observation of processes in and around neutron stars, a field of research that is lacking in Hesse to date and is very close to the research work honored with this year's Nobel Prize.

ELEMENTS will study neutron stars, the barely visible little brothers of black holes. They are formed after a star has burned out when it was not massive enough to be compressed into a black hole by its own gravitational pressure after its end. Neutron stars, like black holes, are the cause of extreme space-time curvature, and when neutron stars or black holes merge, detectable gravitational waves are created.

Because of their cosmic effects and extreme conditions, both phenomena are the focus of research. However, unlike black holes, neutron stars also allow glimpses into their interior and they are also "productive". For example, neutron star mergers are visible as kilonovae in the sky and are the only known objects in the universe that produce the heaviest chemical elements through nuclear reactions under extreme conditions.

The ELEMENTS project investigates the dynamics in the fusion of two neutron stars and and in this context also examines the gravitational field, nuclear matter and - the main topic of the physicists at GSI/FAIR and the TU Darmstadt - the heavy chemical elements that are created in the process. For example, the luminosity of a kilonova was successfully predicted a few years ago by physicists working in Darmstadt.

For ELEMENTS, the research consortium has applied to the state of Hesse for funding under the one-time funding line for cluster projects. This funding line is intended to provide project-related support for internationally competitive research fields at universities and university networks in order to further raise their profile and prepare them for a successful application in the next round of the excellence strategy. (TUD/BP)

 

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Aktuelles
news-3688 Tue, 13 Oct 2020 09:38:40 +0200 Black hole or no black hole: On the outcome of neutron star collisions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3688&cHash=cf7ec402ffcd1fd5ca615d328292c2ac A new study lead by GSI scientists and international colleagues investigates black-hole formation in neutron star mergers. Computer simulations show that the properties of dense nuclear matter play a crucial role, which directly links the astrophysical merger event to heavy-ion collision experiments at GSI and FAIR. These properties will be studied more precisely at the future FAIR facility. With the award of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics the topic currently also receives a lot of attention. A new study lead by GSI scientists and international colleagues investigates black-hole formation in neutron star mergers. Computer simulations show that the properties of dense nuclear matter play a crucial role, which directly links the astrophysical merger event to heavy-ion collision experiments at GSI and FAIR. These properties will be studied more precisely at the future FAIR facility. The results have now been published in Physical Review Letters. With the award of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics for the theoretical description of black holes and for the discovery of a supermassive object at the center of our galaxy the topic currently also receives a lot of attention.

But under which conditions does a black hole actually form? This is the central question of a study lead by the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt within an international collaboration. Using computer simulations, the scientists focus on a particular process to form black holes namely the merging of two neutron stars (simulation movie).

Neutron stars consists of highly compressed dense matter. The mass of one and a half solar masses is squeezed to the size of just a few kilometers. This corresponds to similar or even higher densities than in the inner of atomic nuclei. If two neutron stars merge, the matter is additionally compressed during the collision. This brings the merger remnant on the brink to collapse to a black hole. Black holes are the most compact objects in the universe, even light cannot escape, so these objects cannot be observed directly.

"The critical parameter is the total mass of the neutron stars. If it exceeds a certain threshold the collapse to a black hole is inevitable" summarizes Dr. Andreas Bauswein from the GSI theory department. However, the exact threshold mass depends on the properties of highly dense nuclear matter. In detail these properties of high-density matter are still not completely understood, which is why research labs like GSI collide atomic nuclei - like a neutron star merger but on a much smaller scale. In fact, the heavy-ion collisions lead to very similar conditions as mergers of neutron stars. Based on theoretical developments and physical heavy-ion experiments, it is possible to compute certain models of neutron star matter, so-call equations of state.

Employing numerous of these equations of state, the new study calculated the threshold mass for black-hole formation. If neutron star matter or nuclear matter, respectively, is easily compressible - if the equation of state is "soft" - already the merger a relatively light neutron stars leads to the formation of a black hole. If nuclear matter is "stiffer" and less compressible, the remnant is stabilized against the so-called gravitational collapse and a massive rotating neutron star remnant forms from the collision. Hence, the threshold mass for collapse itself informs about properties of high-density matter. The new study revealed furthermore that the threshold to collapse may even clarify whether during the collision nucleon dissolve into their constituents, the quarks.

"We are very excited about this results because we expect that future observations can reveal the threshold mass" adds Professor Nikolaos Stergioulas of the department of physics of the Aristotle University Thessaloniki in Greece. Just a few years ago a neutron star merger was observed for the first time by measuring gravitational waves from the collision. Telescopes also found the "electromagnetic counterpart" and detected light from the merger event. If a black hole is directly formed during the collision, the optical emission of the merger is pretty dim. Thus, the observational data indicates if a black hole was created. At the same time the gravitational-wave signal carries information about the total mass of the system. The more massive the stars the stronger is the gravitational-wave signal, which thus allows determining the threshold mass.

While gravitational-wave detectors and telescopes wait for the next neutron star mergers, the course is being set in Darmstadt for knowledge that is even more detailed. The new accelerator facility FAIR, currently under construction at GSI, will create conditions, which are even more similar to those in neutron star mergers. Finally, only the combination of astronomical observations, computer simulations and heavy-ion experiments can settle the questions about the fundamental building blocks of matter and their properties, and, by this, they will also clarify how the collapse to a black hole occurs. (CP/BP)

Further information
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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3684 Fri, 09 Oct 2020 09:00:00 +0200 The new heavy isotope mendelevium-244 and a puzzling short-lived fission activity https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3684&cHash=fe137f027de678699b0b4df6d53d5144 Gaining a better understanding of the limiting factors for the existence of stable, superheavy elements is a decade-old quest of chemistry and physics. Superheavy elements, as are called the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 103, do not occur in nature and are produced artificially with particle accelerators. They vanish within seconds. A team of scientists from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Helmholtz-Institute Mainz (HI Joint press release of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)

Gaining a better understanding of the limiting factors for the existence of stable, superheavy elements is a decade-old quest of chemistry and physics. Superheavy elements, as are called the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 103, do not occur in nature and are produced artificially with particle accelerators. They vanish within seconds. A team of scientists from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) and the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, led by Dr. Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar from GSI and HIM, has provided new insights into the fission processes in those exotic nuclei and for this, has produced the hitherto unknown nucleus mendelevium-244. The experiments were part of "FAIR Phase 0", the first stage of the FAIR experimental program. The results have now been published in the journal "Physical Review Letters".

Heavy and superheavy nuclei are increasingly unstable against the fission process, in which the nucleus splits into two lighter fragments. This is due to the ever-stronger Coulomb repulsion between the large number of positively charged protons in such nuclei, and is one of the main limitations for the existence of stable superheavy nuclei.

The nuclear fission process was discovered more than 80 years ago and is being studied intensely to this day. Most experimental data on the spontaneous fission are for nuclei with even numbers of protons and neutrons – called “even-even nuclei”. Even-even nuclei consist entirely of proton and neutron pairs and their fission properties are rather well describable by theoretical models. In nuclei with an odd number of either neutrons or protons, a hindrance of the fission process when compared to the properties of even-even nuclei has been observed and traced back to the influence of such a single, unpaired constituent in the nucleus.

However, the fission hindrance in “odd-odd nuclei”, containing both, an odd number of protons and an odd number of neutrons, is less well known. Available experimental data indicate that the spontaneous fission process in such nuclei is greatly hindered, even more so than in nuclei with only one odd-numbered type of constituents.

Once the fission probability is most reduced, other radioactive decay modes like alpha decay or beta decay become probable. In beta decay, one proton transforms into a neutron (or vice versa) and, accordingly, odd-odd nuclei turn into even-even nuclei, which typically have a high fission probability. Accordingly, if a fission activity is observed in experiments on the production of an odd-odd nucleus, it is often difficult to identify whether fission occurred in the odd-odd nucleus, or not rather started from the even-even beta-decay daughter, which can then undergo beta-delayed fission. Recently, Dr. Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar from GSI and HIM predicted that this beta-delayed fission process may be very relevant for the heaviest nuclei and – in fact – may be one of the main decay modes of beta-decaying superheavy nuclei.

In superheavy nuclei, which are exceedingly difficult to be produced experimentally, beta-decay has not yet been observed conclusively. For instance, in the case of the heaviest element produced at GSI Darmstadt, tennessine (element 117), only two atoms of the odd-odd nucleus tennessine-294 were observed in an experiment that lasted about one month. This small production rates limit the verification and detailed study of the beta-decay delayed fission process. Still, new experimental data to shed light on this process are best gained in exotic nuclei, like those which have an extremely unbalanced ratio of protons to neutrons. For this, the team from GSI, JGU, HIM and University of Jyväskylä has produced the hitherto unknown nucleus mendelevium-244, an odd-odd nucleus consisting of 101 protons and 143 neutrons.

The theoretical estimate suggests that beta decay of this nucleus will be followed by fission in about one out of five cases. Due to the large energy release of the fission process, this can be detected with high sensitivity, whereas beta decays are more difficult to measure. The researchers used an intense beam of titanium-50 available at GSI’s UNILAC accelerator to irradiate a gold target. The reaction products of titanium and gold nuclei were separated in the Transactinide Separator and Chemistry TASCA, which guided mendelevium nuclei into a silicon detector suitable to register the implantation of the nuclei as well as their subsequent decay.

A first part of the studies, performed in 2018, led to the observation of seven atoms of mendelevium-244. In 2020, the researchers used a lower titanium-50 beam energy, which is insufficient to lead to mendelevium-244 production. Indeed, signals like those assigned to mendelevium-244 in the 2018 study were absent in this part of the data set, corroborating the proper assignment of the 2018 data and confirming the discovery of the new isotope.

All of the seven registered atomic nuclei underwent alpha decay, i.e., the emission of a helium-4 nucleus, which led to the daughter isotope einsteinium-240, discovered four years ago by a preceding experiment carried out at the University of Jyväskylä. Beta decay was not observed, which allows establishing an upper limit on this decay mode of 14 percent. If the 20 percent fission probability of all beta-decaying nuclei were correct, the total probability for beta delayed fission would be at most 2.8 percent and its observation would necessitate the production of substantially more mendelevium-244 atoms than in this discovery experiment.

In addition to the alpha-decaying mendelevium-244, the researchers found signals of short-lived fission events with unexpected characteristics concerning their number, production probability, and half-life. Their origin cannot currently be pinpointed exactly, and is in fact not readily explicable with current knowledge of the production and decay of isotopes in the region of mendelevium-244. This motivates follow-up studies to get more detailed data, which will help shed further light on the fission process in odd-odd nuclei. (BP)

Further information:
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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3686 Fri, 09 Oct 2020 09:00:00 +0200 Prestigious award for Friedrich-Karl Thielemann https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3686&cHash=6a6d195b5d4b9b37085dcb81c662b781 For his research at the boundary of nuclear physics and astronomy, Friedrich-Karl Thielemann receives the Karl Schwarzschild Medal, the most prestigious prize in Germany in the field of astronomy and astrophysics. Since 2018, Thielemann has been a guest scientist at GSI after his retirement and continues his award-winning research on the origin of the elements in the universe in collaboration with his theory colleagues. This work is of great importance for the future experimental program at FAIR and ... This news is based on a press release of the Astronomische Gesellschaft e. V.

For his research at the boundary of nuclear physics and astronomy, Friedrich-Karl Thielemann receives the Karl Schwarzschild Medal, the most prestigious prize in Germany in the field of astronomy and astrophysics. Since 2018, Thielemann has been a guest scientist at GSI after his retirement and continues his award-winning research on the origin of the elements in the universe in collaboration with his theory colleagues. This work is of great importance for the future experimental program at FAIR and already for the ongoing FAIR Phase 0 program.

His theoretical efforts, combined with comparison to experiments and observations, had a huge impact on the understanding of stellar explosions. In his many outstanding theoretical contributions, he predicted nuclear cross sections and reaction rates of nuclei across the nuclear chart, including highly unstable ones. During his more than 40-year career, he achieved a full circle from nuclear input to studies of stellar evolution and explosions, the formation of heavy elements and the resulting chemical evolution of galaxies. Friedrich-Karl Thielemann excelled in providing the basis for the most extreme events in the universe from type Ia supernovae, novae and X-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and hypernovae to neutron star mergers. Thielemann’s dedication to unravel the origin of the elements in the universe led to professional positions he held around the globe. Being emeritus professor in the field of cosmology and particle physics at the University of Basel, he continues his research also as a guest scientist at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt. Paolo Giubellino, scientific managing director of GSI and FAIR, expressed his delight at this recognition for Thielemann: “We are thrilled that this prestigious prize goes to a towering figure in Nuclear Astrophysics who has honoured our center by choosing it as his home institution in these years as Emeritus. He is an extremely active scientist, who actively collaborates with the other nuclear astrophysicists on campus, both theorists and experimentalists. It is a great asset for us, with great impact on one of the key FAIR research programs”. Thielemann is member of the German Astronomical Society since 1978. (AG/LW)

Press Release of Astronomische Gesellschaft e. V.

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Aktuelles
news-3682 Tue, 06 Oct 2020 09:30:00 +0200 Hunting for the lowest known nuclear-excited state https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3682&cHash=1ea275c90b1ffd1b98d0b582cc31a834 Nuclear clocks could make our time measurement even more accurate than atomic clocks. The key to this lies in thorium-229, an atomic nucleus whose lowest excited state has very low energy. A research team from the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics at the University of Heidelberg, TU Wien, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), and GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt has now succeeded in measuring this low energy. Using an extremely accurate detector, it was possible ... This is a joint press release of University of Heidelberg, TU Wien, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.

Nuclear clocks could make our time measurement even more accurate than atomic clocks. The key to this lies in thorium-229, an atomic nucleus whose lowest excited state has very low energy. A research team from the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics at the University of Heidelberg, TU Wien, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), and GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt has now succeeded in measuring this low energy. Using an extremely accurate detector, it was possible to detect the tiny temperature increase due to the energy released during the de-excitation of the atomic nucleus. This brings the realization of a nuclear clock a big step closer.

In radioactive decay, atomic nuclei spontaneously re-arrange, eject some part of their building blocks, and transform into a nucleus of a different atom. In this process, the new "daughter atom" usually has internally stored energy that is released in the form of gamma rays. The energies of these rays are characteristic for each type of nucleus – just like fingerprints. Researchers learn a lot about atomic nuclei by characterizing these gamma-ray fingerprints.

Back in 1976, L. A. Kroger and C. W. Reich investigated the decay of uranium-233, which is an artificial nucleus of uranium that decays to thorium-229 by emitting an alpha-particle; this is immediately followed by the emission of characteristic gamma-rays that occur in distinct and generally well-understood patterns. Kroger and Reich, however, registered an anomaly: one gamma-ray that was predicted by all nuclear theories was missing in the measured signals. The best explanation was that the internal energy stored in the lowest nuclear excitation of thorium-229 was too low to be observed by the detectors. Over the following decades, many attempts were made to observe this low-energy gamma-ray without success, constraining it to ever-lower energies.

New perspectives for constructing an atomic clock

Nowadays, we know that the lowest excited-energy state of the thorium-229 nucleus, called an isomer state, is located at the lowest known energy among all nuclei, at an energy that is orders of magnitudes lower than usual excitation energies. Consequently, the energy of the associated gamma-ray is so low that it is placed in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum rather than in the typical gamma-ray region. This leads to the unique situation that the opposite process of the de-excitation by the emission of this "ultraviolet gamma-ray", namely the excitation of the lower state is possible by shining ultraviolet light onto the nucleus. It is the only nuclear system that could be excited with "table-top" laser light. This opens up exciting prospects, including the construction of a "nuclear" clock, in which time is measured by oscillations of the nucleus between these two states. The precision of such a clock is predicted to be better than that of the best current atomic clocks, which rely on oscillations between states in the electron shell, which is more susceptible to external perturbations than the 10.000 times smaller nucleus.

The key problem is, though, that the energy of the isomer state is not yet known with sufficient precision to know which ultraviolet light is needed to stimulate the oscillation. A consortium of researchers from Heidelberg, Vienna, Mainz, and Darmstadt have now repeated the iconic gamma spectroscopy measurement of Kroger and Reich, but using a highly advanced state-of-the-art gamma spectrometer, designed explicitly for registering rays of such low energy.

Cool studies give the highest precision

For this, the research team of Professor Christian Enss and Dr. Andreas Fleischmann at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics at the University of Heidelberg developed a magnetic microcalorimeter named maXs30. This detector is cooled to minus 273 degrees Celsius and measures the minuscule temperature rise that occurs when a gamma-ray is absorbed. The temperature increase leads to a change in the detector's magnetic properties, which is then converted into an electric signal using SQUID magnetometers similar to those that are commonly used in magnetic resonance tomography. The maXs30 detector has unprecedented energy resolution and gain linearity; still, it took about 12 weeks of continuous measurement to obtain the gamma-ray spectrum with sufficient precision.

To make this challenging measurement possible, the team of Professor Christoph Düllmann in Mainz and Darmstadt produced a special sample of uranium-233. First, they chemically removed all decay daughter products that had built up over time before the sample was used. They also removed unwanted radioisotopes, the decay of which leads to an unwanted background in the measured data. Then they designed a source geometry and sample container that led to minimum interference of the weak signals on their way from the sample to the maXs30 calorimeters. These steps were required for the success of the measurement because only one in 10,000 decay processes produces a signal that is useful for the determination of the isomer energy. The measurement produced the most precise gamma-ray spectrum of uranium-233 to thorium-229 decay to date. The team of Professor Thorsten Schumm at TU Wien, together with the Heidelberg team, employed four different schemes to derive the energy of the isomer state from this data. The most precise one yielded a value of 8.10(17) electronvolts, which corresponds to light of a wavelength of 153.1(32) nanometers, with the number in parentheses indicating the uncertainty of the last digits. This measurement paves the way for a direct laser excitation of the thorium-229 isomer. (LW)

More information

Physics Viewpoint “Ticking Toward a Nuclear Clock”
Energy spectrum -"Magnetic micro-calorimeter raw data"

Originalveröffentlichung: Measurement of the 229Th Isomer Energy with a Magnetic Microcalorimeter

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Presse Aktuelles
news-3680 Mon, 05 Oct 2020 13:08:09 +0200 Almudena Arcones elected Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3680&cHash=0636b484df48d2d38de897c263db6a31 Professor Almudena Arcones has been elected "Fellow 2020" of the American Physical Society (APS). With this prestigious recognition, the APS honors Almudena Arcones' outstanding contributions in the field of astrophysics. The Spanish-German physicist works since 2007 in the GSI Theory department with a joint appointment with the Technische Universität Darmstadt. Professor Almudena Arcones has been elected "Fellow 2020" of the American Physical Society (APS). With this prestigious recognition, the APS honors Almudena Arcones' outstanding contributions in the field of astrophysics. The Spanish-German physicist works since 2007 in the GSI Theory department with a joint appointment with the Technische Universität Darmstadt.

Almudena Arcones receives the election as APS-Fellow "for seminal contributions in astro- and nuclear physics, especially to the understanding of heavy elements creation in supernovae, neutron star mergers, and their associated kilonova”. The research focus of the physicist, who is an associate professor for theoretical astrophysics at the Technische Universität Darmstadt, includes core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers as astrophysical sites of the r-process.

Almudena Arcones conducted research at the Max Planck Institut für Astrophysik in Garching from 2004 to 2007 and received her doctorate from the Technische Universität München in 2007. From 2007 to 2010 she worked as a postdoctoral fellow at GSI and the Institut für Kernphysik (SFB 634) at the Technische Universität Darmstadt. Subsequently, she conducted research in the Department of Physics at the University of Basel until 2012. From 2012 to 2016 she was assistant professor for theoretical astrophysics at the Technische Universität Darmstadt, where she has been working as associate professor since 2016. From 2012 to 2017 she was group leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigator Group at GSI.

Almudena Arcones has already received several important awards, including the ERC-Starting Grant of the European Research Council 2016. Her topic was "The origin of heavy elements: a nuclear physics and astrophysics challenge”. The prize enabled her and her team to carry out new investigations on the origin of the elements in stars. As theoretical work, these simulations on element synthesis will also be important and pioneering for experimental research at the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI.

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, was enthusiastic about the honoring of Almudena Arcones: "The election as APS Fellow is a very prestigious award and a special honor, expressing the respect of scientists from the same professional environment. I am glad about the peers’ great appreciation for Almudena Arcones and her work, which also makes an outstanding contribution to current and future research at GSI and FAIR".

The APS is one of the most important physics societies worldwide. It was founded in 1899 and today has more than 55 000 members worldwide. It is divided into numerous specialist groups covering all areas of physical research. APS members attain the status of a Fellow on the basis of a precisely defined nomination and evaluation process. Each year, the APS elects no more than one half of one percent of the society’s membership as fellow. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3678 Tue, 29 Sep 2020 10:15:51 +0200 Georg Forster Award: Argentinean scientist conducts research at GSI/FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3678&cHash=a6a13a31e2013d37a2986f0ab9fcec6e Professor Omar Azzaroni from Argentina has received the Georg Forster Research Award, granted by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, for his research in the field of nanosciences. As award winner, he will work in close cooperation with the Materials Research Department of GSI. Professor Omar Azzaroni from Argentina has received the Georg Forster Research Award, granted by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, for his research in the field of nanosciences. As award winner, he will work in close cooperation with the Materials Research Department of GSI.

The Georg Forster Research Award honors researchers from developing and transition countries who have earned international recognition for their research and seek to solve development-related issues. The award winners are nominated by German experts and invited to establish or expand collaborative projects with them. Valued at €60,000 each, the Georg Forster Research Awards are financed by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Omar Azzaroni studied chemistry at the National University La Plata UNLP (Universidad Nacional de La Plata) in Argentina, receiving his PhD in 2004. His postdoctoral studies were carried out at the University of Cambridge in UK (2004– 2006) and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz (2007). He was then appointed as Max Planck Partner Group leader from 2009 until 2013. Max Planck Partner Groups are an instrument in the joint promotion of junior scientists with countries interested in strengthening their research through international cooperation. Contacts to GSI have existed for many years, mainly through working with GSI scientist Dr. Eugenia Toimil-Molares.

From 2012 to 2015, Omar Azzaroni has served as Vice-Director of the Institute for Theoretical and Applied Physical-Chemical Research INIFTA (Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas). He is currently a fellow of the Argentinean National Council of Scientific and Technological Research CONICET and head of the Soft Matter Laboratory of INIFTA. He has also been Adjunct Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University La Plata since 2009. His research interests include solid-state nanopores, nanostructured hybrid interfaces, supra- and macromolecular materials science and nanotechnology.

During his stay at the GSI and FAIR campus, Omar Azzaroni will work together with his colleagues from the GSI materials research department and use nanopores that are produced by irradiating polymer films with high-energy heavy ions. The head of the department, Professor Christina Trautmann, emphasizes in her laudatio of the laureate: “Professor Omar Azzaroni has made pioneering contributions by combining polymer science, surface chemistry and nanotechnology.” Based on his chemistry expertise, he developed polymer brushes of designed composition, structure, and functionality such as responsiveness to temperature.

Omar Azzaroni will focus on the fabrication of nanodevices with chemical and biological sensor properties through the modification of nanochannels with molecular systems. He will integrate soft-matter based responsive building blocks into solid-state nanopores. The aim is to develop intelligent nanosystems that can recognize chemically or physically triggered environmental changes and adjust e.g. the pore diameter as a function of temperature. This smart materials-based nanotechnology has great innovative potential and could open up new applications in the future, for example in drug delivery, biosensing or energy conversion. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3676 Fri, 25 Sep 2020 10:23:33 +0200 Achievements and prospects: BMBF State Secretary visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3676&cHash=f0e12ab2ae81237d1c23c5b591ea472b The research at FAIR and the ongoing research activities in the run up to its establishment were the focus of a visit by Professor Wolf-Dieter Lukas, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Together with further senior staff from the BMBF, he heard all about the outlook for the future at the FAIR and GSI campus. The research at FAIR and the ongoing research activities in the run up to its establishment were the focus of a visit by Professor Wolf-Dieter Lukas, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Together with further senior staff from the BMBF, he heard all about the outlook for the future at the FAIR and GSI campus.

The guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director.

The guests enjoyed presentations and a guided tour, giving them comprehensive insights into current and planned research activities at the FAIR facilities. State Secretary Lukas was impressed by the achievements of GSI, by the outstanding activities carried out as part of the current “FAIR Phase 0” program and by the promising scientific prospects that will emerge once FAIR becomes operational: “Fundamental scientific research forms a crucial foundation for development and progress in a society. Supporting such research is therefore a key priority of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Today, I have seen for myself what excellent, cutting-edge research is being done here at GSI and the compelling scientific potential of the future FAIR facilities.”

The unique possibilities of FAIR and future challenges were also the focus of a tour of the existing accelerator facility. Young researchers and responsible scientists at various parts of the facility gave the guests insight into their work, including the experimental storage ring ESR, the medical radiation unit of the biophysics department, the large-scale experiments R3B and HADES as well as the high-performance computer center Green IT Cube. Summarizing his visit State Secretary Lukas stressed, “I am particularly impressed by the high level of expertise and the enthusiasm shown by the young researchers I met during the visit for their work at GSI.”

At the international accelerator center FAIR, which is being built at GSI, extreme forms of matter that usually only exist in neutron stars, supernovae, stars or large gas planets are to be produced and researched in the lab. FAIR will thus investigate "the universe in the laboratory". FAIR's future research work will build on the successful research at GSI. Scientists from all over the world will use the different areas of GSI and FAIR to carry out unique experiments and obtain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

The experimental storage ring ESR, for example, enables the storage and (beam) cooling of highly charged ions and exotic nuclei. The stored ion beams will be used with the highest levels of quality and precision for unique experiments testing the fundamentals law of physics and opening the door to studying key astrophysical processes. Storage ring physics is one of the unique features of GSI and FAIR.

At the medical radiation unit, where cancer patients were successfully treated with ion beams for the first time in Europe in 1997, future research will focus on technical and radiobiological advancements in ion beam therapy and on space research. This will include assessments of radiation exposure during long-term space missions in collaboration with the European Space Agency.

Within the R3B experiment, which was set up for FAIR by an international collaboration and is already active now in the "FAIR Phase 0" research program, reaction experiments with high-energy exotic nuclei are conducted. These experiments are important for understanding the origin of the heavy elements in the universe such as gold.

The HADES detector (Hi Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer) for FAIR is also already operational and is used to study high-energy nuclear collisions. HADES will allow scientists to understand the properties of hot, highly compressed nuclear matter as it is produced in the universe, for example, when neutron stars collide.

The Green IT Cube is a very powerful and energy-efficient high-performance computer center, the only one in Germany awarded the Blauer Engel certificate for environmental friendliness. It was designed as the central IT center for the storage and analysis of the huge amounts of data that will be generated by the FAIR experiments. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3674 Mon, 21 Sep 2020 09:58:59 +0200 Uwe Niedermayer is awarded DPG Young Scientist Prize for Accelerator Physics https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3674&cHash=64230f0763903b7452c3951c60158b0c Dr. Uwe Niedermayer has received the Young Scientist Award for Accelerator Physics of the German Physical Society (DPG). The award honors his scientific achievements in the development of simulation programs that are used, for example, for the design and calculation of future accelerators at GSI/FAIR and CERN as well as his contributions to the realization of a laser driven accelerator on a chip. Dr. Uwe Niedermayer has received the Young Scientist Award for Accelerator Physics of the German Physical Society (DPG). The award honors his scientific achievements in the development of simulation programs that are used, for example, for the design and calculation of future accelerators at GSI/FAIR and CERN as well as his contributions to the realization of a laser driven accelerator on a chip.

Niedermayer works at the Institute for Particle Acceleration and Electromagnetic Fields (TEMF) in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at the Technical University of Darmstadt. There he is part of the group of Professor Oliver Boine-Frankenheim, head of the GSI accelerator physics department. In his doctoral thesis, Uwe Niedermayer also carried out simulation calculations for the design of the ring accelerator SIS100, the heart of the FAIR accelerator center currently being built at GSI.

The prize is awarded to Uwe Niedermayer for his outstanding scientific achievements during his doctorate and initial research phase. An acceleration scheme he conceived is regarded as one of the most important breakthroughs on the way to a novel laser-driven, dielectric electron accelerator on a microchip. At the same time, Niedermayer's research makes important contributions in the field of high-temperature thin-film superconductors for the design study of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) planned at CERN in Geneva.

"With his work, Uwe Niedermayer has already acquired an international reputation and high esteem after a relatively short research phase. His activities lead us to expect further outstanding research results in the near future," is stated in the appreciation. The research prize, awarded by the DPG und its Arbeitskreis Beschleunigerphysik (AKBP), is intended to promote accelerator physics as an independent field of research in Germany and is awarded to young researchers at German universities or research institutions whose doctoral thesis was completed no more than five years ago and who have distinguished themselves through outstanding, original and independent research contributions.

The prize was presented at the DPG's machine learning seminar in the physics center in Bad Honnef. During the event, the expertise with accelerators in Darmstadt was honoured even one more time by an award ceremony: Dr. Bernhard Franzke received the Horst Klein Prize of the DPG Arbeitskreis Beschleunigerphysik, which is aimed at internationally renowned scientists who have distinguished themselves through outstanding achievements of great significance and high originality. The prize had been awarded to him in spring (as reported), but could not be presented at that time. Bernhard Franzke has been a leading accelerator physicist at GSI for many years and was significantly involved in the construction and development of UNILAC, the ESR and many experiments. In the years 2000 until 2005 he played an important role in developing the concept of the storage rings at FAIR. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3670 Fri, 04 Sep 2020 10:12:37 +0200 Award of the Foundation for Polish Science for Prof. Hans Geissel https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3670&cHash=3b99e6e811e6918811bc08c7e61073e6 For his outstanding scientific achievements in the field of exotic nuclei the physicist Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Hans Geissel receives the Polish Alexander von Humboldt Award in Physics. Prof. Geissel is senior scientist in the FRS/Super-FRS research department at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Facility for Antiproton an Ion Research (FAIR GmbH) in Darmstadt as well as Professor at Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen (JLU). For his outstanding scientific achievements in the field of exotic nuclei the physicist Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Hans Geissel receives the Polish Alexander von Humboldt Award in Physics. Prof. Geissel is senior scientist in the FRS/Super-FRS research department at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Facility for Antiproton an Ion Research (FAIR GmbH) in Darmstadt as well as Professor at Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen (JLU). The award, which involves the financing of a research stay, is granted by the Foundation for Polish Science (Fundacja na rzecz Nauki Polskiej, FNP), a partner organization of the German Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. The award is given to excellent active German scientists to honor their work and to enable them to carry out scientific research at a selected institution in Poland.

Prof. Geissel receives the award for his many years of successful studies with short-lived nuclei and the investigation of their properties. Together with the Polish scientists Prof. Dr. Zygmunt Patyk (National Center for Nuclear Research, Świerk-Warsaw) and Prof. Dr. Marek Pfützner (University of Warsaw) he realized pioneering experiments with the GSI fragment separator FRS. Together with Prof. Patyk and his research group, he was able for the first time to perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei that were produced, separated at FRS and cooled in the storage ring ESR. The collaboration with Prof. Pfützner and his research group also resulted in many publications of worldwide acclaim, of which the discovery of numerous new isotopes and two-proton radioactivity are particularly outstanding. With a total of 276 isotopes discovered, Prof. Geissel has held the world record since 2012.

"This award naturally also represents an international recognition of the scientific work of the entire research group at the FRS and FRS-ESR", said Prof. Geissel. "I would also like to take this opportunity to thank my former teachers, Professors Heinz Ewald, Ulrich Mosel, Gottfried Münzenberg, Werner Scheid and Herrmann Wollnik, who showed me the way to ion research". In connection with the award, further research work of the international German-Polish collaboration is planned to be carried out until 2023. Japanese scientists are also involved in this. The first experiments were already successfully carried out at the FRS in spring of this year. Further research work at the accelerator facility FAIR in Darmstadt and at the Japanese research center RIKEN should form the basis for further scientific successes in the near future.

The two Polish institutions involved - the National Center for Nuclear Research and the University of Warsaw - are members of the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration and thus belong to the NUSTAR (NUclear STructure Astro-physics and Reactions) activity at FAIR. Stays of Prof. Geissel with lectures are also planned at the University of Warsaw and the National Center for Nuclear Research in Warsaw, since the education and motivation of young physics students is a major concern of all participating institutions.

The Foundation for Polish Science annually awards prizes for works in various scientific disciplines. This year, in addition to Prof. Geissel, a scientist from the field of biomineralogy and a scientist from the field of history are honored. (JL)

This news is based on a press release of Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

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news-3668 Mon, 31 Aug 2020 09:50:15 +0200 Mass of the deuteron corrected https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3668&cHash=35915dacb010334f23d021ada6072a6d High-precision measurements of the mass of the deuteron, the nucleus of heavy hydrogen, provide new insights into the reliability of fundamental quantities in atomic and nuclear physics. This is reported in the journal "Nature" by a collaboration led by the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics Heidelberg, Germany, and partners from the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research Darmstadt and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Germany. This news is based on a press release of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg

High-precision measurements of the mass of the deuteron, the nucleus of heavy hydrogen, provide new insights into the reliability of fundamental quantities in atomic and nuclear physics. This is reported in the journal "Nature" by a collaboration led by the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics Heidelberg, Germany, and partners from the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research Darmstadt and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Germany. Thus, data directly related to the atomic mass standard, are now available for hydrogen H, deuterium D and the molecule HD, which the scientists have also reweighed.

The masses of both atomic nuclei and electrons influence numerous properties of atoms and molecules, for example their spectra, i.e., which light colours they absorb or emit. Physicists like values of these masses to be as accurate as possible, because only with their knowledge precise calculations using atomic physics are possible for these spectra. Calculations are then confronted to direct measurements, which, for example, allows drawing conclusions about the reliability of basic physical theories.

Hydrogen and its isotopes are of particular interest in this context, because their simple electron shell with only a single electron allows extremely precise calculations and thus very sensitive tests of fundamental physical theories. Furthermore, the mass of the deuteron can also be used to derive the mass of the neutron – the second component of atomic nuclei besides the proton. After having already precisely weighed the electron and the proton, the nucleus of the ordinary hydrogen atom, in recent years, researchers around Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm from the MPI for Nuclear Physics have now also put the deuteron, the nucleus of heavy hydrogen consisting of a proton and a neutron, and the HD+ molecular ion on the "precision scale". Since deuterium is rare and is usually easily replaced by the much more common normal hydrogen, Christoph Düllmann's research group in Mainz produced a tailor-made deuterium sample that fits the used apparatus perfectly.

Penning traps have proven to be the best precision scales for ions. In such a trap, single charged particles can be trapped for a long time with the help of electric and magnetic fields. The trapped particle performs a characteristic motion in the trap, which is described by a frequency. This frequency depends on the mass of the trapped particle – heavier particles oscillate more slowly than lighter ones. If two different, individual ions are measured one after the other in the same trap, the ratio of the masses can be determined exactly – similar to a classical mechanical beam balance.

Sophisticated measurement technology for maximum precision

The mass standard for atoms is the carbon isotope 12C, which by definition weighs 12 atomic mass units. "Our Penning trap apparatus called LIONTRAP is located in a superconducting magnet in nearly perfect vacuum at a temperature of about 4 degrees above absolute zero (–269°C). We prepared a deuteron (D+) and a carbon ion (12C6+) in the apparatus, alternately transferred one of them from its storage trap to the precision trap located between the storage traps and measured its movement with highest precision," says Sascha Rau, who carried out the measurements in the context of his PhD, explaining the measuring principle. "The ratio of the frequencies of both ions obtained in this way directly gives the mass of the deuteron in atomic units." So, the carbon ion acts as a reference weight on the "beam balance".

When evaluating the measurement data, the physicists had to consider very carefully the influence of many unavoidable systematic effects. As a result, they obtained the mass of the deuteron as 2.013553212535(17) atomic units, with the number in parentheses indicating the uncertainty of the last digits. The mass of the hydrogen molecular ion HD+, determined by the same method, is 3.021378241561(61) atomic units.

The new value for the mass of the deuteron is the most accurate ever measured, but is significantly smaller than the tabulated reference value. "To validate our result, we calculated the mass of HD+ with this value and with the masses of the proton and the electron previously measured by us, as well as the known binding energy. The result is in excellent agreement with our directly measured value. In addition, the mass ratio of deuteron to proton derived from our data fits very well with the value directly measured by another group," says Sven Sturm with satisfaction. This consistency of the data underpins the used measurement methodology and suggests that the reference values should be corrected. In addition, the new data considerably reduces the discrepancies that previously existed among the masses of light nuclei. However, in order to fully resolve these discrepancies, further high-precision mass measurements – directly in atomic units – of super-heavy hydrogen (tritium) and of light helium are required. (MPIK/CP/BP)

Further information

Press release on the website of Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics

Scientific publication "Penning-trap mass measurements of the deuteron and the HD+ molecular ion" in the journal Nature

Accompanying article in the category "News and Views" in the journal Nature

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Presse Aktuelles
news-3666 Tue, 25 Aug 2020 15:22:40 +0200 Successful large-scale copper plating: GSI Electroplating achieves important milestone for FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3666&cHash=cd2235376577d84c44b8823931d48456 An important success has been achieved in the Electroplating Department of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung: The copper plating of a cavity with two meter in diameter was successfully realized. This is also of great importance for the future accelerator center FAIR. In order to achieve the FAIR parameters, the existing linear accelerator UNILAC, which will serve as a pre-accelerator in the future, has to be partially upgraded with new cavities. An important success has been achieved in the Electroplating Department of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung: The copper plating of a cavity with two meter in diameter was successfully realized. This is also of great importance for the future accelerator center FAIR. In order to achieve the FAIR parameters, the existing linear accelerator UNILAC, which will serve as a pre-accelerator in the future, has to be partially upgraded with new cavities.

Cavities or cavity resonators are central elements of accelerators. Therein, strong electromagnetic fields oscillate, transferring their energy to the particles flying along the tube axis. To improve electrical conductivity, the surfaces are copper-plated. At GSI and FAIR, the Electroplating Department is responsible for coating the tanks and components of the particle accelerators with a layer of high-gloss copper from inside. The task of electroplating is challenging, the demands on surface quality are high.

Currently, the Alvarez accelerator structure, a section of GSI-UNILAC, has to be replaced for future top performance so that FAIR can deliver the planned high beam quality. One of the critical points in this upgrade is the copper plating of particularly large cavity sections. This is a challenge that was last faced at GSI more than 20 years ago. Nevertheless, the GSI Electroplating Department has now succeeded in demonstrating its ability to copperplate a cavity of this size on the very first attempt. Thus, a very crucial aspect of the Alvarez replacement has been addressed and positively solved.

The electroplating facility, which has developed in the course of the accelerator expansion on the GSI and FAIR campus, is unique. It allows high-polish copper plating of metal surfaces such as steel and stainless steel up to 200 micrometers thickness. It is above all the size of the elements to be copper-plated that makes the plant exceptional. Even a crane is used during maneuvering to move the heavy components back and forth between the various cleaning and coating baths. Elements can be copper-plated up to a maximum length of 2.5 meters and a diameter of up to 2.5 meters. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3664 Thu, 06 Aug 2020 14:30:00 +0200 "target" Magazine Issue 18 with Special Supplement: Corona published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3664&cHash=84e3dace6d3d5c4d76ef03a987dd0e66 Two major topics are the focus of the 18th issue of our magazine "target" of GSI and FAIR. On the one hand, the corona pandemic has impacted all areas of our lives. Therefore, we have attached a special supplement to this issue, which is dedicated to the operations and research at GSI and FAIR during this time and our efforts to fight the pandemic. On the other hand, last year we celebrated our 50th anniversary with many activities and events. Two major topics are the focus of the 18th issue of our magazine "target" of GSI and FAIR. On the one hand, the corona pandemic has impacted all areas of our lives. Of course, this also applies to our campus and our activities. Therefore, we have attached a special supplement to this issue, which is dedicated to the operations and research at GSI and FAIR during this time and our efforts to fight the pandemic. On the other hand, last year we celebrated our 50th anniversary with many activities and events. You will find more in the main issue.

In addition to looking back at our history, we look to the future: to our experiments of FAIR Phase 0, to new FAIR components and to the awarding of ERC grants to our researchers. In this issue we are particularly pleased to introduce our new Administrative Managing Director, Dr. Ulrich Breuer. We also report on the meeting of international element discoverers, merging neutron stars, star collisions at 800 billion °C, other research highlights and much more.

We’ve taken our anniversary as an opportunity to give our magazine a new style. In this new look, we will continue to keep you up to date about the progress achieved by our research programs and the construction of FAIR as well as current events on our campus. (CP)

Download of "target" – Issue 18, August 2020 (PDF, 12 MB)

Download of Special Supplement: Corona, August 2020 (PDF, 3 MB)

Weitere Informationen
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Aktuelles
news-3650 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 14:00:00 +0200 High award for GSI scientist: Marco Durante receives the Failla Award of the Radiation Research Society https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3650&cHash=99fbb8bb3d1be9ce0242942ee412e061 Marco Durante, head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department and professor at the TU Darmstadt, has been awarded the prestigious Failla Award 2020 by the Radiation Research Society (RRS). Professor Durante has been invited to give a lecture on his scientific career at the virtual annual RRS meeting in October this year. The award has been announced at the end of June. Marco Durante, head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department and professor at the TU Darmstadt, has been awarded the prestigious Failla Award 2020 by the Radiation Research Society (RRS). Professor Durante has been invited to give a lecture on his scientific career at the virtual annual RRS meeting in October this year. The award has been announced at the end of June.

Marco Durante is an internationally recognized expert in the field of radiation biology and medical physics. He is being awarded the prize for his significant contributions to the optimization of therapy with heavy ions and for his studies on radiation protection in space. "This award is a great honour for me. As a student, I read the Failla Award paper by Cornelius Tobias (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), the father of heavy ion therapy, on heavy ions in therapy and space research, and I became enthusiastic about that topic. After 37 years from Tobias, spending my whole scientific career on that very topic, that same award comes to me. The award actually recognizes the research of my team at GSI/FAIR over the past years. It is the result of the work of the whole Biophysics Department", Professor Durante reacted to the news from RRS. "The prize is an enormous incentive for us to continue our research at GSI and in the future at the FAIR facility, with the Biophysics Collaboration, at the highest level.“

Professor Paolo Giubellino, scientific director of GSI and FAIR, is delighted about the award: "­I am extremely pleased that the outstanding research achievements of Marco Durante and his team have received the recognition they deserve with the Failla award, the most important worldwide in this field. The work of Marco Durante and his team is a prime example of how basic research and applications can come together at an interdisciplinary research center and underlines the excellence of scientific research at GSI and FAIR". 

The prestigious award is named after the scientist Gioacchino Failla, former president of RRS and one of its founding fathers. It is awarded annually to an outstanding member of the radiation research community who has made significant contributions in the fields of radiation science. The handover of the prize money of $2000 and an accompanying medal usually takes place during the annual meeting of the RRS. It is the highest award of RRS, established in 1963 and has been received only by a few Europeans, including a single researcher working in Germany (Herwig Paretzke in 2007). Due to the corona pandemic, the RRS is organising its annual meeting virtually this year, so that the prize is delivered in advance. During the online event in October 2020 Durante will deliver his Failla lecture.

Marco Durante is head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department and professor at the TU Darmstadt Department of Physics, Institute of Condensed Matter of Physics. He studied physics and got his PhD at the University Federico II in Italy. His post doc positions took him to the NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. During his studies, he specialized in charged particle therapy, cosmic radiation, radiation cytogenetics and radiation biophysics. He has received numerous awards for his research, including the Galileo Galilei prize from the European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (EFOMP), the Timoffeeff-Ressovsky award of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Warren Sinclair award of the US National Council of Radiation Protection (NCRP), the IBA-­Europhysics Prize of the European Physical Society (EPS) and the Bacq & Alexander award of the European Radiation Research Society (ERRS). He has recently been awarded an ERC advanced grant. (JL)

More information:

Web-Site ot the Radiation Research Society

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news-3662 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 11:00:00 +0200 From the beginning of life to the origin of the universe https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3662&cHash=68719a591dc197000a4a23cebded9e8b Does life exist only on earth? How did the universe we live in come into being? And what holds matter together at its core? Researchers at the Bergische Universität Wuppertal are getting to the bottom of these questions using various large-scale experiments. The astroparticle physicists receive funding for their research from the Federal Ministry of Science and Research, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, represented by the project management organizations DLR and PT-DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-S This news is based on a press release of Bergische Universität Wuppertal

Does life exist only on earth? How did the universe we live in come into being? And what holds matter together at its core? Researchers at the Bergische Universität Wuppertal are getting to the bottom of these questions using various large-scale experiments. The astroparticle physicists receive funding for their research from the Federal Ministry of Science and Research, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, represented by the project management organizations DLR and PT-DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.

For their projects, the Wuppertal researchers, led by astroparticle physicists Professor Dr. Karl-Heinz Kampert and Professor Dr. Klaus Helbing, will get a total of around two million euros in funding. Several major projects are associated with this.

A mission to the outer solar system will investigate whether life has developed there. As part of a project initiated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), researchers at the University of Wuppertal are developing new techniques for radar-based navigation in the ice. These methods are to be used on a possible mission to the icy moon Europa.

In the galaxy beyond our solar system, supernovae, i.e. massive stars, play an important role in the origin of the chemical elements that make life possible for us. Which forces are present and how does matter behave under extreme conditions, existing for example inside neutron stars? The researchers involved in the CBM experiment are investigating these questions. The experiment for Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) is currently being realized within the FAIR project. It is one of the four major research pillars of the future accelerator center FAIR, which is being built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This will enable researchers to study processes in neutron stars with unprecedented precision and over a very wide range of densities.

Another project deals with high-energy particles from huge galaxies far away from the Milky Way. How do they reach these extreme energies and how do they get to Earth over millions of years through the extra-galactic magnetic fields? To gain new insights, the various particles are measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory on Earth and compared with cosmological simulations. The detection of photons that travel these huge distances also provides important information on the space-time structure. 

Our present universe consists mainly of matter and not of antimatter. The reasons for this dominance are still completely unknown. A key to understanding this could be the so-called "ghost particle" neutrino. The KATRIN experiment (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino Experiment) aims to determine the mass of the neutrino, which could be a key to this mystery. Particles that interact with the neutrinos as so-called "dark matter" could also be detected in this framework. 

The neutrino has also been used in astronomy and cosmology for several years. With the IceCube telescope, located directly at the South Pole in Antarctica, Wuppertal researchers are looking for particles that are thought to have been emitted shortly after the Big Bang. From their characteristics, the processes during the formation of the universe can be reconstructed. Work is currently underway on an upgrade for this particle detector. The Wuppertal scientists are working with international colleagues to develop new sensors for this purpose. (BUW/BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3660 Mon, 20 Jul 2020 08:37:12 +0200 Patrick Burghardt visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3660&cHash=87b829b7b194e5ae29a7b00e7ffac1e2 Patrick Burghardt, State Secretary in the Hessian Ministry for Digital Strategy and Development and CIO of the Federal State of Hesse, was a guest at GSI and FAIR. His visit focused on the energy-efficient high-performance computer center Green IT Cube and the progress of the FAIR project. He was accompanied by the Hessian Co-CIO Roland Jabkowski. Patrick Burghardt, State Secretary in the Hessian Ministry for Digital Strategy and Development and CIO of the Federal State of Hesse, was a guest at GSI and FAIR. His visit focused on the energy-efficient high-performance computer center Green IT Cube and the progress of the FAIR project. He was accompanied by the Hessian Co-CIO Roland Jabkowski.

The guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director. Furthermore, the head of the IT department at GSI and FAIR, Dr. Thorsten Kollegger, the head of technology transfer, Dr. Tobias Engert, and Carola Pomplun from the press and public relations department were also participating for GSI and FAIR.

Central topic of Patrick Burghardt's visit was sustainable digitalization. Here, the energy-efficient Green IT Cube offers huge scientific and technological as well as economic potential. During presentations and a guided tour of the Green IT Cube, the State Secretary used the opportunity to obtain comprehensive information about the high-performance data center and its infrastructure and expressed great interest in the very promising prospects. The subsequent discussions also focused on exploring potential cooperation and joint objectives for research, development and use of Green IT technology.

The Green IT Cube on the GSI/FAIR campus provides enormous computing capacities for experiments at the accelerator facilities of GSI and, in the future, FAIR. It is one of the most capable scientific computing centers in the world. At the same time, it sets standards in IT technology and energy saving: Thanks to a special cooling system, it is particularly energy- and cost-efficient. Therefore, the energy required for cooling is less than seven percent of the electrical power used for computing. In conventional data centers with air cooling, this relation amounts to 30 up to 100 percent. The Green IT Cube has already received numerous awards, including recently the Blue Angel, the eco label of the German government.

After visiting the Green IT Cube, the guests had the opportunity to inform themselves about the current status of the FAIR construction project and to take a look at the progress on the 20-hectare construction site: from the completed sections for the central ring accelerator SIS100 and the transfer building to the excavation pit for the first of the future experimental caves. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3658 Wed, 15 Jul 2020 08:32:00 +0200 Researchers present concept for a new technique to study superheavy elements https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3658&cHash=851bebfa75a534bc40208c5b3139ce79 Superheavy elements are intriguing nuclear and atomic quantum systems that challenge experimental probing as they do not occur in nature and, when synthesized, vanish within seconds. Pushing the forefront atomic physics research to these elements requires breakthrough developments towards fast atomic spectroscopy techniques with extreme sensitivity. This news is based on a press release of Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz.

Superheavy elements are intriguing nuclear and atomic quantum systems that challenge experimental probing as they do not occur in nature and, when synthesized, vanish within seconds. Pushing the forefront atomic physics research to these elements requires breakthrough developments towards fast atomic spectroscopy techniques with extreme sensitivity. A joint effort within the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation program and led by Dr. Mustapha Laatiaoui from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and at the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), a branch of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, culminated in an optical spectroscopy proposal: The so-called Laser Resonance Chromatography (LRC) should enable such investigations even at minute production quantities. The proposal has recently been published in two articles in Physical Review Letters and Physical Review A.

Superheavy elements (SHEs) are found at the bottom part of the periodic table of elements. They represent a fertile ground for the development of understanding on how such exotic atoms can exist and work when an overwhelming number of electrons in atomic shells and protons and neutrons in the nucleus come together. Insights into their electronic structure can be obtained from optical spectroscopy experiments unveiling element-specific emission spectra. These spectra are powerful benchmarks for modern atomic-model calculations and could be useful, for example, when it comes to searching for traces of even heavier elements, which might be created in neutron-star merger events.

LRC approach combines different methods

Although SHEs have been discovered decades ago, their investigation by optical spectroscopy tools lack far behind the synthesis. This is because they are produced at extremely low rates at which traditional methods simply do not work. So far, optical spectroscopy ends at nobelium, element 102 in the periodic table. "Current techniques are at the limit of what is feasible," explained Laatiaoui. From the next heavier element on, the physicochemical properties change abruptly and impede providing samples in suitable atomic states."

Together with research colleagues, the physicist has therefore developed the new LRC approach in optical spectroscopy. This combines element selectivity and spectral precision of laser spectroscopy with ion-mobility mass spectrometry and merges the benefits of a high sensitivity with the "simplicity" of optical probing as in laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Its key idea is to detect the products of resonant optical excitations not on the basis of fluorescent light as usual, but based on their characteristic drift time to a particle detector.

In their theoretical work, the researchers focused on singly charged lawrencium, element 103, and on its lighter chemical homolog. But the concept offers unparalleled access to laser spectroscopy of many other monoatomic ions across the periodic table, in particular of the transition metals including the high-temperature refractory metals and elements beyond lawrencium. Other ionic species like triply-charged thorium shall be within reach of the LRC approach as well. Moreover, the method enables to optimize signal-to-noise ratios and thus to ease ion mobility spectrometry, state-selected ion chemistry, and other applications.

Dr. Mustapha Laatiaoui came to Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) in February 2018. In late 2018, he received an ERC Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council (ERC), one of the European Union's most valuable funding grants, for his research into the heaviest elements using laser spectroscopy and ion mobility spectroscopy. The current publications also included work that Laatiaoui had previously carried out at GSI in Darmstadt and at KU Leuven in Belgium.

This work was conducted in cooperation with Alexei A. Buchachenko from the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology and the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, both in Moscow, Russia, and Larry A. Viehland from Chatham University, Pittsburgh, USA. (CP)

Further information
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news-3654 Mon, 13 Jul 2020 09:47:00 +0200 Interactive image comparison: FAIR construction site https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3654&cHash=b90b25a3f1484be9d055570b49d88151 An interactive picture slider provides new insights and shows the progress on the FAIR construction site. It allows to compare the pictures from the beginning of construction and today. The virtual superimposition of the images makes the process of building the large particle accelerator facility clearly visible. An interactive picture slider provides new insights and shows the progress on the FAIR construction site. It allows to compare the pictures from the beginning of construction and today. The virtual superimposition of the images makes the process of building the large particle accelerator facility clearly visible.

Several important stages in the construction process can be seen in the picture slider: The tunnel for the SIS100 accelerator ring is under construction, and the transfer building is growing out of the ground. The first experimental cave, the building for the Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment (CBM) is also taking shape. Viewers can compare the FAIR construction site in 2018 and 2020 themselves.
The drone images were taken during the regular overflights during which the drone videos are recorded to document the construction site. All drone videos can be found here.

FAIR, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, is one of the largest research projects worldwide. FAIR will be used to create and study matter in the laboratory that otherwise only occurs in the universe. Scientists from all over the world expect new insights into the structure of matter and the development of the universe, from the Big Bang to the present day. (LW)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3656 Fri, 10 Jul 2020 12:54:00 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Marcus Bühl visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3656&cHash=f5dac229907b94391bce56c13efe412f The progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on the campus were the central topics during the visit of Marcus Bühl, a member of the Bundestag. The politician comes from Ilmenau and belongs to the AfD party. He is member of the budget committee of the Bundestag and deputy member of the committee on the digital agenda. He was received by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director, and Jörg Blaurock, The progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on the campus were the central topics during the visit of Marcus Bühl, a member of the Bundestag. The politician comes from Ilmenau and belongs to the AfD party. He is member of the budget committee of the Bundestag and deputy member of the committee on the digital agenda. He was received by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Dr. Ulrich Breuer, Administrative Managing Director, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director, as well as Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations.

In addition to information on scientific activities and the current status of the FAIR project, a tour of the FAIR construction site was part of the program. During a walking tour Marcus Bühl was provided with insights into the existing accelerator and research facilities on the GSI and FAIR campus. He visited the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where high-tech components for FAIR are examined, the Experimental Storage Ring ESR, the therapy unit for tumor treatment using carbon ions as well as the large detector HADES and the high-performance data center Green IT Cube.

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news-3652 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 12:03:00 +0200 Diversity and inclusion — Centers of Helmholtz Association adopt joint guideline https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3652&cHash=d282edca72c830b62bbd6bceda1c86c9 The centers of the Helmholtz Association have agreed to develop and live a common understanding of diversity, inclusion and a diversity-aware organizational culture. Recently all 19 members of the Helmholtz Association, among them also the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, have officially adopted a corresponding guideline in their Assembly of Members. The centers of the Helmholtz Association have agreed to develop and live a common understanding of diversity, inclusion and a diversity-aware organizational culture. Recently all 19 members of the Helmholtz Association, among them also the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, have officially adopted a corresponding guideline in their Assembly of Members.

In large research infrastructures such as GSI, which has maintained strong international collaborations since its foundation, or the FAIR project, which is supported by several countries, cooperation with different people and cultures has long been part of everyday life. In this way, knowledge and know-how from all over the world can be brought together for research and high-tech developments in order to achieve the best results. The basis for this is now written down in the Helmholtz guideline in order to create the framework conditions for reflecting diversity and inclusion in the processes, structures and conditions of the center.

The starting point is a simple insight: people are diverse. The current 40,000 employees of the Helmholtz Association and, of course, the approximately 1450 employees of GSI and FAIR differ from each other in many ways: in their personal life plan or personal life situation, their gender, their world view, their biography and origins, their abilities and inclinations, their external appearance and many other aspects. The Helmholtz members recognize this sum of human differences, which is optionally referred to as "diversity" or "variety", as an irrefutable fact.

Inclusion is understood to mean the active shaping of the organizational culture in order to take all persons into account and to give them equal opportunities for influence, participation and individual development. Successful inclusion is demonstrated by the fact that the people who work in and with the centers experience an atmosphere of respect and fairness, appreciation and belonging, security and openness, and are convinced that they can fully develop their talents and grow personally. (CP)

Further information:
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news-3646 Mon, 29 Jun 2020 08:17:00 +0200 Holthusen Award for Thomas Friedrich https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3646&cHash=7d6a21ebb8e0f3d95eaa32d1fd1ef3b9 The physicist Dr. Thomas Friedrich from GSI’s biophysics department is laureate of the Hermann Holthusen Award 2020. The science prize is awarded by the German Society for Radiooncology (DEGRO) for outstanding habilitation theses in the field of radiotherapy, radiobiology, medical radiation physics and technology. With this award the society honours the excellent scientific quality of Thomas Friedrich's work. The physicist Dr. Thomas Friedrich from GSI’s biophysics department is laureate of the Hermann Holthusen Award 2020. The science prize is awarded by the German Society for Radiooncology (DEGRO) for outstanding habilitation theses in the field of radiotherapy, radiobiology, medical radiation physics and technology. With this award the society honours the excellent scientific quality of Thomas Friedrich's work.

Thomas Friedrich investigates how to describe the effect of radiation on cells and tissue as a function of their physical properties such as type of radiation, dose and energy. His habilitation thesis particularly focuses on the description and prediction of the increased effect of ion beams. This is an important aspect especially in tumor therapy with charged particles. His contributions in this area are concerned with the development of a corresponding mathematical formalism, and generally with methods and strategies for evaluating and testing such models. 

Based on the "Local Effect Model" developed at GSI and used in particle therapy since years, it was possible to demonstrate the consistency of the developed modelling approaches by applying them to other types of radiation. For this purpose, it was demonstrated that various radiation effects can be described and predicted according to different irradiation scenarios using a uniform concept. This covers a wide range of sorts of ions and particle energies – from almost stopping particles to very fast particles with high energies. Those energies will be provided with unprecedented possibilities by the future accelerator center FAIR, currently being built at GSI.

The methods and results of Thomas Friedrich's award-winning research work are also a contribution to translational research at the border between experimental and clinical science. He thus connects basic research and clinical application of research results.

Thomas Friedrich studied at the Technical University of Darmstadt and received his doctorate from the Institute of Nuclear Physics. In 2008, he joined GSI as a postdoc in the Biophysics Department. Since then he has been working in the field of biophysical modelling for the prediction of radiation effects. Since 2015 he has been working here as a Senior Scientist. He has already received numerous scholarships and awards for his research, including the Young Scientist Award of the German Society for Biological Radiation Research. In addition to his research activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Thomas Friedrich teaches as a lecturer at the TU Darmstadt’s Department of Physics, where he offers basic lectures in Physics as well as advanced courses in the field of radiation biophysics. He also supervises bachelor, master and doctoral theses.

Together with Thomas Friedrich, the radiation oncologist Dr. Constantinos Zamboglou from the University Hospital in Freiburg is awarded the Holthusen Prize 2020. He is involved in preclinical and clinical studies on the implementation of special imaging techniques in the treatment planning of patients with prostate cancer. (BP)

Further information

More about the Hermann Holthusen Award (in German)

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news-3648 Wed, 24 Jun 2020 07:45:00 +0200 Green IT Cube receives eco label — Blue Angel for high-performance data center of FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3648&cHash=37500cb6ccd6ea1d2fa52ef1e5873a01 The high-performance data center of GSI and FAIR, the Green IT Cube, was awarded the “Blue Angel” as a label of special environmental friendliness. Currently, this makes it the only data center to receive the eco label of the German government. Thanks to a special cooling system, it is particularly energy efficient and conserves resources. The Green IT Cube is one of the most powerful scientific data centers in the world. The high-performance data center of GSI and FAIR, the Green IT Cube, was awarded the “Blue Angel” as a label of special environmental friendliness. Currently, this makes it the only data center to receive the eco label of the German government. Thanks to a special cooling system, it is particularly energy efficient and conserves resources. The Green IT Cube is one of the most powerful scientific data centers in the world. It will provide enormous computing capacities for experiments at the accelerator facilities of GSI and, in the future, FAIR.

The Green IT Cube was built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and was financed with funds from the German Federal Government and the State of Hesse via Helmholtz investments in further expansion. The concept allows the realization and the particularly efficient operation of computer centers for large-scale research facilities, such as the international accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) being built at GSI.

"The Green IT Cube is an exceptionally energy-efficient data center because the energy required for cooling the computers is very low compared to conventional data centers," explained Dr. Helmut Kreiser, who is head of the data centers on the GSI/FAIR campus. "The Green IT Cube cools its computers with an innovative air and water method. As a result, the energy required for cooling is less than seven percent of the electrical power used for computing, instead of 30 up to 100 percent as is the case in conventional data centers with air cooling".

The effective cooling technology allows a space-saving placement of the computers in the Green IT Cube. In a cube-shaped building measuring 27 x 30 x 22 cubic meters, 768 computer racks in total can be arranged closely together on six floors. At present, two of the six floors are equipped with a maximum cooling power of four megawatts. In the final stage the Green IT Cube will be able to reach a cooling power of twelve megawatts. Due to saving energy and space, it is very cost-efficient. In addition, the waste heat of the Green IT Cube’s servers is already being used to heat a modern office and canteen building on the GSI/FAIR campus.

The technology was developed by Professor Volker Lindenstruth from Goethe University Frankfurt and at that time head of GSI-IT, and Professor Horst Stöcker, also from Goethe University and at that time Scientific Managing Director of GSI, in cooperation with the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS). The powerful concept has already won several awards for innovation and environmental friendliness.

"We are very happy and of course proud to receive such a well-known and renowned label as the Blue Angel for our data center," said Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. "The technology for the cooling system is not only an example of the competence and the inventive spirit of our scientists, but also of the potential of a research center like ours to contribute to improving even already established technology in terms of sustainability and efficiency. Pursuing and expanding this potential is a major concern of our research at GSI and FAIR".

Scientists use the Green IT Cube to perform simulations and develop detectors for FAIR. They also analyze measurement data recorded in experiments at the accelerator facilities at GSI and, in the future, FAIR, to gain fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. To this end, the Green IT Cube will be equipped in the long term with computer systems that meet the scientists' requirements in terms of computing power, storage capacity and access speed.

For over 40 years, the Blue Angel has been the environmental label of the German Federal Government and an orientation for sustainable purchasing. Independent and credible, it sets demanding standards for environmentally friendly products and services. The Blue Angel guarantees that products and services awarded with it meet high requirements of environmental, health and usage properties. The entire life cycle must always be taken into account in the assessment. For each product group, criteria are developed which products and services labelled with the Blue Angel must fulfil. To reflect technical developments, the German Environment Agency reviews the criteria every three to four years. In this way companies are required to make their products increasingly environmentally friendly. The Green IT Cube is the first data center to receive the eco label of the German government on the basis of the criteria changed in 2019. (CP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3644 Mon, 08 Jun 2020 08:41:00 +0200 FAIR storage ring CRYRING ready for use https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3644&cHash=a8bda0cb9e7a2f08a79806283899c434 The first FAIR storage ring, the so-called CRYRING, is ready to conduct experiments for the scientific research community. CRYRING is an extremely successful ion storage ring that has enabled key research contributions in atomic and molecular physics in Stockholm for many years. It was brought to GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt as a Swedish in-kind contribution. The first FAIR storage ring, the so-called CRYRING, is ready to conduct experiments for the scientific research community. CRYRING is an extremely successful ion storage ring that has enabled key research contributions in atomic and molecular physics in Stockholm for many years. It was brought to GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt as a Swedish in-kind contribution. Here it was modernized, adapted to FAIR standards and connected to the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI under the project name "CRYRING@ESR". Along with the already existing trapping facility HITRAP, the ESR and the future high-energy storage ring HESR, CRYRING will be part of the unique portfolio of trapping and storage facilities for heavy ions of FAIR.

CRYRING is a facility for storing highly charged heavy ions at low beam energy. With its high vacuum, the storage ring is particularly suitable for storing and cooling the ions at low energies. With low-energy ions, experiments of the highest precision, but also in a previously unattained regime of slow, adiabatic collisions are possible, allowing us to gain new insights into atomic, astrophysical and nuclear physics processes.

The recommissioning of CRYRING was started in 2015. In 2017, ion beams could be stored for the first time, initially from a local source. In recent years, work has been carried out on the optimization of the ring operation, beam cooling and diagnosis, the new FAIR control system and the experimental infrastructure. Commissioning is now nearing completion and has progressed so far that the facility is ready to serve scientific experiments.

Various experiments by scientific users with international participation were already planned for this spring at the CRYRING. However, due to the corona pandemic they had to be cancelled for the time being and postponed to future operating periods. Nevertheless, work continued on the full commissioning of the facility. This involved not only transporting highly charged, heavy lead ions (beryllium-like Pb78+ and later also Pb82+ with completely removed electron shell) from the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC via the ring accelerator SIS-18 and the experimental storage ring ESR to CRYRING, but also storing, cooling and using them for tests of the experimental infrastructure. The lifetimes and electron cooling of the stored beams were in line with previous estimates.

In the first tests, X-ray detectors at the so-called electron cooler registered the characteristic X-ray spectrum of the highly charged heavy ions, which is of particular interest for the fundamental understanding of the electromagnetic force in extremely strong fields (quantum electrodynamics). Ions stored in the CRYRING fly through a cold, dense cloud of electrons of the same speed in the electron cooler, which is primarily used for beam cooling. A secondary side effect is that also a small fraction of the ions capture an electron from the cloud and release the energy gained in this process as X-rays. Researchers can use this radiation to study quantum electrodynamics.

Due to the twelve-sided geometry of the CRYRING, the X-ray detectors can be placed in an ideal position exactly on the axis in front of and behind the ion beam and yet very close to the interaction area with the cooling electrons. This largely eliminates uncertainties in the observation angle caused by the Doppler shift. The low beam energy of the stored ions already helps to reduce this shift per se, so that X-ray spectra can be recorded with unprecedented precision and clarity.

For the future, it is planned to reschedule the experiments that could currently not be conducted due to COVID-19 as soon as possible. Furthermore, a completion of the commissioning is planned. For this purpose, the extraction process will be implemented, which will allow the cooled, slowed-down ions to be removed from the ring and enable material and biophysical experiments with solid targets. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3642 Tue, 02 Jun 2020 09:30:00 +0200 New measurement exacerbates old problem https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3642&cHash=9e654e7e56812b443c0ecae8cc456ea4 Two prominent X-ray emission lines of highly charged iron have puzzled astrophysicists for decades: their measured and calculated brightness ratios always disagree. This hinders good determinations of plasma temperatures and densities. New, careful high-precision measurements, together with top-level calculations now exclude all hitherto proposed explanations for this discrepancy, and thus deepen the problem. Researchers from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt and the Helmholtz Ins This news is based on a press release of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics Heidelberg.

Two prominent X-ray emission lines of highly charged iron have puzzled astrophysicists for decades: their measured and calculated brightness ratios always disagree. This hinders good determinations of plasma temperatures and densities. New, careful high-precision measurements, together with top-level calculations now exclude all hitherto proposed explanations for this discrepancy, and thus deepen the problem. Researchers from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt and the Helmholtz Institute Jena (HIJ), a branch of GSI, are also involved in the investigations. The results are now published in the prestigious “Physical Review Letters” journal.

Hot astrophysical plasmas fill the intergalactic space, and brightly shine in stellar coronae, active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants. They contain charged atoms (ions) that emit X-rays observable by satellite-borne instruments. Astrophysicists need their spectral lines to derive parameters such as plasma temperatures or elemental abundancies. Two of the brightest X-ray lines arise from iron atoms that have lost 16 of their 26 electrons, Fe16+ ions – also known in astrophysics as Fe XVII. Iron is rather abundant in the universe; it lets stars similar to our Sun burn their hydrogen fuel very slowly for billions of years by nearly stopping the energy flowing as radiation from the fiery fusion core to the, in comparison only mildly hot, stellar surface.

For more than forty years, X-ray astronomers have been bothered by a serious problem with the two key Fe16+ lines: the ratio of their measured intensities significantly disagrees with theoretical predictions. This also holds for laboratory measurements, but uncertainties in experiment and theory have been too large for settling the issue.

An international team of 32 researchers led by groups from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has just published the outcome of its renewed massive effort to resolve this discrepancy. They have performed both the highest-resolution measurements thus far reported, and several top-level quantum-theoretical calculations.

Steffen Kühn, PhD student at MPIK and responsible for the setup, describes the effort: “To resonantly excite highly charged iron ions, we continuously generate them with our compact mobile electron beam ion trap (PolarX-EBIT) and irradiate them with X-rays from the PETRA III synchrotron at DESY. We find resonance with the lines by scanning the synchrotron energy over the range where they should appear and observing the fluorescence light. To handle the experimental data flow, we had colleagues from 19 institutions working at DESY, and painstakingly analysing and cross-checking results for more than one year.”

To make sure that everything is consistent, the researchers combined three different measurement procedures to determine the intensity ratio of the two Fe16+ lines, dubbed 3C and 3D. First, overall scans revealed line positions, widths and intensities. Second, the experimentalists set the energy of the X-ray photons to match the peak fluorescence yield while cyclically turning the photon beam off and on to get rid of the strong background. Third, they scanned the lines again, but using the on-off trick at the same time in order to reduce instrumental effects. “This way, we could derive the presently most accurate value of the brightness ratio, and this with ten times higher spectral resolution than earlier work”, states Chintan Shah, NASA postdoctoral fellow. “And the properties of the PETRA III beam avoided possible non-linear effects depending on the flux of synchrotron photons that may have affected earlier measurements”, adds Sven Bernitt, researcher at the Helmholtz Institute Jena and one of the project leaders, who is working in the group of Thomas Stöhlker, HIJ Director and Deputy Research Director of GSI and FAIR. Remarkably, the resulting intensity ratio confirms earlier astrophysical and laboratory measurements with much reduced uncertainty.

Theory teams around Natalia Oreshkina at the MPIK, from Australia, USA and Russia applied three independent very-large-scale relativistic quantum-theoretical methods, letting clusters of hundreds of processors run hot for weeks. This computational marathon delivered concordant results at high numerical precision. However, while the calculated energy difference between the two lines agrees well with the measured value, the intensity ratio clearly departs from the experimental result. “There are no other known quantum-mechanical effects or numerical uncertainties to consider within our approaches”, emphasizes Marianna Safronova, professor at the University of Delaware.

Thus, the cause for the discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical intensity ratios of the 3C and 3D lines of Fe16+ remains puzzling, since also all effects that could perturb the measurements were as far as possible suppressed, and the remaining uncertainty understood. As a consequence, astrophysical parameters derived on the basis of X-ray line intensities are, to some degree, uncertain. While this is unsatisfactory, “the new accurate experimental result may be immediately used to empirically correct the astrophysical models”, recommends Maurice Leutenegger, also a NASA researcher. “Upcoming space missions with advanced X-ray instrumentation, such as ESA's Athena X-ray Observatory, will soon start sending an incredible stream of high-resolution data to ground, and we have to be prepared to understand it and squeeze the maximum value from those billion-dollar investments.” (MPI/BP)

Further information:

Scientific publication in the journal Physical Review Letters

Press release of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg

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news-3640 Tue, 19 May 2020 13:54:32 +0200 CBM Collaboration awards two PhD students https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3640&cHash=9641d192f59f3dc854fc7e75d79682a4 For their doctoral theses at GSI and FAIR, Dr. Hanna Malygina and Dr. Ievgenii Kres received the dissertation prize of the CBM collaboration for outstanding final theses in 2018 and 2019. The prizes were awarded at the 35th CBM Collaboration Meeting from March 23 to 27, which was held as a video conference due to the coronavirus pandemic.

The prize for the best thesis of 2018 was awarded to Hanna Malygina from the University of Frankfurt. In her final thesis entitled "Hit reconstruction for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment" she developed algorithms for the Silicon Tracking System (STS), where particle tracks can be measured with high efficiency and good momentum resolution. A model of the detector response was designed and implemented into the CBM software framework.

Ievgenii Kres from the University of Wuppertal was awarded the thesis prize 2019 for his work entitled "Optimization of the CBM-RICH detector geometry and its use for the reconstruction of neutral mesons using conversion method". He developed an optimized geometry for the RICH detector and was able to show that the new geometry leads to improved performance in the identification of dileptons.

Since 2015, the PhD prize has been awarded by the CBM collaboration for the best dissertation of a year produced in the CBM experiment. An international committee consisting of scientists from the collaboration selects the prize winners. The award is intended to particularly acknowledge the contribution of PhD students to the CBM project and is endowed with a prize money of 500€.

The CBM experiment is one of the key experiments at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). It focuses on the investigation of high-density nuclear matter, as it exists in neutron stars and in the core of supernova explosions. More than 400 researchers from 66 institutes and 13 countries work together in the collaboration. (JL)

 

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news-3638 Mon, 18 May 2020 11:00:00 +0200 Million Euro agreement for research signed between GSI and JINR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3638&cHash=edc5ae79b693c26997c28a018f9e9e02 Intensifying research cooperation, strengthening cutting-edge research and promoting young researchers – these are some of the key goals of the "German-Russian Roadmap for Cooperation in Education, Science, Research and Innovation", which Germany and Russia agreed in December 2018. An important step in this context was the signing of an agreement between the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). Intensifying research cooperation, strengthening cutting-edge research and promoting young researchers – these are some of the key goals of the "German-Russian Roadmap for Cooperation in Education, Science, Research and Innovation", which Germany and Russia agreed in December 2018. An important step in this context was the signing of an agreement between the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).

One of the goals of the German-Russian Roadmap is to expand cooperation at major research infrastructures in Russia. One of the projects identified for this is the instrumentation and scientific usage of the future accelerator complex NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility), currently being built in Dubna at JINR. The German contributions to this cooperation are financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and handled by GSI. For this purpose, a cooperation agreement between JINR and GSI has been worked out, which has a total volume of about 20 million Euros. It was signed in early February in Moscow during the "Helmholtz Winter Talks 2020", a traditional event for the exchange of views between decision-makers from politics, science and society in Russia and Germany.

The agreement on technical cooperation between GSI and JINR consists of several subprojects: coordination and technical follow-up, stochastic cooling for the NICA collider, silicon tracking system for the NICA experiment BM@N as well as read-out electronics and data acquisition for this experiment, research and development for the superconducting high intensity ion injector Linacs@JINR and finally beam diagnostics and LLRF electronics for linear accelerators. As the next step, the details of these six subprojects are currently being worked out.

Professor Paolo Giubellino, who signed the agreement together with Professor Vladimir Kekelidze, JINR Vice-Director for the NICA science project, said: "I am very pleased about the new cooperation, which can build on an already existing, very solid foundation between our two institutes". The collaboration between GSI and JINR has a long tradition and includes both research at the existing accelerator and experimental facilities of both partners as well as research and development activities for future research infrastructures such as the two accelerator centers FAIR and NICA, which are currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt and at JINR in Dubna. "The agreement offers excellent opportunities to further strengthen our cooperation in the future and to open up promising new perspectives in research and technological innovation”. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3636 Mon, 11 May 2020 10:50:00 +0200 Horst Klein Award for Bernhard Franzke https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3636&cHash=9a2f5a3c67ecd5094ce565e3f7918846 Dr. Bernhard Franzke receives the Horst Klein Award for his outstanding scientific achievements in the field of accelerator physics. Bernhard Franzke has been a leading accelerator physicist at GSI for many years and was significantly involved in the construction and development of UNILAC, the ESR and many experiments. In the years 2000 until 2005 he was significantly involved in developing the concept of storage rings at FAIR Dr. Bernhard Franzke receives the Horst Klein Award for his outstanding scientific achievements in the field of accelerator physics. Bernhard Franzke has been a leading accelerator physicist at GSI for many years and was significantly involved in the construction and development of UNILAC, the ESR and many experiments. In the years 2000 until 2005 he was significantly involved in developing the concept of storage rings at FAIR.

As one of the first employees, Dr. Bernhard Franzke started his career at GSI already in 1969. Prior to that, he had studied physics at the University of Heidelberg where he also received his doctorate. During the development and construction of the linear accelerator UNILAC, he made decisive contributions to its optimization. He also developed an ultra-high vacuum technology, which was indispensable for the upcoming accelerator projects at GSI.
During the first upgrade of GSI, Bernhard Franzke was involved in the conceptual design of the ring accelerator SIS18, the experimental storage ring ESR and the fragment separator FRS. As project manager he was mainly responsible for the development and construction of the ESR, an innovative facility which contributes in an essential way to the uniqueness of GSI now and FAIR in the future. His ultra-high vacuum technology made it possible to decelerate heavy ions in the ESR to low energies at high intensities – a unique property of the ESR that was important for many experiments and is indispensable for future operation in combination with CRYRING. Bernhard Franzke's many years of commitment as group leader of the ESR and head of the accelerator division as well as his developments in accelerator physics and technology contributed decisively to the success of the ESR. Bernhard Franzke was also involved in the first design of the FAIR facility. He led the conceptual design of the storage rings for FAIR. He retired in 2005, but is still active as a consultant.

The Horst Klein Prize, named after the physicist Prof. Dr. Horst Klein (1931-2012), is awarded annually by the Frankfurt Physical Society, the Department of Physics at Goethe University Frankfurt and the Working Group Accelerator Physics (AKBP) of the German Physical Society. The Horst Klein Research Prize is aimed at internationally renowned scientists who have distinguished themselves through outstanding achievements of great significance and high originality. The prize is endowed with 5,000 euros. It is offered by the Goethe University of Frankfurt, the Fückstiftung, Professors Schempp and Schmidt-Böcking, as well as Pfeiffer Vacuum. The official award ceremony, which was to take place during this year's spring meeting of the German Physical Society, has been postponed due to the corona pandemic.

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news-3634 Tue, 05 May 2020 08:32:00 +0200 Full speed ahead for production of acceleration systems for FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3634&cHash=e4c753f1c2ccbdfec34abe7917308c5b In February, a delegation of GSI/FAIR near Darmstadt visited the RI Research Instruments GmbH premises in Bergisch Gladbach to inspect the assembly of the SIS100 acceleration systems, so-called accelerator cavities, the company has been contracted to produce for the international accelerator facility FAIR. From a total of 14 ferrite loaded cavities, six systems have now been assembled, three of which have also been acceptance tested. In February, a delegation of GSI/FAIR near Darmstadt visited the RI Research Instruments GmbH premises in Bergisch Gladbach to inspect the assembly of the SIS100 acceleration systems, so-called accelerator cavities, the company has been contracted to produce for the international accelerator facility FAIR. From a total of 14 ferrite loaded cavities, six systems have now been assembled, three of which have also been acceptance tested. The 14 cavities will be installed in the FAIR ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters and located 17 meters below the Earth’s surface. At FAIR, matter that usually only exists in the depth of space will be produced in a lab for research. Scientists from all over the world will be able to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present.

The FAIR ring accelerator is supplied by the existing GSI accelerator facilities, which serve as injectors. Since the facility accelerates ions – charged atomic nuclei – of all elements from hydrogen to uranium, the cavities must be particularly variable in producing the acceleration frequencies. They generate a radiofrequency field that can accelerate the ions up to 99% of the speed of light. By manipulating the frequency, the ions in the ring can, for example, be packed into different numbers of bunches – suitable for the experiment to be performed with them after acceleration.

The order for the production of the 14 cavities is executed by RI together with Ampegon Power Electronics AG as subcontractor and has now resulted in a successful technology transfer of the ferrite-loaded cavity. RI will build two such acceleration systems for a heavy ion cancer therapy machine for a first industrial customer in the USA.

RI is convinced by the design and concept of the state-of-the-art accelerator system and is thankful for the trust GSI has shown RI, enabling the company to offer this concept to other industrial customers. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3632 Tue, 28 Apr 2020 10:00:00 +0200 FAIR project: Contract awarding for shell constructions on the southern construction site https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3632&cHash=17be064698402d2d9a53ad96cab07ca7 Another important stage in the FAIR mega project is starting. While the shell construction in the construction area north is progressing continuously, a first major package has now been awarded for the southern construction site. This marks the next decisive steps in the realization of the future accelerator center FAIR, currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. Another important stage in the FAIR mega project is starting. While the shell construction in the construction area north is progressing continuously, a first major package has now been awarded for the southern construction site. This marks the next decisive steps in the realization of the future accelerator center FAIR, currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.

This major contract in a three-digit million euro range was awarded to the consortium of the companies Züblin and Strabag in Germany. The construction work include the shell constructions for six buildings and a unique experimental facility – the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super FRS).

Following the construction work already underway in the northern area for the future experiment CBM, one of the four central pillars of the FAIR research program, the construction of a further decisive research area with outstanding discovery potential for science is being started now. The Super FRS will focus on research topics concerning the nuclear structure and interactions of extremely rare, exotic particles. These new isotopes will be produced with highest intensities, separated at the Super FRS and will be made available for world unique experiments to study cosmic matter in the laboratory.

In order to realize this outstanding research infrastructure, the award package also includes the shell construction for further experimental and supply buildings as well as for transfer lines for the beams. The Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock, emphasized: “With the current contract, we are implementing a further building block of our award strategy, which is customized for the mega-project FAIR, in accordance with our planning. Now the second large construction area in the south of the FAIR site and further parts of the high-tech production are moving into focus on our way to the realization of FAIR. We will also continue with our already established integrated overall planning in close cooperation with our partners in planning and execution."

Simultaneously and closely coordinated with the progress on the construction site, the development and production of the corresponding high-tech components continues, items which are required in particular for the Super FRS. For example, these include special high-performance power converters and superconducting magnet units that later will be used in the Super FRS for beam correction to achieve a high-precision particle beam.

The FAIR project is one of the world’s biggest construction projects for international cutting-edge research. In total, the highly complex FAIR accelerator facility will comprise more than 20 structures on a site of approximately 150,000 square meters. Around two million cubic meters of soil will be moved and 600,000 cubic meters of concrete and 65,000 tons of reinforcing steel will be used for the construction project. Scientists from all over the world will use FAIR to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe with outstanding experiments. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3630 Thu, 16 Apr 2020 09:30:00 +0200 GSI/FAIR research supports the fight against corona https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3630&cHash=abe9f7ae3e9c5b3ce0bb0a39bb26162b GSI/FAIR uses its research potential and unique infrastructure to contribute to the management of the current corona pandemic. In several areas at GSI/FAIR, scientists are working to provide new insights and technologies that may help to fight the corona virus SARS-CoV-2. To this aim, the accelerators and laboratories on the Darmstadt campus are also being used. The laboratory is operational, while strictly abiding to safety regulations. GSI/FAIR uses its research potential and unique infrastructure to contribute to the management of the current corona pandemic. In several areas at GSI/FAIR, scientists are working to provide new insights and technologies that may help to fight the corona virus SARS-CoV-2. To this aim, the accelerators and laboratories on the Darmstadt campus are also being used. The laboratory is operational, while strictly abiding to safety regulations.

Four projects are currently being developed to exploit the possibilities of GSI and FAIR research in the corona crisis and to expand the fundamental knowledge about the virus. The researchers are working on contributions to the development of vaccines as well as on therapeutic low-dose irradiation options for pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2. Other projects aim at the development of faster and optimized virus detection and at the possibility of producing improved viral filtration masks.

As always, GSI/FAIR actively cooperates with other research centers: one of the measures involves collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung (HZI) in Braunschweig, another is in cooperation with the University Hospitals in Frankfurt and Erlangen. The other two projects are developed in cooperation with universities in the USA and Argentina as well as the University Hospital Gießen-Marburg and the company TransMIT GmbH in Gießen.

Overview of the four specific projects:

Ion radiation for vaccine development

In order to develop vaccines using inactivated viruses, researchers need methods that inactivate the virus while causing as little damage to its structure as possible — in particular the viral envelope that is the key to the immune response. In past years, the inactivation of viruses for vaccine development has been carried out with conventional gamma radiation. However, the use of high doses of gamma rays inevitably leads to damage of the structural-and membrane-associated proteins of the virus that should be recognized by the immune system following vaccination to promote efficient protection. The new project therefore plans to irradiate influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses with high-energy heavy ions. Energetic ions are able to inactivate the virus by inducing breaks in the viral RNA with only a few passages in the envelope, thus minimizing membrane damage. The resulting viruses will then be examined at the HZI in Braunschweig for their ability to promote the formation of virus-binding and neutralizing antibodies after vaccination.

Therapeutic effect of low-dose radiation in SARS-CoV-2 induced pneumonia

In a preclinical study, GSI researchers plan to examine whether pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 can be treated with low-dose radiation. Partners are the University Hospitals in Frankfurt and Erlangen. For this purpose, the anti-inflammatory effects in the lung will be compared under two alternative conditions: One is the use of a typical low-dose X-ray radiation, as it has already been administered in the past for the treatment of pneumonia, the other is the use of an increased radon activity compared to the environmental activity. The scientists hope to gain insights into the stage of the disease at which this might be a suitable approach. It is also important to find a balance between the desired anti-inflammatory effect in the lungs and undesired immunosuppressive, systemic effects of the radiation. In this way, mild exposure to radon could be used as a moderate immunomodulator.

Improved and fast virus detection with single nanopore membranes

GSI is working together with international partners on the development of highly sensitive sensors based on nanopores. These sensors have the potential to detect viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 selectively and quickly. For this purpose, a membrane with a single nanopore provides excellent detection conditions. At the GSI accelerator facility, polymer foils are irradiated with individual ions. Chemical etching of a single ion track creates a single nanopore whose geometry and diameter can be adjusted very precisely. In cooperation with external groups, the surface of the nanopores is specifically functionalized in order to monitor the transport of specific particles, molecules or even viruses through the nanopore. Sensors based on nanopores have the potential for high sensitivity and fast detection response. Together with the collaboration partners, opportunities are currently being investigated to support research projects for the detection of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 or specific filtration processes using the track-etched GSI membranes.

Ion-track membranes with tailored nanopores for viral filtration masks

In this project it is planned to use track-etched nanopores to develop safe respiratory protection filters and thus improve breathing masks. At GSI, corresponding polymer foils with monodisperse and oriented nanopores are produced by ion irradiation and subsequent chemical track-etching. The diameter of the pores can be tailored exactly to size. With an adjustable diameter up to 20 nanometers, such nanopores are significantly smaller than the size of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The radiation process at the GSI accelerator facility also allows the number of nanopores to be precisely adjusted (up to about 10 billion per cm2). Together with the collaboration partners, GSI scientists are currently discussing possibilities to investigate the suitability and optimal parameters of track-etched membranes as filters for respiratory masks. Respiratory masks optimized in this way could provide better protection against a virus infection in pandemic situations. (BP/IP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3628 Tue, 07 Apr 2020 09:00:00 +0200 Cooperation agreement despite corona crisis — European XFEL and FAIR sign contract in video conference https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3628&cHash=101d2559d5bb5ab0a2dd6fff348cb100 A cooperation agreement, a so-called "Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)", was recently signed by the international free-electron X-ray laser European XFEL and the international accelerator center FAIR. Due to the corona crisis, the signing took place in a joint video conference of the involved parties. A cooperation agreement, a so-called "Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)", was recently signed by the international free-electron X-ray laser European XFEL and the international accelerator center FAIR. Due to the corona crisis, the signing took place in a joint video conference of the involved parties. This was preceded by a virtual seminar talk by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of GSI and FAIR, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Director of GSI and FAIR, on the status and prospects of the FAIR project. Talk and ceremony were attended by more than 60 video conference participants. European XFEL and FAIR have a lot in common, being both accelerator-based research laboratories serving a broad international community. Both are owned by international shareholders, with a primary role, after Germany, of the Russian Federation. They are both landmarks in the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI).

Within the framework of the cooperation, FAIR and European XFEL intend to share and promote their best practices, knowledge and results, for example by organizing joint scientific and technical events such as workshops or seminars. An exchange is planned both in administrative and organizational areas such as the cost structure or dealing with scientific users, and in the scientific environment through joint research and development projects or the secondment of personnel.

In the MoU, both partners acknowledge the importance of cooperation between Big Science projects in administration and technology as a key factor increasing competitiveness in the development of both social and economic systems and for the improvement of living standards in them. By strengthening cooperation, the MoU aims to exploit synergies in industrial cooperation and to support the achievement of scientific and technological results that promote technological innovation and socio-economic developments.

"With the Memorandum of Understanding, we are opening up new opportunities for fruitful cooperation between European XFEL and FAIR on many different levels. We look forward to joint activities and a lively exchange of ideas among colleagues," Professor Paolo Giubellino explained. Jörg Blaurock added: "In addition to the administrative and scientific collaboration, at FAIR, the promotion of the technological side through technology transfer and industrial cooperation is a major concern. Here we want to identify synergies with European XFEL and exploit our joint potential."

European XFEL Managing Director Professor Robert Feidenhans’l said: “European XFEL and FAIR are both international state-of-the-art research facilities serving a broad scientific community. We have a lot of common experiences and research interests and we are very much looking forward to collaborating more closely with our colleagues at FAIR to explore how we can combine our knowledge to advance and enrich international science.”

The agreement will be valid for a period of five years, with the option of an extension for further five years. GSI and FAIR already have a long-standing connection with European XFEL as well as with its founding laboratory and German shareholder, the Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, which, like GSI, belongs to the Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren. (CP)

Further information:
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3626 Tue, 31 Mar 2020 12:00:00 +0200 Prestigious European research grant awarded to GSI physicists https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3626&cHash=8ba7df8c29d9de6a1793be257ead4596 The two GSI physicists Marco Durante and Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo have been honored with the prestigious advanced research grant of the European Union. The European Research Council (ERC) awarded them each an "ERC Advanced Grant". The renowned prize underlines the outstanding quality of scientific research at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR, which is being built there. The two GSI physicists Marco Durante and Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo have been honored with the prestigious advanced research grant of the European Union. The European Research Council (ERC) awarded them each an "ERC Advanced Grant". The renowned prize underlines the outstanding quality of scientific research at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR, which is being built there. Another "ERC Advanced Grant" goes to Professor Beatriz Jurado from the Centre Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG), who will use the GSI/FAIR facilities for the execution of the experimental part of her project, as outlined in her application.

The grants are funding and acknowledgment in equal measure: They are awarded exclusively on the basis of the scientific excellence of the projects submitted and are aimed at established researchers from all disciplines whose highly innovative projects go considerably beyond the current state of the art and open up new areas of research. They are endowed with a maximum of 2.5 million euros each over a period of five years.

Marco Durante is Head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department and professor at the TU Darmstadt Department of Physics, Institute of Condensed Matter of Physics. He is an internationally recognized expert in the fields of radiation biology and medical physics, especially for therapy with heavy ions and radioprotection in space. He made important scientific progress in the field of biodosimetry of charged particles, optimization of particle therapy, and shielding of heavy ions in space.

In his new project entitled "Biomedical Applications of Radioactive ion Beams (BARB)", Marco Durante intends to further develop tumor treatment with charged particle therapy. “Particle therapy is rapidly growing and is potentially the most effective and precise radiotherapy technique. However, range uncertainty and poor image guidance limit its applications. Improving accuracy is the key to broadening the applicability of particle therapy", explained Marco Durante. This could also allow better treatment of smaller metastases or tumors close to critical structures, and to small targets in non-cancer diseases, such as ventricular ablations in cardiac arrhythmia.

The new idea is to use the same beam for treatment and for imaging during treatment. Radioactive ion beams are the ideal tool, but their intensity is not yet sufficient for therapeutic applications. Only cutting-edge facilities such as FAIR and the "FAIR Phase 0" experimental program underway at GSI/FAIR can generate such intense beams. Marco Durante explained: “With FAIR-phase-0 high-intensity beams of short-lived isotopes of carbon and oxygen nuclei will be used to enable simultaneous treatment and visualization. This can significantly reduce the range uncertainty and further advance the applicability of particle therapy.” The beam will be visualized in the target position using an innovative Gamma-PET detector that will be built by Prof. Katia Parodi at LMU Munich, partner and beneficiary of the BARB project. “BARB is an experiment showing the enormous potential of FAIR. It is indeed a collaboration between the APPA and NUSTAR pillars of the FAIR project”, said Marco Durante.

Marco Durante studied physics and got his PhD at the University Federico II in Italy. His post doc positions took him to the NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. During his studies, he specialized in charged particle therapy, cosmic radiation, radiation cytogenetics and radiation biophysics. He has received numerous awards for his research, including the Galileo Galilei prize from the European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics, the IBA Europhysics Prize of the European Physical Society (EPS) and the Bacq & Alexander award of the European Radiation Research Society (ERRS).

More about Professor Marco Durante's research

Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo is Head of the GSI Theory Research Department, professor at the Theory Center of the Institute for Nuclear Physics (Department of physics, TU Darmstadt) and principal investigator of the SFB 1245 “Nuclei: From Fundamental Interactions to Structure and Stars”. He is recognized internationally as an expert in the field of the nucleosynthesis of chemical elements in stars. He was a co-leader of the international collaboration that predicted in 2010 that the synthesis of heavy elements in a neutron star merger leads to a characteristic electromagnetic signal named kilonova. In 2017, space and ground observatories were actually able to detect the predicted electromagnetic signal after the merger of two neutron stars.

In his new project, entitled "Probing r-process nucleosynthesis through its electromagnetic signatures (KILONOVA)" Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo will further develop these approaches. He explained: „The project aims to answer one of the fundamental questions in physics: How and where are the heavy elements from iron to uranium made by the r-process?”

The confirmation of the theoretical predictions on the origin of heavy elements through the observation of gravitational waves of a neutron star merger in combination with characteristic electromagnetic signals in 2017 had provided the sensational first direct indication that r-process elements are produced during neutron star mergers. “Additional events are expected to be detected in the following years. To fully exploit such opportunities it is fundamental to combine an improved description of the exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved in the r-process with sophisticated astrophysical simulations to provide accurate prediction of r-process nucleosynthesis yields and their electromagnetic signals”, explained Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo. These predictions could then be confronted with observations. “Together with the unique experimental capabilities of the GSI/FAIR facility, it constitutes a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of r-process nucleosynthesis.”

Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo studied physics and received his PhD from the Autonomous University of Madrid. He specialized in nuclear structure as well as nuclear astrophysics. As a postdoc, he gained experience at the California Institute of Technology in the USA, followed by research stays of several years at the Aarhus University in Denmark and the University of Basel in Switzerland. His research on the nucleosynthesis of chemical elements in stars has received multiple recognition, including the "Gustav Hertz Preis" of the German Physical Society (DPG) “for the discovery of a new nucleosynthesis process: The νp-process”.

More about Professor Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo's research

The two research colleagues Marco Durante and Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo also emphasized: “We are grateful to the European Research Council for giving us a great opportunity with its funding and we look forward to working together in our respective teams. Our aim is to go significantly beyond the current state of research with our projects and to open up new, forward-looking areas of research. The future accelerator center FAIR and the already existing experimental program are central building blocks for this and will enable us to do so many pioneering things".

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino emphasized: "It is a fantastic achievement. I am extremely pleased about the recognition of these outstanding scientists who, with their innovative projects and their commitment, are tackling important challenges in nuclear physics and medical physics. The grants demonstrate the outstanding quality of scientific research at GSI and FAIR. They go to two of our flagship fields: nuclear astrophysics and biomedical applications of nuclear physics. In addition, the grants underline the outstanding research perspectives opened by our FAIR phase-0 program. With FAIR, we will be able to further expand the prospects of such groundbreaking research and enable important pioneering achievements.”

GSI and FAIR are also thrilled about the award of another ERC Advanced Grant to Professor Beatriz Jurado from the Centre Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG), part of the French National Centre for Scientific Research CNRS. The experimental part of the project will be performed at GSI/FAIR.

Beatriz Jurado has been closely associated with GSI and FAIR for a long time through her nuclear physics research. Her main research areas are low-energy nuclear physics, nuclear reactions and fission. Already her doctoral thesis, which she defended at the University of Santiago de Compostela, was realized at the GSI's fragment separator FRS. She is also involved in the NUSTAR collaboration, one of the four major research pillars of FAIR, as a member of the Resource Board and was, among other things, a guest at GSI as “Visiting Professor” of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI.

In her EU-funded project entitled “Nuclear rEaCTions At storage Rings (NECTAR)” she wants to further advance the measuring capabilities in nuclear physics research. Her goal is to develop a new methodology to indirectly infer neutron-induced cross sections of unstable nuclei. These cross sections are essential for nuclear astrophysics, since most of the heavy elements in the Universe are produced by neutron-induced reactions in stars, and also for applications in nuclear technology. Her work is an experimental specification of the project of Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo.

“However, their measurement is very complicated as both projectile and target are radioactive. We will overcome these limitations by producing the nuclei formed in the neutron-induced reactions of interest with surrogate reactions involving radioactive heavy-ion beams and stable, light target nuclei. We will measure the decay probabilities for fission, neutron and gamma-ray emission of the nuclei produced by the surrogate reaction”, explained Beatriz Jurado. These probabilities provide precious information to constrain models and will enable much more accurate predictions of the desired neutron cross sections.

The experimental part of Beatriz Jurado´s project will be realized at the accelerator facility on the GSI/FAIR campus as part of FAIR Phase 0, using the storage rings ESR and CRYRING. Beatriz Jurado described: “The storage rings of GSI/FAIR are unique devices where revolving ion beams of outstanding quality repeatedly interact with ultra-thin, windowless gas-jet targets. We will take advantage of these exceptional features to measure decay probabilities of many unstable nuclei with unrivalled precision”.

Professor Paolo Giubellino is very delighted with the execution of the NECTAR project at the GSI/FAIR facility: “This underlines once more the attractiveness of our laboratory for the international research community and the quality of our research infrastructures already during FAIR Phase 0. We are very pleased that a renowned scientist like Beatriz Jurado will join us for her experimental research. This is also a great recognition for us".

The President of the European Research Council (ERC), Professor Mauro Ferrari, commented: “I am glad to announce a new round of ERC grants that will back cutting-edge, exploratory research, set to help Europe and the world to be better equipped for what the future may hold. That’s the role of blue sky research. These senior research stars will cut new ground in a broad range of fields, including the area of health. I wish them all the best in this endeavour and, at this time of crisis, let me pay tribute to the heroic and invaluable work of the scientific community as a whole.” (BP/IP)

More information

Press release of the European Research Council

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3624 Fri, 27 Mar 2020 09:52:00 +0100 Artistic impressions, drone flights over the construction site: GSI and FAIR invite to a virtual visit https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3624&cHash=c6069be13420a666e62d1a036a051770 One of our priorities at GSI and FAIR has always been to provide the public with exciting insights into our research facilities, programs and results, and demonstrating the progress made on the construction of FAIR. However, the new situation created by the spread of the corona virus requires new approaches also here. Public guided tours on the campus and to the visitor platform at the construction site cannot be offered at present. Therefore, GSI and FAIR have arranged a digital offer, which gives all ... One of our priorities at GSI and FAIR has always been to provide the public with exciting insights into our research facilities, programs and results, and demonstrating the progress made on the construction of FAIR. However, the new situation created by the spread of the corona virus requires new approaches also here. Public guided tours on the campus and to the visitor platform at the construction site cannot be offered at present. Therefore, GSI and FAIR have arranged a digital offer, which gives all interested people the opportunity to continue visiting us virtually and interactively.

For example, one can click through a selection of very special artistic impressions that were created during a visit of the group "Urban Sketchers Rhein-Main" at GSI and FAIR. More than 30 members of the group, which is part of an international network of artists, spent a day sketching and painting on campus in January. The result are numerous extraordinary views of our particle accelerators and experimental stations.

The mega construction project FAIR, one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide, can also be visited virtually. Visitors can fly over the FAIR construction site by drone flight, get to know its extraordinary dimensions and, for the first time, even dive into the large ring tunnel that will form the heart of the future accelerator center. In addition, a long-term drone lapse video was created using a new filming technique that shows the development of an entire year: With the help of GPS, several videos were superimposed, so that one can see the construction grow as if from one piece right before the eyes of the viewer, making the progress particularly tangible.

Furthermore, there is the opportunity delve into our history, for example to travel back in time by photo slider on the GSI and FAIR homepage: an interactive past-today-show in which the images virtually overlap and thereby illustrate how things used to look like on campus in the past and how they look like today. The results provide interesting insights, for example into the linear accelerator, the control room or the experimental halls.

An even more detailed tour through half a century is offered by the digital GSI timeline where highlights of the GSI history are presented. Users can click their way through 50 years of GSI, and take a look into the future of FAIR. Also the great scientific achievements such as the discovery of six new chemical elements or the development of a new type of tumor therapy using ion beams can be found there.

The main task of GSI and FAIR is to carry out cutting-edge research and to use the accelerator facilities to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. A science film shows how scientists from all over the world can explore the universe in our laboratory.

If you want to take a virtual walk through the research facilities of GSI and FAIR and to stand directly next to the particle accelerators and detectors, it is best to get out your mobile phone to watch our 360° video in an optimized way. The exciting video was produced for the planetarium show "Dimensions - Once upon reality" at the Bochum Planetarium.

On all these digital and virtual routes, our guests are therefore still welcome to visit our research facilities and take a look at the FAIR construction site. Furthermore, GSI and FAIR of course offer the possibility to keep up to date and to stay in contact with us online on our homepage and on our social media channels. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3622 Mon, 16 Mar 2020 11:00:00 +0100 Dr. Ulrich Breuer is the new Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3622&cHash=fa7e52bdb75e91e48b35b10db752a2d5 The science manager and physicist Dr. Ulrich Breuer has taken over the position of the Administrative Managing Director of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) on 15 March 2020. He previously worked as Administrative Director at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). The science manager and physicist Dr. Ulrich Breuer has taken over the position of the Administrative Managing Director of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) on 15 March 2020. He previously worked as Administrative Director at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR).

Together with the Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino and the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock, Dr. Ulrich Breuer will constitute the joint management team of GSI and FAIR. He succeeds Ursula Weyrich, who has changed to the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg as Administrative Director.

“GSI has been a synonym for cutting-edge research with worldwide reputation for decades, and with the future accelerator center FAIR, the international dimensions of research will be expanded in a future-oriented manner. I am looking forward to this responsible task and the opportunity to foster this development", says Dr. Ulrich Breuer. “I am very grateful for the trust placed in me.” He names as the most important goals a solid financial and personnel planning as well as the effective support of science with customized infrastructural and administrative conditions.

His two management colleagues, Professor Paolo Giubellino and Jörg Blaurock, are also looking forward to future cooperation in the management team and emphasize: “Dr. Breuer knows the profession very well and for a long time. He brings with him a broad knowledge of science management as well as of the administrative leadership of large research institutions." The aim is to conduct top-level research at the existing facility and to realize the future accelerator facility FAIR in international cooperation. “The decision in favor of Dr. Breuer is an excellent choice. With his many years of experience we will continue to successfully shape the future of GSI and FAIR together.”

Dr. Ulrich Breuer studied physics and received his doctorate at the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen. His professional career began in 1991 at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. There he first worked as assistant to the Chairman of the Board of Directors and then in leading positions for many years.

In 2005, he changed to the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin as Administrative Director, where he accompanied the merger with the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY) and the foundation of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. He operated as its Administrative Director from 2009 to 2011.

From 2012 to 2017, he worked as Vice President Economics and Finance of the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). Subsequently he held the position of the Administrative Director at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.

Until the end of June 2020, Dr. Breuer will continue in his current position at the HZDR in addition to his functions at GSI and FAIR. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3620 Tue, 10 Mar 2020 08:45:00 +0100 Dr. Clémentine Santamaria receives FAIR-GENCO Young Scientist Award https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3620&cHash=e6d0177a9a4c4ecd71822cf79ffcdc6f This year's FAIR-GENCO Young Scientist Award goes to Dr. Clémentine Santamaria from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, USA. The award is presented by the GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and is endowed with 1,000 Euros. It is awarded annually to young researchers, who are at the begin of their scientific career. This year's FAIR-GENCO Young Scientist Award goes to Dr. Clémentine Santamaria from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, USA. The award is presented by the GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and is endowed with 1,000 Euros. It is awarded annually to young researchers, who are at the begin of their scientific career. The award was bestowed during a festive colloquium at FAIR and GSI by GENCO President Professor Christoph Scheidenberger (GSI/FAIR) and GENCO Vice President Professor Wolfram Korten (CEA-IRFU, Saclay, France) at the GENCO Annual Meeting in March. The awardee was chosen in a selection procedure by the international GENCO Jury, consisting of seven renowned nuclear physicists. In addition, three scientists as well as Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, were appointed as new members via the GENCO Membership Award.

Dr. Clémentine Santamaria received the Young Scientist Award and the GENCO Membership for her milestone achievements to answer long-standing questions of the evolution of shell structure far from stability and her striking expertise in both nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear reactions. Prior to her current postdoctoral position at Berkeley, she worked at the Japanese research center RIKEN and the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, USA, among others.

The GENCO Membership was awarded to:

  • Jörg Blaurock (Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR) for his outstanding accomplishments for the realization of the FAIR project, in particular the construction of the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) and the NUSTAR facilities at FAIR.
  • Dr. Tuomas Grahn (scientists at Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Jyväskylä) for his important findings of shape evolution and shape coexistence in the lead-polonium region and for his contributions to groundbreaking experiments on the excited structures of heavy nuclei all the way up to the nobelium region.
  • Dr. Helmut Weick (scientist at GSI) for his significant contributions to the design of the Super-FRS and to the development of simulation codes, which are based on his experimental results of heavy-ion stopping in matter, and for decisive contributions to a variety of experiments with exotic nuclei. (CP)
Further Information:

 

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news-3618 Fri, 06 Mar 2020 08:59:00 +0100 Looking into the future of quantum computing across industries https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3618&cHash=a26fc99ed0823f139a47dcc4119413cd Darmstadt isn’t just home to Merck’s global headquarters, it is a global science, technology and innovation hub. In fact, in 2019, it was again ranked as Germany’s No.1 “City of the Future” in terms of scientific innovation. In retrospect then, it’s no surprise that the recent Applied Quantum Conference was hosted by a collaborative syndicate of large science-focused organizations based in Darmstadt: ESA/ESOC, GSI/FAIR and Merck. This news is based on a publication of Merck KGaA.

Darmstadt isn’t just home to Merck’s global headquarters, it is a global science, technology and innovation hub. In fact, in 2019, it was again ranked as Germany’s No.1 “City of the Future” in terms of scientific innovation. In retrospect then, it’s no surprise that the recent Applied Quantum Conference was hosted by a collaborative syndicate of large science-focused organizations based in Darmstadt: the Operations Centre of the European Space Agency (ESA/ ESOC); the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (GSI/FAIR); and Merck, a vibrant science and technology company with more than 350 years of history. The conference focus was to discuss the coming paradigm shift in quantum technology. More specifically, the event aimed to identify quantum solutions to current and future needs, connect communities and facilitate interactions to foster future productive collaborations and solutions.

What is “Quantum”?

Quantum mechanics in physics is fundamentally about how molecules, atoms, or sub-atomic particles behave. Over the years, such particles have been observed to act in ways which are highly unexpected and difficult to explain using the established laws of classical physics. As a result, there are currently close to 20 different philosophical interpretations of what quantum behavior is, all valid in their respective applications. Companies like Merck are interested in quantum behavior as it applies in an industrial context. This includes how it can be used to approach challenges in Performance Materials, Life Science and Healthcare.

Specifically, it is hoped that Quantum Computing can address the limitations of traditional “digital”, computational methods and machine learning currently used to identify potential new materials and drugs, and their interaction with so-called drug targets. These methods are highly computationally intensive, if not impossible, and often rely on huge datasets to train the models. One promise of quantum computing is that it will significantly accelerate this process using so-called “qubits” instead of the traditional 0s and 1s of binary digital computing. A qubit can best be described as a vector pointing to a point on the surface of a sphere. Rotations of this vector and interactions with other vectors according to the laws of quantum mechanics can be used as encode calculations on quantum objects. However, it is currently neither clear how to use the algorithms for most real problems, nor possible to test the calculations because hardware with sufficient qubits does not yet exist. Nevertheless, the first interesting approaches for “quantum enhanced” computing are on the horizon.

The Applied Quantum Conference

It’s within this context that Darmstadt-based science leaders ESA/ESOC, GSI/FAIR and Merck organized the Applied Quantum Conference.  Held on February 4, 2020, it brought together very different sectors that are at the same time very similar in terms of the problems they face and are trying to solve.

“The first Applied Quantum Conference was extremely successful in bringing together experts for the application of quantum computing to many real-world challenges from different sectors. Exchanging the gained experiences showed several commonalities and unveiled the potential for common approaches to further increase the utilization of quantum computing. At GSI and the future international FAIR accelerator facility, which is currently under construction, we look forward to intensifying the existing collaboration with ESA and Merck in this and other fields,” said Dr. Tobias Engert, co-organizer and head of the Technology Transfer of GSI and FAIR.

The conference attracted a panel of highly distinguished speakers from Merck, ESA/ESOC and GSI/FAIR. In addition, top universities presented the very latest progress from their labs, and a select group of startups and established international firms demonstrated products and results at the very cutting edge of this technology landscape.

The Applied Quantum Conference was a spectacular collaborative showcase for a branch of scientific endeavor that could shape the progress of the 21st century. The three organizers, ESA/ESOC, GSI/FAIR  and Merck are very much looking forward to all the follow up activities that have been identified. (Merck/CP)

Further information:
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news-3616 Tue, 03 Mar 2020 09:58:46 +0100 Nuclear matter experts meet in Dresden https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3616&cHash=edbc3bb64fc82d3db78e941117c154d6 From March 2 to 6, 2020, the 38th HADES Collaboration Meeting will take place at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) with more than 80 participants from more than 20 institutes in nine European countries. At the meeting, the scientists will discuss the status of the HADES detector system for the planned use at the international accelerator FAIR and a roadmap for future measurements. This news is based on a news by Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR).

From March 2 to 6, 2020, the 38th HADES Collaboration Meeting will take place at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) with more than 80 participants from more than 20 institutes in nine European countries. At the meeting, the scientists will discuss the status of the HADES detector system for the planned use at the international accelerator FAIR and a roadmap for future measurements.

The international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and is one of the largest research projects worldwide. Here, scientists from all over the world want to create matter in the laboratory that otherwise only occurs in the depth of space. They expect new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present.

One piece of the puzzle on the way and at the same time a major challenge for modern particle physics is to explain the origin of the masses of important components of matter. So-called hadrons (protons and neutrons) combine 99 percent of the mass of luminous matter in the universe. The same applies to our natural environment, in which protons and neutrons are largely bound in nuclei. To understand the phenomenon of the "mass of hadrons", scientists use different methods. One way is to study the decay products of particularly suitable hadrons in the environment of strongly interacting matter. These elementary particles, grouped together as vector mesons, are created in the collisions of heavy ions. However, scientists can also produce them in the laboratory by bombarding nuclei with elementary particles. Thus, nuclear physicists create strongly interacting matter with up to three times the nuclear density, at temperatures equivalent to 50,000 times the temperature inside the sun.

HADES: Know-how for precise hadron spectroscopy

The vector mesons produced in this way decay, among other things, into so-called lepton pairs, which are e. g. composed of electrons and positrons. But this is a relatively rare process. This is why the researchers need special detectors. This is where HADES (High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer) comes in. The detector is installed at GSI and calibrated to those electron-positron pairs that leave the surrounding strongly interacting matter almost undisturbed, thus providing direct access to the original mass of their initial hadrons.

HADES was developed in an international collaboration at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI, which has now been running for 25 years. The lively cooperation of around 100 scientists has resulted in an intensive transfer of knowledge in the field of particle physics — from Monte Carlo simulations and detector construction to fast front-end electronics and data analysis — which also benefits HZDR and has already manifested in almost 250 scientific publications.

The HZDR is extensively involved in HADES: Alone 12 of the 24 drift chamber detectors were manufactured in the HZDR detector laboratory, now the multifunctional laboratory. They are the centerpiece, which allows the precise measurement of the momenta of charged reaction products from the heavy ion impact. The results enable investigations of the equation of state of hot dense matter, comparable to the state in neutron stars. In this way, researchers obtain an unaltered view of the interior of highly compressed nuclear matter. At their meeting, the experts want to discuss previous results and future measurements at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI in the framework of the "FAIR Phase 0" research program and at the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100. (HZDR/CP)

Further information:

News of HZDR (German)

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news-3614 Mon, 17 Feb 2020 13:00:00 +0100 FAIR experimental program: Research team analyses repair processes in radiation-damaged cells https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3614&cHash=6c7d900cf64189c72a0ed05103aae62c These are future-oriented research results, combining most advanced physics and biology and at the same time demonstrating the great potential of the future accelerator center FAIR: Scientists at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have been able to observe the repair processes in human cells after radiation damage more directly and with higher resolution than ever before. A precise understanding of DNA repair mechanisms is of great importance, for example, for risk assessments during long-te These are future-oriented research results, combining most advanced physics and biology and at the same time demonstrating the great potential of the future accelerator center FAIR: Scientists at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have been able to observe the repair processes in human cells after radiation damage more directly and with higher resolution than ever before. A precise understanding of DNA repair mechanisms is of great importance, for example, for risk assessments during long-term space missions.

For the radiation experiments at the accelerator facility on the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt, high-energy ion beams, which are also characteristic of cosmic radiation in space, were used and combined with modern microscopy techniques. The investigations were carried out as part of the first stage of the FAIR experimental program, "FAIR Phase 0". The team of the GSI Biophysics Department has now published its results in the journal "Scientific Reports", which is edited by the Nature Publishing Group and which covers all areas of the natural sciences.

At the specially developed measuring station at the accelerator, the scientists irradiated established human cell cultures with heavy ions that cause double-strand breaks and thus damage the genetic information (DNA). During and immediately after irradiation, the research team was able to closely observe the dynamic processes of the induction of the damage and the subsequent repair processes in the genetically damaged cells using so-called "live cell imaging" on a specially constructed microscope directly at the accelerator beamline. For this purpose, the proteins responsible for repair in the cell were provided with fluorescent dyes so that they were visible under the microscope. The remote controlled arrangement made it possible to observe the protein dynamics in the cell core seamlessly and without interruption from the damage track to the biological response of the cell and to record it visually on film.

Particularly valuable for new fundamental insights into the repair processes in human cells is the possibility of using high energetic heavy ion beams to simultaneously generate simple and clustered DNA damage in the same cell and to investigate this damage in real time, which was previously possible only separately. In such a distribution of damage, many DNA double-strand breaks are concentrated along a densely ionizing damage path and only single, simple damages are off track. The researchers were thus able to observe parallel how the same cell reacts to complex damages and to single damages.

The results of the measurements show differences in this damage response: The DNA repair proteins seem to be recruited faster to the clustered damage than to the individual DNA damage outside the ion track. On the other hand, the delayed repair there seems to be faster and less difficult. Thus, the results clearly demonstrate the impact of the quality of DNA lesion on the dynamics of early radiation response and repair and indicate that simple and clustered DNA damage should be treated separately when assessing radiation effects.

Most precise fundamental knowledge about repair processes in cells also helps scientists to better understand the development of cancer. If DNA damage is repaired incorrectly, i.e. the repair of double-strand breaks does not function properly, the risk of cancer increases. The high-energy heavy ion radiation also corresponds to the cosmic radiation that astronauts are confronted with during long-term missions, for example to Mars. Therefore, research as carried out by GSI Biophysics is important for the most accurate and differentiated biological risk assessment in space travel.

The head of GSI Biophysics Department, Professor Marco Durante, stressed: "These are very innovative studies, only made possible by the high energies available in FAIR phase 0. By combining cutting-edge molecular biology with high-energy heavy ion physics, we were able to gain highly interesting knowledge, and the new technologies also enabled us to deliver outstanding visual research results".

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, was also very pleased with these exciting results of the first stage of the FAIR experimental program and emphasized: “At the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI, these possibilities will even be considerably expanded. FAIR will allow experiments with an even wider range of particle intensities and energies and will be able to simulate the composition of cosmic radiation with a precision that no other accelerator facility will be able to match”. (BP)

More information

Publication in Scientific Reports

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news-3612 Wed, 12 Feb 2020 10:30:00 +0100 Successful patenting and commercialization of green supercomputers "made in Hessen" https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3612&cHash=977cefe9dec8a4786f618961491de51e By 2030, data centres could be responsible for 13 percent of worldwide power consumption. In Frankfurt, the global network node with the highest data volume, data centres today already consume 20 percent of all local electricity – and this figure is rising. A large part of it is used for cooling power. Already today, the waste heat from single large-scale data centres could be used to heat up to 10,000 households. An answer to this global challenge comes from Goethe University and GSI. By 2030, data centers could be responsible for 13 percent of worldwide power consumption. In Frankfurt, the global network node with the highest data volume, data centers today already consume 20 percent of all local electricity – and this figure is rising. A large part of it is used for cooling power. Already today, the waste heat from single large-scale data centers could be used to heat up to 10,000 households. An answer to this global challenge comes from Hessen. To be specific, it comes from Goethe University and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, which were recently granted a European patent for their concept for an energy-efficient cooling structure for large data centers.

This patent now paves the way for the commercialization of the pioneering technology developed by Professor Volker Lindenstruth, Professor Horst Stöcker and Alexander Hauser of e3c. Together with parallel patents outside Europe, the invention can now be put to economic use throughout the world. The team has already received enquiries from various countries for the construction of such large data centres.

The data center is thus becoming an important export commodity “made in Hessen”. This success is also thanks to Innovectis, Goethe University’s own transfer agency, and its managing director Dr Martin Raditsch, the driving force behind the invention’s commercialization, as well as the GSI departments Technology Transfer headed by Tobias Engert and Patents headed by Michael Geier. The successful commercialization of the patents is a perfect example of collaboration between a university and a major research facility in Hessen.

NDC Data Centers GmbH, a Munich-based company, has obtained the rights to market the green technology in data center construction projects around the globe and is thus also making a major contribution to the careful handling of our energy resources against the backdrop of global digitalization.

The basis for these activities is the visionary concept of a significantly optimized cooling system for large data centers with the highest possible level of energy efficiency, which was developed by Volker Lindenstruth, Professor for High-Performance Computing Architecture at Goethe University and former head of the Scientific IT Department at GSI.  On the basis of his concept, large data centers and commercial IT systems can today be operated with up to 50 percent less primary energy consumption in comparison to conventional data centers.

The technology has been in use for years and is being continuously improved: The first data center of this type was Goethe University’s own, which was set up in the Infraserv industrial park. Another very large data center, the Green IT Cube, was built by the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt and financed from funds provided by the German federal government and the Federal State of Hessen via Helmholtz expansion investments. The concept enables the realization and particularly efficient operation of data centers for large-scale research facilities such as FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being set up at the GSI. Later, the Green IT Cube will be the central data center for FAIR, one of the largest projects worldwide in support of research. Moreover, the waste heat from the servers in the Green IT Cube is already being used today to heat a modern office and canteen building on the GSI campus.

Apart from the high energy savings associated with the use of this new technology, the construction of such data centers is also extraordinarily cost-efficient, thus minimizing procurement and operating costs: An expedient coupling of ecology and economy.

Lindenstruth’s supercomputers have received several awards for their energy-efficient concept in recent years. At the end of 2014, one of his computers ranked first place in the global listing of the most energy-efficient supercomputers, thanks to its greatly optimized computer architecture.

Goethe University’s success in the area of green IT is also spurring on its current application, together with Mainz, Kaiserslautern and Saarbrücken, to host one of the new National High-Performance Computing Centers. Thanks to the optimized computer architecture based on the Hessian green IT approach, considerably more computing power could be made available to users at the same cost. Goethe University would therefore be an ideal location for one of the new centers.

Views on the green supercomputer technology

Angela Dorn, Hessen’s Minister of Science, says: “My sincere congratulations to Professor Lindenstruth and his team. I’m especially pleased that this success has been accomplished in a field close to my heart: The energy turnaround to which green IT can make a very important contribution. I’m also very happy that we as the Federal State of Hessen have contributed to this success. The first supercomputer in which Professor Lindenstruth used his energy-saving technology was the LOEWE-CSC at Goethe University’s data centre in the Infraserv industrial park. Hessen’s Ministry of Science supported this investment with a total of almost € 2 million in the shape of both direct funding as well as from the LOEWE programme. We’re therefore today harvesting together the fruits of this funding and the LOEWE programme launched in 2008.”

Professor Birgitta Wolff, President of Goethe University, says:Just as in Goethe’s days it made no sense to harness more and more horses in front of a stagecoach in order to increase the speed, so today we are facing a fundamental paradigm shift in IT. Back then, the railroad was the answer to the problem of speed. Today, the smart IT sector has a huge sustainability and energy problem. To satisfy its enormous hunger for data, our IT-based society requires new energy concepts for supercomputers that drastically reduce power consumption. Volker Lindenstruth from Goethe University has developed such a solution. Its successful patenting with the support of our subsidiary Innovectis is a major step in the right direction: The dissemination and commercialization of this truly smart technology.”

Professor Volker Lindenstruth, Professor for High-Performance Computing Architecture at Goethe University, says: “Our successful patent registration is a milestone for the further global commercialization of our “Green IT” approach. We’ve already received enquiries for it from various regions worldwide. This gives our work a further boost, the more so since with NDC we now have a strong business partner at our side to help with the practical steps.”

Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and FAIR – Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, says: “The Green IT Cube high-performance computing center at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum is an outstanding example of how practical and usable know-how and developments evolve out of basic research. The Green IT Cube was developed for enormous volumes of measurement data from scientific research: It provides the highest computing capacities required and is at the same time extraordinarily energy-efficient and space-saving.”

Markus Bodenmeier, NDC co-founder and partner: “With the help of the innovations created by Professor Volker Lindenstruth from Goethe University and by the GSI, NDC Data Centers GmbH builds the most energy-efficient and resource-friendly data centers. In so doing, we can guarantee over the long term the benefits offered by the exponential growth of digitalization. We’re in keeping here with the current trend – all major cloud operators are at present keeping a very close eye on the impact of their activities on the environment.”

Other statements by experts involved

Dr Martin Raditsch, Managing Director of Innovectis GmbH, a subsidiary of Goethe University explains: “The application in practice of this technology is a very nice example of how results from basic research at the University and their transfer lead to technological solutions for societal challenges. Through our technology, the advancing digitalization of industry and society can be accomplished in a far more energy-saving way.”

Dr Tobias Engert, Director of the Technology Transfer Department at GSI, is very pleased about the invention’s success: “The cooling concept of the Green IT Cube at GSI is based on an innovative idea for the reduction of energy costs, and together with Innovectis we’ve now been able to successfully market it to NDC. Equipped with an innovative cooling system, the Green IT Cube meets the high requirements of optimum energy efficiency coupled with the highest possible computing power, and it will later become the central data centre for the new accelerator FAIR – Facility for Antiproton an Ion Research. The commercialization of the patents is certainly one of the most important examples of technology transfer from GSI into industry.” His colleague Michael Geier, Director of the Patents Department, adds: “The sale of the patents to NDC corroborates how important it is to protect new technical solutions developed at research facilities such as GSI through patents. Such patents are a deciding factor for technology transfer into industry, through which income is generated that then flows back into research.” (GU/JL)

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news-3610 Wed, 05 Feb 2020 11:15:00 +0100 Chemistry Olympians visit FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3610&cHash=25d3eaea3b69bcb2514ee0d1d9fa9550 21 International Chemistry Olympiad participants took the opportunity to gain exciting insights into the research conducted at GSI’s Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, at the end of January. The young talents from Hesse and Thuringia were accompanied by the supervisors of the International Chemistry Olympiad (IChO) and former Chemistry Olympians. 21 International Chemistry Olympiad participants took the opportunity to gain exciting insights into the research conducted at GSI’s Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, at the end of January. The young talents from Hesse and Thuringia were accompanied by the supervisors of the International Chemistry Olympiad (IChO) and former Chemistry Olympians.

Following a talk that gave an overview of the facility, the young visitors were taken on a tour of the particle accelerators and experimental stations at the FAIR and GSI campus. They got a close-up look at the progress on the FAIR construction site and the development of the magnets for the FAIR accelerator facility at the magnet test facility. The young talents were particularly fascinated by the research activities relating to the discovery and investigation of chemical elements. The visit was rounded off by a panel discussion with GSI scientist Thomas Neff from the theory department who had likewise participated in the Chemistry Olympiad as a student. “Being curious and asking questions are two important prerequisites that help scientists obtain new finding in the course of basic research,” says Thomas Neff, giving the students deep insight into the everyday life of researchers at a research center.

The young talents from the senior high school classes passed a selection process to qualify for a multi-day seminar in Darmstadt. In addition to chemical analyses and solving exercises, the excursion to FAIR and GSI is an integral part of the seminar. “FAIR and GSI impressed our young scientists, stimulating their investigative spirit and sparking their desire to learn. The excursion inspires further reflection and many intensive discussions”, says Uta Purgahn, State Commissioner of IChO Thuringia, underlining the importance of the excursion. (JL)

 

 

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news-3604 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 12:00:00 +0100 First magnet module of a series for FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 delivered: Cryogenic testing underway https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3604&cHash=673b695634a914e3eade1006f6d326ce The technology behind the FAIR project is unique and customized in many areas. In the large ring accelerator SIS100, the heart of the future accelerator center FAIR, various sophisticated magnets and entire magnet systems will ensure that the ion beam is precisely guided and focused. The quadrupole modules also belong to them. The first of Series (FoS) has now been completed and delivered to GSI. The technology behind the FAIR project is unique and customized in many areas. In the large ring accelerator SIS100, the heart of the future accelerator center FAIR, various sophisticated magnets and entire magnet systems will ensure that the ion beam is precisely guided and focused. The quadrupole modules also belong to them. The first of Series (FoS) has now been completed and delivered to GSI. Before shipment to Darmstadt, the module passed successfully an extensive test program (FAT, Factory Acceptance Test) under room temperature conditions at the manufacturer Bilfinger Noell in Würzburg.

The quadrupole doublet module consists of two superconducting quadrupole units manufactured by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, and several cryogenic components provided by GSI (such as beam position monitors, ion catcher and thin wall quadrupole chambers). Beside of the integration of the quadrupole module, Bilfinger Noell is also in charge of the manufacturing of the cryostat vessel, the common girder, the thermal shield and other parts.

Before integrating the components, the cold mass – i.e. the part of the magnets to be cooled – needs to be assembled and installed on two common girders. The high-precision positioning of the cold mass required for this is accomplished with special suspension rods, similar to that of the dipole magnets. Overall, the high degree of integration is one of the major challenges of the SIS100 quadrupole modules. The integration of two quadrupole units in one cryostat is a design that deviates from other accelerator facilities.

The advantage of this novel design is that it enables a compact design of the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100, also allows the application of innovative technologies such as cryogenic ion catchers and provides ion-optical advantages. Since this technology has not been realized elsewhere before, the first cold test of the delivered module at its final operating temperature of -270 degrees was a particularly exciting moment for the project team and of great importance for the SIS100 project.

The first cold test was conducted at GSI Series Test Facility for superconducting accelerator magnets (STF). The result: The common girder showed a linear shrinkage but no significant lateral movement of the position of the quadrupole units. The experimental verification of this expected behaviour of the girder at thermal cycling was an important step for the whole SIS100 project. In the coming weeks and months, the module will be evaluated carefully. This will include high-voltage insulation tests and geometrical measurements, investigations on the thermo-mechanical stress and power tests with the main- and correction magnets.

The test program will be accompanied by experts from the Italian National Nuclear Physics Institute (INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). Further tests, the SATs (Site Acceptance Tests) of the entire series of quadrupole modules, will be conducted at the facility in Salerno, Italy, later. In the second half of 2019, various contractual agreements were concluded with the INFN and the University of Salerno. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3608 Tue, 28 Jan 2020 10:22:05 +0100 FAIR is eleventh co-organiser of the Big Science Business Forum 2020 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3608&cHash=3d28972b0bf71442997c3418bf1dcc72 The International Organising Committee of the Big Science Business Forum 2020 (BSBF2020) has accepted FAIR as the eleventh co-organising Big Science organisation. FAIR will send technical, scientific and administrative delegates to BSBF2020 in Granada from 6th to 9th October. BSBF2020 participants will get the chance to get in depth knowledge of FAIR's procurement plans and liaise with its technical representatives. The International Organising Committee of the Big Science Business Forum 2020 (BSBF2020) has accepted FAIR as the eleventh co-organising Big Science organisation. FAIR will send technical, scientific and administrative delegates to BSBF2020 in Granada from 6th to 9th October. BSBF2020 participants will get the chance to get in depth knowledge of FAIR's procurement plans and liaise with its technical representatives.

Big Science Business Forum 2020 will be the second edition of the single one-stop shop for European companies and other stakeholders to learn about Europe’s Big Science organisations’ future investments and procurements worth 38,400 million of euros. Following the success of the first edition, which took place in 2018 in Copenhagen, the forum will again offer businesses the chance to learn about business opportunities in the coming years, within a wide range of business areas and technologies.

They are given the opportunity to meet representatives from Europe’s Big Science organisations (like FAIR) and their key suppliers and technology experts, network and establish long lasting partnerships, showcase their expertise and potential for the Big Science market by participating in the open exhibition area and get insight in how businesses can interplay with the Big Science market. (CP)

Further information:

Website of the Big Science Business Forum 2020

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news-3606 Mon, 27 Jan 2020 13:00:00 +0100 „Urban Sketchers" set the scene for GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3606&cHash=f428fa0b1226b787a831fb03ab95b827 With pencils, color palettes and other painting utensils the "Urban Sketchers Rhein-Main" were guests at GSI and FAIR. The motto of the international artist network, which is represented by regional groups all over the world, says: "We show the world, one drawing at a time” For this purpose the group members visit interesting places which they paint or draw. This time it was the world of fast ions and the universe in the lab that the "Urban Sketchers" focused on and captured on paper. With pencils, color palettes and other painting utensils the "Urban Sketchers Rhein-Main" were guests at GSI and FAIR. The motto of the international artist network, which is represented by regional groups all over the world, says: "We show the world, one drawing at a time” For this purpose the group members visit interesting places which they paint or draw. This time it was the world of fast ions and the universe in the lab that the "Urban Sketchers" focused on and captured on paper.

During their visit to the research campus, Dr. Ingo Peter, head of public relations at GSI and FAIR, first gave the more than 30 artists an overview of current research projects and the international accelerator center FAIR currently under construction at GSI. Afterwards, there was time for exciting discoveries and hunting for motifs around the existing accelerator facilities, experimental setups, high-tech components and the platform, which provides a wide view of the mega construction site for FAIR and the large ring accelerator, the heart of the future facility.

The "Urban Sketchers" were offered numerous outstanding motifs, from the big picture to the aesthetic high-tech detail. At the end of their visit, the group had a wide range of artworks in front of them – extraordinary, precisely observed and realized with very individual handwritings. As stated in the Manifesto of the "Sketchers", the illustrators, whether professional artists or enthusiastic amateurs, publish their drawings and information about their activities online via blogs and social media channels. (BP)

More information

Urban Sketchers Rhein-Main

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news-3602 Fri, 24 Jan 2020 09:41:00 +0100 A visit from the Italian parliament https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3602&cHash=ab46a7587eebfdb7978584896ff49a04 Recently, Laura Garavini, who is a Senator in the Italian parliament, visited FAIR and GSI. She was accompanied by Santi Umberti, SPD member of the Town Council of Darmstadt and chairman of the Committee for Business Development and Science of the city of Darmstadt. Recently, Laura Garavini, who is a Senator in the Italian parliament, visited FAIR and GSI. She was accompanied by Santi Umberti, SPD member of the Town Council of Darmstadt and chairman of the Committee for Business Development and Science of the city of Darmstadt. The two visitors were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, as well as Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Professor Marco Durante, head of the GSI Biophysics research department, and Dr. Ingo Peter, head of the Public Relations department of GSI and FAIR.

Starting with introductory presentations about the existing GSI accelerators, experiments and successes, as well as the FAIR project, the guests then took a look at the development of the construction during a subsequent bus tour of the FAIR construction site. A guided tour through the GSI facilities followed, where they were informed about the medical applications of ion beams and the large detector HADES.

GSI and FAIR have a close and long standing collaboration with Italy and its manifold research institutions. The Italian science community is involved in several of the FAIR experiments. High-ranking Italian scientists participate in many of the scientific committees associated with FAIR and GSI. Additionally, Italy supplies technology for FAIR, e.g. magnet prototypes and cold testing of superconducting quadrupole modules for the SIS100 ring accelerator. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3600 Wed, 22 Jan 2020 09:30:00 +0100 Memorandum of Understanding: Scientific cooperation with University of Salerno to be intensified https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3600&cHash=02010ade81ad1dca09066951e4a8e87a Perspectives and opportunities for future cooperation with the University of Salerno were the focus of a visit by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI. The aim is to intensify the scientific exchange between researchers. In order to promote scientific and technological cooperation between GSI/FAIR, the University of Salerno (UNISA) and the department of physics, a “Memorandum of Understanding“ (MoU) has now been concluded. Perspectives and opportunities for future cooperation with the University of Salerno were the focus of a visit by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI. The aim is to intensify the scientific exchange between researchers. In order to promote scientific and technological cooperation between GSI/FAIR, the University of Salerno (UNISA) and the department of physics, a “Memorandum of Understanding“ (MoU) has now been concluded.

The MoU concerning the collaboration on nuclear and accelerator sciences and technologies and other scientific domains of mutual interest has been signed between the GSI/FAIR, represented by its Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the University of Salerno, represented by its Rector Professor Vincenzo Loia, and the Department of Physics. represented by its Director Professor Salvatore De Pasquale. The ceremony has been held at the University Campus in Fisciano with the presence of Professor. Luca Lista, Director of the section of Napoli of the Italian National Nuclear Physics Institute (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN).

This collaboration will start soon with activities at the University of Salerno in the framework of cryogenic testing of superconducting magnet modules for SIS100, the large FAIR ring accelerator currently under construction. In this framework mutual exchange of researchers and students is foreseen to improve the mutual knowledge in the field of cryogenic facilities devoted to superconducting magnets for particle accelerator.

“This will be only the first step for a wider cooperation on the development of several technologies in the field of nuclear physics´”, the parties jointly announced. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3598 Mon, 20 Jan 2020 10:19:00 +0100 New atomic nucleus found — far from stability https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3598&cHash=f3b3eae206ab2a853d65411792b4224f Where does the world of atomic nuclei end? Scientists went further into the region of unstable elements than ever before. An experimental collaboration at the fragment separator of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung has for the first time detected potassium-31, an isotope with eight neutrons less than the stable potassium atom. An atomic nucleus that remote from stability has never been observed before. The results were published in the journal Physical Review Letters. Where does the world of atomic nuclei end? Scientists went further into the region of unstable elements than ever before. An experimental collaboration at the fragment separator of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung has for the first time detected potassium-31, an isotope with eight neutrons less than the stable potassium atom. An atomic nucleus that remote from stability has never been observed before. The results were published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

It is an exotic atomic nucleus that lies further outside the proton dripline than has ever been observed before: Potassium-31 is extremely short-lived with a half-life below nanoseconds, but the sheer existence of the atomic nucleus is a new record. In physics, the proton dripline marks a boundary beyond which we find the unbound atomic nuclei. Due to the unbalanced ratio of neutrons and protons, they can hardly exist and decay very quickly. Potassium-31 is four neutrons far outside this dripline. An atomic nucleus that remote from the proton dripline has never been observed before.

The exotic isotope of potassium was produced by the particle accelerator facility on the GSI/FAIR campus. The ring accelerator SIS18 and the fragment separator (FRS) in combination provided a secondary particle beam of argon-31 which again was shot at a beryllium target. In this way, the research team succeeded in producing potassium-31. Daria Kostyleva, who is currently working on her PhD thesis at GSI, FAIR and the University of Gießen, analyzed the data from the fragment separator experiment and carried out simulations. "We haven't reached the border between unbound systems and chaotic nuclear matter yet," she says. "There could be atomic nuclei that are up to seven neutrons away from the proton dripline. We want to test whether the main nuclear structure principles still apply there."

These chaotic systems could be found in the future at the new FAIR particle accelerator facility. The detectors with which the discovery was made are part of the experiment program of the Super fragment-separator (Super-FRS) which will be operated at FAIR and is part of the large-scale experimental collaboration NUSTAR. Thanks to FAIR's much more intense particle beam and the higher energies that can be achieved, scientists expect to discover many new isotopes. The experiments studying remote proton-unbound systems are being carried out within the EXPERT collaboration (EXotic Particle Emission and Radioactivity by Tracking) of Super-FRS. Scientists from GSI and FAIR, the University of Gießen, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia), the Silesian University in Opava (Czech Republic) and the University of Warsaw (Poland) are involved in the EXPERT experiments. (LW)

Mehr Informationen

Original Publication: https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.092502

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3591 Thu, 16 Jan 2020 10:13:00 +0100 HADES collaboration part of GSI/FAIR for 25 years https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3591&cHash=c16419092f0607c5920d08464ef521d5 In 1994, the international HADES collaboration, which today consists of more than 150 scientists from nine countries and operates the large detector of the same name at GSI, became part of GSI. The collaboration celebrated its 25th anniversary recently with a special colloquium on the FAIR/GSI campus and an art exhibition in the cafeteria. In the future, HADES will become an important part of the CBM pillar at FAIR. In 1994, the international HADES collaboration, which today consists of more than 150 scientists from nine countries and operates the large detector of the same name at GSI, became part of GSI. The collaboration celebrated its 25th anniversary recently with a special colloquium on the FAIR/GSI campus and an art exhibition in the cafeteria. In the future, HADES will become an important part of the CBM pillar at FAIR.

For six years, the HADES collaboration planned the large-scale detector HADES, which was put into operation in 2001 with beams from the GSI ring accelerator SIS18. HADES stands for High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer and consists of different detector systems with about 100,000 individual measuring cells as well as a superconducting magnet for deflecting charged particles. The special design of HADES makes it possible to measure particles with very high precision, and also to detect very rare particles.

During the latest data taking campaign, HADES produced up to one gigabyte of data per second. In order to find out more about the structure of neutrons and protons and thus answer the question of the origin of mass, researchers study electron-positron pairs, whose tracks have to be identified in the huge amount of data. In this way, the HADES detector system, which is as high as a house, provides researchers with exciting insights into what happens when two heavy nuclei collide at relativistic energies. In the laboratory, HADES allows them to track down the microscopic properties of extreme states of matter, e.g. as they occur inside neutron stars. Further highlights of HADES research with heavy-ion collisions are the generation of strangeness and the microscopic properties of dense nuclear matter.

Only recently, the measurement setup was significantly upgraded. The 4.5 meters high and 4.5 meters wide Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) was installed behind the previous detector in recent months. It contains 16 tons of lead glass, which will enable scientists to also directly detect photons in the future instead of using their conversion process. By measuring the photons, neutral mesons can now also be detected, and electromagnetic decays of hyperons can be investigated.

In the future, HADES will become an important part of the experimental program for the investigation of compressed nuclear matter CBM at the international accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI. Researchers will be able to investigate processes in neutron stars with unprecedented precision and over a very wide density range. (CP)

Further information:
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news-3596 Tue, 14 Jan 2020 10:48:02 +0100 Vice President of TU Darmstadt visited FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3596&cHash=05739680f12526f7ada40113007b7cac Professor Ralph Bruder, until the end of 2019 Vice President of the Technische Universität (TU) Darmstadt, recently visited FAIR and GSI. He was greeted by Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Dorothee Sommer, Head of Human Resources, and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations. Professor Ralph Bruder, until the end of 2019 Vice President of the Technische Universität (TU) Darmstadt, recently visited FAIR and GSI. He was greeted by Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Dorothee Sommer, Head of Human Resources, and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations.

The long-standing cooperation between the institutions were the key topics of the introductory presentation and of a group discussion. TU Darmstadt, and FAIR and GSI have had a close connection for many years and have cooperated successfully in many fields. The combination of teaching, research, and an excellent research infrastructure forms the basis for the many successful projects.

During a tour of the research facility, scientists working closely with TU Darmstadt explained their research projects. Tetyana Galatyuk, Professor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at TU Darmstadt and Senior Scientist of HADES and CBM at GSI, discussed the scientific objectives of the large-scale detector HADES. Vincent Bagnoud, Adjunct Professor at the Nuclear Physics department of TU Darmstadt and Head of the Plasma Physics department at GSI, presented the high-energy laser PHELIX and the running experiments. Christian Graeff, Leader of the Medical Physics group and Vice Scientific Head of the Biophysics division, provided an insight into the medical research on cancer therapy facilities. Professor Ralph Bruder had the opportunity to inform himself about the progress of the FAIR construction site from the visitors’ platform and to visit the cryogenic test bench for superconducting magnets. The visit ended with an expert discussion with Dorothee Sommer. (JL)

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news-3593 Mon, 13 Jan 2020 10:36:00 +0100 Neues Programm der öffentlichen Vortragsreihe „Wissenschaft für Alle“ https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3593&cHash=21a4d60831442f9f7bfaa0854a1d98db Unter dem Thema Sterne und Weltall steht das neue Programm der ersten Jahreshälfte 2020 der öffentlichen Vortragsreihe „Wissenschaft für Alle“ von GSI und FAIR in Darmstadt. Den Auftakt macht Kathrin Göbel von der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am 22. Januar 2020 mit ihrem Vortrag "Schicksalsjahre eines Sterns – Wenn das Kleine das Große bestimmt". Unter dem Thema Sterne und Weltall steht das neue Programm der ersten Jahreshälfte 2020 der öffentlichen Vortragsreihe „Wissenschaft für Alle“ von GSI und FAIR in Darmstadt. Den Auftakt macht Kathrin Göbel von der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am 22. Januar 2020 mit ihrem Vortrag "Schicksalsjahre eines Sterns – Wenn das Kleine das Große bestimmt".

Neben einem Vortrag zur Untersuchung der kosmischen Strahlung bei GSI und FAIR gelang es des Weiteren, Thomas Reiter von der European Space Agency ESA, der als Astronaut mehrere Flüge ins All unternommen hat, für einen Vortrag zu gewinnen. Beiträge zu Stadtentwicklung für die Wissenschaft, Quantenkryptografie und supraleitender Magnettechnik am zukünftigen FAIR-Beschleuniger runden das Programm ab.

Die Vortragsreihe "Wissenschaft für Alle" richtet sich an alle an aktueller Wissenschaft und Forschung interessierten Personen. In den Vorträgen wird über die Forschung und Entwicklungen an GSI und FAIR berichtet, aber auch über aktuelle Themen aus anderen Wissenschafts- und Technikfeldern.

Ziel der Reihe ist es, die wissenschaftlichen Vorgänge für Laien verständlich aufzubereiten und darzustellen, um so die Forschung einem breiten Publikum zugänglich zu machen. Die Vorträge werden von GSI- und FAIR-Mitarbeitern oder von externen Rednern aus Universitäten und Forschungsinstituten gehalten.

Aktuelles Programm:
  • Mittwoch, 22.01.2020, 14 Uhr
    Schicksalsjahre eines Sterns – Wenn das Kleine das Große bestimmt
    Kathrin Göbel, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt
     
  • Mittwoch, 19.02.2020, 14 Uhr
    Mehr als FAIR – Stadtentwicklung für die Wissenschaft
    Annette Rudolph-Cleff, Technische Universität Darmstadt
     
  • Mittwoch, 18.03.2020, 14 Uhr
    Das “Quanten” in Quantenkryptographie – na und?
    Thomas Walther, Technische Universität Darmstadt
     
  • Mittwoch, 22.04.2020, 14 Uhr
    Exploration des Weltraums – Aktuelle Höhepunkte und zukünftige Entwicklungen
    Thomas Reiter, European Space Agency ESA
     
  • Mittwoch, 20.05.2020, 14 Uhr
    Das Weltall im Labor – Kosmische Strahlung am Teilchenbeschleuniger und Strahlenschutz für Astronauten
    Ulrich Weber, GSI
     
  • Mittwoch, 17.06.2020, 14 Uhr
    Kühlschrankmagnete mal anders: die supraleitende Teilchenoptik von FAIR (mit einem Vorwort von Hans Christian Oerstedt)
    Christian Roux, GSI

Die Vorträge finden im großen gemeinsamen Hörsaal der Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) und des GSI Helmholtzzentrums für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt, statt. Der Eintritt ist frei, eine Anmeldung ist nicht erforderlich. Externe Teilnehmer werden gebeten, für den Einlass ein Ausweisdokument bereitzuhalten. (CP)

Weitere Informationen:
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news-3594 Fri, 10 Jan 2020 09:02:00 +0100 Explosion or collapse? — Experiment on beta-decay sheds light on fate of intermediate-mass stars https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3594&cHash=1da98fa3df0db5e88e5dfc762146975e A group of scientists, among them several from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and from Technical University of Darmstadt, succeeded to experimentally determine characteristics of nuclear processes in matter ten million times denser and 25 times hotter than the centre of our Sun. A result of the measurement is that intermediate-mass stars are very likely to explode, and not, as assumed until now, collapse. A group of scientists, among them several from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and from Technical University of Darmstadt, succeeded to experimentally determine characteristics of nuclear processes in matter ten million times denser and 25 times hotter than the centre of our Sun. A result of the measurement is that intermediate-mass stars are very likely to explode, and not, as assumed until now, collapse. The findings are now published in the scientific magazine Physical Review Letters. They stress the fascinating opportunities offered by future accelerator facilities like FAIR in understanding the processes defining the evolution of the Universe.

Stars have different evolutionary paths depending on their mass. Low-mass stars such as the Sun will eventually become white dwarfs. Massive stars, on the other hand, finish with a spectacular explosion known as a supernova, leaving either a neutron star or a black hole behind. The fate of both low- and high-mass stars is well understood but the situation for intermediate-mass stars, which weigh between seven and eleven times as much as the Sun, has remained unclear. This is surprising since intermediate-mass stars are prevalent in our Galaxy.

“The final fate of intermediate-mass stars depends on a tiny detail, namely, how readily the isotope neon-20 captures electrons in the stellar core. Depending on this electron capture rate, the star will be either disrupted in a thermonuclear explosion or it will collapse to form a neutron star,” explains Professor Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo of GSI’s research department Theory and the Institut für Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt. Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of GSI and FAIR, adds: “This work started when we realized that a strongly suppressed, and hence previously ignored and experimentally unknown, transition between the ground states of neon-20 and fluorine-20 was a key piece of information needed to determine the electron capture rate in intermediate mass stars.” By a combination of precise measurements of the beta-decay of fluorine-20 and theoretical calculations, an international collaboration of physicists with participation from GSI and TU Darmstadt, has now succeeded in determining this important rate. The experiment took place under conditions far more peaceful than those found in stars, namely at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä. The measurements showed a surprisingly strong transition between the ground states of neon-20 and fluorine-20 that leads to electron capture in neon-20 occurring at lower density than previously believed. For the star, this implies that, in contrast to previous assumptions, it is more likely to be disrupted by a thermonuclear explosion than to collapse into a neutron star. “It is amazing to find out that a single transition can have such a strong impact on the evolution of a big object like a star,” says Dag Fahlin Strömberg, who, as a PhD student at TU Darmstadt, was responsible for large parts of project’s simulations.

Since thermonuclear explosions eject much more material than those triggered by gravitational collapse, the results have implications for galactic chemical evolution. The ejected material is rich in titanium-50, chromium-54, and iron-60. Therefore, the unusual titanium and chromium isotopic ratios found in some meteorites, and the discovery of iron-60 in deep-sea sediments could be produced by intermediate-mass stars and indicate that these have exploded in our galactic neighbourhood in the distant (billions of years) and not so distant (millions of years) past.

In the light of these new findings the most probable fate of intermediate-mass stars seems to be a thermonuclear explosion, producing a subluminous type Ia supernova and a special type of white dwarf star known as an oxygen-neon-iron white dwarf. The (non-)detection of such white dwarfs in the future would provide important insights into the explosion mechanism. Another open question is the role played by convection — the bulk movement of material in the interior of the star — in the explosion.

At existing and future accelerator centres like the international FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) currently under construction at GSI, new not yet investigated isotopes and their properties can be investigated. Thus, scientists continue to bring the universe into the laboratory to answer the unsolved questions about our cosmos. (CP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3589 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 09:14:37 +0100 Guests from INFN visit FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3589&cHash=512c2ba90ca275de132db1f056b1becd Recently, a high-ranking delegation from the Italian research institute INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) visited the facilities of FAIR and GSI. INFN Vice President Professor Eugenio Nappi as well as Professor Diego Bettoni, member of the INFN Executive Board, and Professor Vincenzo Patera of INFN Roma1, spokesperson of the International Biophysics Collaboration, were able to inform themselves in detail about the progress of the FAIR project and the research at FAIR and GSI. Recently, a high-ranking delegation from the Italian research institute INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) visited the facilities of FAIR and GSI. INFN Vice President Professor Eugenio Nappi as well as Professor Diego Bettoni, member of the INFN Executive Board, and Professor Vincenzo Patera of INFN Roma1, spokesperson of the International Biophysics Collaboration, were able to inform themselves in detail about the progress of the FAIR project and the research at FAIR and GSI during their full-day visit. The group was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, as well as Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, and Professor Marco Durante, head of the GSI Biophysics research department.

Following introductory presentations about the facility, the guests took a bus tour to the FAIR construction site to take a look at the rapidly developing construction progress. In a guided tour of the existing GSI facilities they learned more e.g. about the superconducting FAIR magnets and their testing, the detector laboratory, the ion sources, the discovery and investigation of superheavy elements, as well as the medical applications of ion beams for cancer therapy. They were also able to meet and discuss with Italian members of staff currently working for GSI and FAIR on campus.

INFN and GSI/FAIR are linked by long standing and very cordial cooperation. A large Italian scientific community participates in several of the FAIR experiments, and INFN will put a series of complex magnet systems, so-called quadrupole modules, for the large FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 through extensive cold testing and thus make an important contribution to the FAIR project. (CP)

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news-3587 Fri, 03 Jan 2020 11:41:08 +0100 Management change at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3587&cHash=7439c617300c226cc0624696d8958fa5 With the start of new year there is a change in the management of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH). Ursula Weyrich, the previous Administrative Managing Director, moves to the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg where she takes over as Administrative Director. With the start of new year there is a change in the management of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH).  Ursula Weyrich, the previous Administrative Managing Director, moves to the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg where she takes over as Administrative Director. Markus Jaeger, Head of Controlling at GSI and FAIR, has been entrusted with the current continuation of administrative business. The decision process for the reoccupation of the administrative management of GSI and FAIR has been initiated.

A trained lawyer, Ursula Weyrich, has been the first joint Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR since 2014 and was previously a founding board member of the German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases in Bonn. Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, as well as the GSI Supervisory Board and the FAIR Council thanked Ursula Weyrich for her great commitment and expert work: "GSI and FAIR have developed very successfully during Ursula Weyrich's term of office. Her guiding principle as Administrative Managing Director was to provide frame conditions which allows the GSI/FAIR campus as well as the research operations with the successful launch of the FAIR research program FAIR Phase 0 and the FAIR construction project to unfold.”

During her period in office, for example the new office and canteen building was constructed, the construction for the new car park has begun and the planning for the FAIR Control Center has been started. In addition to the conventional administrative tasks and the strategic campus development, Ursula Weyrich has set the course for a unified overall organization structure for GSI und FAIR. In addition, there were organizational changes in the administration and the infrastructure divisions as well as in the target-oriented development of the overall planning of the project’s financial requirements.

As an expert for administration and finance at GSI and FAIR, Ursula Weyrich with these solid structures has provided an important foundation for the very positive evaluation of the FAIR project, which was presented by a high-ranking international expert committee last year. (BP/IP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3578 Thu, 19 Dec 2019 10:08:00 +0100 New international nuclear astrophysics research network https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3578&cHash=01e629b05c2ce15b7deaa3e8723db092 The ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI) with its research groups at Technical University of Darmstadt and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung will participate in a new network of networks for nuclear astrophysics research. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded a $2 million grant to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics — Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), led by Michigan State University (MSU). This news is based on a press release of Michigan State University

The ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI) with its research groups at Technical University of Darmstadt and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung will participate in a new network of networks for nuclear astrophysics research. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded a $2 million grant to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics — Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), led by Michigan State University (MSU), to create the new International Research Network for Nuclear Astrophysics (IReNA).

In total, IReNA unites five research collaborations: Besides EMMI, the European Network “Chemical Elements as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos” (ChETEC), the Collaborative Research Center “The Milky Way System”, the Japan Forum of Nuclear Astrophysics UKAKUREN, and the international Nucleosynthesis Grid collaboration (NuGRID) will be members.

IReNA is composed of seven Universities as core institutions in the United States, and also includes 62 associated institutions in 17 countries. The combined infrastructure and research capabilities available to IReNA scientists will accelerate the understanding of the origin of chemical elements and the nature of dense nuclear matter.

In the current age of multimessenger astronomy, extreme astrophysical environments like supernovae and neutron star mergers are studied through gravitational waves, visible light, infrared, X-rays, gamma-rays, radio waves and neutrinos. IReNA comes as a timely boost for the nuclear astrophysics community. The amount and range of nuclear and astrophysics data and expertise needed to answer open questions about the universe cannot be obtained by a single country. IReNA creates the necessary communication channels and collaborative structures. Together, IReNA scientists will have access to a variety of accelerators, astronomical observatories, experimental equipment, data, and computer codes.

IReNA will also create exchange programs, innovative workshops, and retreats that will foster network communication and training of the next generation of scientists.

“This is an innovative approach to science. It is also a unique opportunity for young researchers to train across disciplines, and gives them experience working with large teams.” said Hendrik Schatz, JINA-CEE and IReNA director.

The ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany, was founded in 2008 as a network of German and international partner institutions, among them JINA-CEE. The new IReNA network includes several research groups at TU Darmstadt and GSI as a part of EMMI. EMMI is dedicated to fostering interdisciplinary research on matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. More than 400 scientists at the 13 partner institutions of EMMI study various forms of strongly coupled matter in extreme conditions, including the hottest, coldest and densest matter in the universe. Surprisingly, these very different forms of matter are connected by common concepts in their theoretical description. EMMI also acts as a think tank for the strategy of future experiments, for example at the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) accelerator facility currently under construction at GSI.

The NSF grant is part of the Accelerating Research through International Network-to-Network Collaborations (AccelNet) program. AccelNet is designed to accelerate the process of scientific discovery and prepare the next generation of U.S. researchers for multiteam international collaborations. The AccelNet program supports strategic linkages among U.S. research networks and complementary networks abroad that will leverage research and educational resources to tackle grand scientific challenges that require significant coordinated international efforts. (CP)

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news-3584 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 10:14:02 +0100 50 years GSI, five decades of cutting-edge research: anniversary of foundation date https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3584&cHash=eeffcf5ff43d9a5a351db4028ca1a2e6 The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung is celebrating 50 years of existence this year – five decades of research history with outstanding scientific successes and discoveries. During this time, GSI has developed from a national research institute with worldwide collaborations into an international campus with global relevance. Now, it is the 50th anniversary of the founding day of GSI, 17 December 1969. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung is celebrating 50 years of existence this year – five decades of research history with outstanding scientific successes and discoveries. During this time, GSI has developed from a national research institute with worldwide collaborations into an international campus with global relevance. Now, it is the 50th anniversary of the founding day of GSI, 17 December 1969.

It was a historic day, that Wednesday 50 years ago, when Federal Science Minister Hans Leussink and Hessian Minister President Albert Osswald signed the decisive contract for the founding of GSI in Bonn. The federal government and the state of Hesse agreed to jointly build and operate a heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt: the beginning of the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung.

GSI has been carrying out cutting-edge research for 50 years now, and the FAIR project is currently shaping the future. With the future accelerator center FAIR, the international dimensions of research will be significantly expanded once more. People from all over the world will be able to conduct world class research on the Darmstadt campus for decades and to explore the universe in the laboratory. Many activities in the anniversary year therefore span from history to the future. For the anniversary day, there is the opportunity to travel back in time by photo slider on the GSI and FAIR homepage: an interactive past-today-show in which the images virtually overlap and thereby illustrate how things used to look like on campus in the past and how they look like today. The results provide exciting insights, for example into the linear accelerator, the control room or the experimental halls.

An even more detailed tour through half a century is offered by the digital GSI timeline where highlights of the GSI history are presented. Users can click their way through 50 years of GSI, and take a look into the future of FAIR. The great scientific achievements such as the discovery of six new chemical elements or the development of a new type of tumor therapy using ion beams can be found as well as the most important milestones for FAIR, from the international agreement for the worldwide unique project to the completion of the first shell constructions for the large FAIR ring accelerator.

The successes of GSI in these 50 years are based on the knowledge, passion and creativity of its staff members. Many of them have taken an active part in the anniversary year events, e.g. they chose their favorite photo in the campaign "50 years, 50 pictures" or sent their very personal memories of their time at GSI as short stories. The most interesting anecdotes and the favorite photographic moments can currently be seen in a public exhibition on campus.

To round off the diverse anniversary activities, next spring there will be a festive event for the employees and the scientific community, where representatives from politics, universities and partners from international scientific collaborations will also participate. (BP)

More information

An overview of the information offers, activities and special editions around the anniversary can be found here.

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Presse Aktuelles
news-3576 Mon, 16 Dec 2019 10:49:00 +0100 Successful international meeting on cryo-technology and superconductivity https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3576&cHash=7ff777e1790ba38865c17361a0b9f83b In Lund, Sweden, recently the “2019 European Cryogenics Days” took place. The international workshop focusses on the exchange on the topics of cryo-technology and superconductivity. The meeting was held in collaboration of Cryogenics Society of Europe (CSE), the High-Energy Physics Technology Transfer Network (HEPTech), the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the European Spallation Source (ESS). In Lund, Sweden, recently the “2019 European Cryogenics Days” took place. The international workshop focusses on the exchange on the topics of cryo-technology and superconductivity. The meeting was held in collaboration of  Cryogenics Society of Europe (CSE), the High-Energy Physics Technology Transfer Network (HEPTech), the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the European Spallation Source (ESS). The topic is of great relevance in the construction of the international accelerator facility FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt, as large parts of the FAIR accelerator will be superconducting.

The workshop started with the annual meeting of the CSE, followed by two days of plenary talks, a poster session and an industrial exhibition concerning various aspects of cryogenics. A total of 121 attendees and 17 industrial exhibitors attended the workshop. While the majority of attendees were European, there was significant attendance from China and North America as well. The program consisted of 18 talks and 19 posters. The contents included descriptions of engineering designs as well as fundamental research in cryogenics and superconductivity. Speakers, among other things, for example reported on the cryo-technology of the ESS, of FAIR and of the Chinese accelerator HIAF, about high-temperature superconductors or about the relevance of cryogenics in experimental cosmology. Also a tour of the European Spallation Source, currently under construction in Lund, was included in the activities. (CP)

Further information:
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news-3582 Fri, 13 Dec 2019 14:49:05 +0100 NASA mission delivers best-ever pulsar measurements https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3582&cHash=847ab39cb19f2f55fece45b6376b89ea Scientists have reached a new frontier in our understanding of pulsars, the dense, whirling remains of exploded stars, thanks to NASA’s Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER). This X-ray instrument aboard the International Space Station has produced the first precise and dependable measurements of both a pulsar’s size and its mass, as well as the first surface map of one of these mysterious objects. The ExtreMe Matter Institure EMMI of GSI and Technical University Darmstadt is also involved in This news is based on a press release of the Technical University Darmstadt

Scientists have reached a new frontier in our understanding of pulsars, the dense, whirling remains of exploded stars, thanks to NASA’s Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER). This X-ray instrument aboard the International Space Station has produced the first precise and dependable measurements of both a pulsar’s size and its mass, as well as the first surface map of one of these mysterious objects. The ExtreMe Matter Institure EMMI of GSI and Technical University Darmstadt is also involved in the research efforts.

The pulsar in question, J0030+0451 (J0030 for short), lies in an isolated region of space 1,100 light-years away in the constellation Pisces. While measuring the pulsar's heft and proportions, NICER revealed that the shapes and locations of million-degree “hot spots” on the pulsar’s surface are much stranger than generally thought. “From its perch on the space station, NICER is revolutionizing our understanding of pulsars,” said Paul Hertz, astrophysics division director at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Pulsars were discovered more than 50 years ago as beacons of stars that have collapsed into dense cores, behaving unlike anything we see on Earth. With NICER we can probe the nature of these dense remnants in ways that seemed impossible until now.”

Scientists from the TU Darmstadt and EMMI have provided the expertise for understanding the impact of the NICER observations for the equation of state of dense matter. A series of papers analyzing NICER’s observations of J0030 appears in a focus issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters and is now available online..

How do pulsars work?

When a massive star dies, it runs out of fuel, collapses under its own weight and explodes as a supernova. These stellar deaths can leave behind neutron stars, which pack more mass than our Sun into a sphere roughly as wide as the greater area of Darmstadt. Pulsars, which are one class of neutron star, spin up to hundreds of times each second and sweep beams of energy toward us with every rotation. J0030 revolves 205 times per second.

For decades, scientists have been trying to figure out exactly how pulsars work. In the simplest model, a pulsar has a powerful magnetic field shaped much like a household bar magnet. The field is so strong it rips particles from the pulsar’s surface and accelerates them. Some particles follow the magnetic field and strike the opposite side, heating the surface and creating hot spots at the magnetic poles. The whole pulsar glows faintly in X-rays, but the hot spots are brighter. As the object spins, these spots sweep in and out of view like the beams of a lighthouse, producing extremely regular variations in the object’s X-ray brightness. NICER measures the arrival of each X-ray from a pulsar to better than a hundred nanoseconds, a precision about 20 times greater than previously available, so scientists can take advantage of this effect for the first time.

Different modelling approaches

Using NICER observations from July 2017 to December 2018, two groups of scientists mapped J0030’s hot spots using independent methods and converged on similar results for its mass and size. A team led by the University of Amsterdam, determined the pulsar is around 1.3 times the Sun’s mass and 15.8 miles (25.4 kilometers) across. A second team found J0030 is about 1.4 times the Sun’s mass and slightly larger, about 16.2 miles (26 kilometers) wide.

“It’s remarkable, and also very reassuring, that the two teams achieved such similar sizes, masses and hot spot patterns for J0030 using different modeling approaches,” said Zaven Arzoumanian, NICER science lead at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “It tells us NICER is on the right path to help us answer an enduring question in astrophysics: What form does matter take in the ultra-dense cores of neutron stars?”

Together with the NICER collaboration Svenja Greif, Kai Hebeler, and EMMI-Professor Achim Schwenk from TU Darmstadt investigated the implications of these new measurements for the properties of dense matter. “It is exciting to see that the new NICER results are consistent with our understanding of strong interactions in atomic nuclei,” said Svenja Greif, whose recent doctoral dissertation within the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) funded Collaborative Research Center 1245 on nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics laid the ground-work for the modelling of dense matter in neutron star interiors. In the future, more precise measurements from the NICER mission in combination with improved microscopic calculations thus promises to significantly improve our understanding of the densest matter in the Universe. (CP)

Further information:
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news-3580 Wed, 11 Dec 2019 11:43:54 +0100 Indian science attaché visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3580&cHash=04b9de05638b196e9af26ef553ea00d5 The new science attaché of the Indian Embassy in Berlin and new delegate to the FAIR Council, Dr Madhusudan Reddy Nandineni, visited FAIR and GSI to inform himself on the facility’s research activities and the status of the FAIR project. He was welcomed by the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Professor Paolo Giubellino, and the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock. The new science attaché of the Indian Embassy in Berlin and new delegate to the FAIR Council, Dr Madhusudan Reddy Nandineni, visited FAIR and GSI to inform himself on the facility’s research activities and the status of the FAIR project. He was welcomed by the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Professor Paolo Giubellino, and the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock.

After a guided tour of the GSI/FAIR campus Madhusudan R. Nandineni got an overview in talks followed by discussions about the Indian participation in FAIR and about the FAIR/GSI talent programme for Indian researchers and students, the GET_INvolved Programme India. Two other talks focussed on the more specific research topics of biomedicine and biophysics as well as material and nanoscience. Subsequently, the science attaché had the opportunity to meet and discuss with young Indian scientists currently working at GSI and FAIR.

Dr Madhusudan Reddy Nandineni holds a Ph.D. in genetics. Subsequent to his Doctoral work, he joined the department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University School of Medicine. Before his deputation to the Embassy of India in Berlin he was head of the Genomics & Profiling Applications department in the Centre for DNA fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) in Hyderabad, India. (mbe)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3574 Mon, 09 Dec 2019 11:29:33 +0100 GSI and FAIR calendar for 2020 now available https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3574&cHash=c3441429a0fed4dfd2b68d4c540cba1c Clearly structured, large format and with exciting pictures of GSI and FAIR — our new calendar 2020 can be ordered now. Clearly structured, large format and with exciting pictures of GSI and FAIR — our new calendar 2020 can be ordered now.

If you want to order the DIN A2 sized calendar from FAIR and GSI, please contact gsi-kalender(at)gsi.de (Data Protection) directly by e-mail and receive the calendar by post. Be sure to mention the following information: your name, your address and the number of calendars (maximum three) you wish to order. GSI and FAIR employees can get a copy at the foyer or at the reception in Borsigstraße.

We ask for your understanding that because of to the limited edition only a maximum of three calendars can be sent per request (while supplies last). (BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3572 Fri, 06 Dec 2019 09:30:09 +0100 International Year of the Periodic Table: Closing ceremony with GSI participation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3572&cHash=1c20267e9b5cca190e829ef80feccb83 It was the culmination of an extraordinary anniversary year: the closing ceremony of the International Year of the Periodic Table proclaimed by the United Nations, recently held in Tokyo. 2019 marks the 150th anniversary of the discovery of the periodic table. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung was also represented at the festive event in Japan. It was the culmination of an extraordinary anniversary year: the closing ceremony of the International Year of the Periodic Table proclaimed by the United Nations, recently held in Tokyo. 2019 marks the 150th anniversary of the discovery of the periodic table. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung was also represented at the festive event in Japan. With its decades of successful research and the discovery of six new chemical elements, GSI contributed significantly to the updating of the periodic table.

GSI as an institute of element discoverers has played a major role in the further development of the periodic table: In experiments at the GSI accelerator facility, research groups led by Professor Peter Armbruster, Professor Gottfried Münzenberg and Professor Sigurd Hofmann succeeded in discovering the six elements 107 to 112. Furthermore, under group leadership of Dr. Matthias Schädel, the first chemical classifications of some of these elements were carried out. GSI also succeeded in producing elements 113 to 117 and thus confirming initial discoveries from Japan and Russia.

One highlight of the closing ceremony in Tokyo focused on the topic "Creation of superheavy elements". Scientists who produced and discovered superheavy elements appeared on stage to celebrate the completion of the seventh row of the periodic table. GSI was represented by Dr. Alexander Yakushev for element 107 (bohrium), Professor Christoph Düllmann for element 108 (hassium), Professor Michael Block for element 109 (meitnerium), Professor Karlheinz Langanke for element 110 (darmstadtium), Dr. Dieter Ackermann for element 111 (roentgenium), and Dr. Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar for element 112 (copernicium). In addition,
speeches were be given by prominent scientists from the laboratories that contributed largely to the discoveries. Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke presented GSI and FAIR.

From the very beginning, the internationality of GSI, which celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, has been very important: All elements were discovered in transnational collaborative efforts within the research teams. With the construction of the international accelerator center FAIR this success story is currently being continued and further intensified. With the FAIR facility, scientists from all over the will be able to study the universe in the lab to address fundamental problems such as the origin of heavy elements in the universe or the structure of neutron stars, but also to advance applications from material sciences to medicine. (BP)

More information

International Year of the Periodic Table

Activities of GSI and FAIR on 150 years periodic table

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Aktuelles
news-3570 Wed, 04 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100 FAIR receives three million euros from EU project CREMLINplus for cooperation between CBM and NICA https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3570&cHash=395e85a30c318064393a2042ee211da7 The European Commission is providing 25 million euros for scientific cooperation between European research infrastructures - in particular the projects of the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) and the mega science projects in Russia. The long-term cooperation of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna in the large-scale projects of FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion The European Commission is providing 25 million euros for scientific cooperation between European research infrastructures - in particular the projects of the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) and the mega science projects in Russia. The long-term cooperation of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung  with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna in the large-scale projects of FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider facility) also benefits from this EU funding.

As part of the new EU project CREMLINplus (Connecting Russian and European Measures for Large-scale Research Infrastructures - plus), FAIR GmbH is receiving three million euros in funding for cooperation between the FAIR experiment CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) and the experiments on the future NICA collider at JINR.

CREMLINplus, which will be launched at the beginning of 2020, will provide additional funding of 2.6 million euros over a period of four years for a further eleven institutes of the CBM collaboration from seven countries.

The joint development of silicon track detectors, the design of ultra-fast, self-triggered data acquisition systems, the development of software packages for online event selection and data analysis, as well as the construction of target chambers, extremely thin beam pipes and calorimeters for event characterization will be supported.

In another work package, the next generation of ultra-thin silicon pixel sensors (MAPS - Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) is being developed under the direction of the GSI detector laboratory. These silicon pixel detectors make it possible to measure the experiment traces locally with higher accuracy. Very good spatial resolution is required for identification, especially for special particles seldom produced in collisions.

GSI and FAIR can contribute their competence and many years of experience in the fields of detector technologies, front-end electronics, data acquisition as well as simulations and data analysis.

In addition to the cooperation between CBM and NICA, CREMLINplus also supports the cooperation of European research infrastructures in the field of neutron research, research with synchrotron beams and lasers, as well as in particle physics with the respective Russian megascience projects (PIK, USSR, EXCELS and SCT).

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, was very pleased with the funding: "GSI and FAIR were once again able to underline their excellence through their success in competitive funding processes. CREMLINplus will further advance the latest technologies, which are crucial for the success of research at future accelerator facilities, and demonstrates the added value of cooperation among major research facilities. The strong international perspective of the project is important for top-level research, which is based on lively cooperation across national borders." (BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3568 Mon, 02 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100 Successful young researchers: Prizes awarded by the Giersch Foundation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3568&cHash=1c399551815d7090900aaf53dfce6605 The non-profit Giersch Foundation and the Helmholtz Graduate School "HGS-HIRe for FAIR" recently awarded the Giersch Excellence Awards and Giersch Excellence Grants for excellent doctoral theses and promising doctoral courses. For the fifth time, outstanding young researchers were honoured. The award ceremony took place in the lecture hall of the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) on the Riedberg campus. The non-profit Giersch Foundation and the Helmholtz Graduate School "HGS-HIRe for FAIR" recently awarded the Giersch Excellence Awards and Giersch Excellence Grants for excellent doctoral theses and promising doctoral courses. For the fifth time, outstanding young researchers were honoured. The award ceremony took place in the lecture hall of the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) on the Riedberg campus.

This year, the "Giersch Award for an Outstanding Doctoral Thesis", worth 6000 euros each, was presented to six young researchers for their completed dissertations who have demonstrated their exceptional scientific talent: Julian Kahlbow, Kristian Lars König und Steffen Georg Weber (all TU Darmstadt) as well as Moritz Greif, Hanna Malygina und Pierre Moreau (all Goethe University Frankfurt ).

Another 24 promising young researchers, currently in the doctoral phase at universities in the region, were awarded a "Giersch Excellence Grant" of 2500 euros each: Esther Bartsch, Patrick Huhn, Daniel Koser, Osnan Maragoto Maragoto Rodriguez, Anton Motornenko, Christian Michael Reisinger, Olga Soloveva, Jan Staudenmaier, Lukas Weih, Michael Wondrak, Frédéric Kornas, Phillip Imgram, Jacob Lee, Sajjad Hussain Mirza, Franziska Papenfuß, Marius Peck, Tabea Pfuhl, Niels Schlusser, Pascal Simon, Martin Jakob Steil, Kshitij Agarwal, Raphael Haas, Daria Kostyleva and Sêro Zähter.

The young scientists were chosen by a selection committee consisting of expert representatives of the Goethe University Frankfurt and the Technische Universität Darmstadt and chaired by Professor Henner Büsching.

The Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research "HGS-HIRe for FAIR" is a joint endeavor of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, the universities at Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Giessen, Heidelberg and Mainz together with FIAS to promote and support structured PhD education for research associated with GSI and FAIR. Currently, within this framework more than 300 doctoral students are working on their dissertations with a connection to GSI and FAIR. (BP)

More information

Homepage of HGS-HIRe for FAIR

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news-3566 Sat, 30 Nov 2019 11:00:00 +0100 Saturday Morning Physics: More than 200 participants at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3566&cHash=ea1ab425dbed33c122f4228441038f9b More than 200 high-school students from all over the state of Hesse, participating in the "Saturday Morning Physics" series of lectures, took the opportunity to gain exciting insights into current physical research at FAIR and GSI. During tours of the research facilities, the participants explored the accelerators and experiments on the GSI and FAIR campus and learned about the construction of the international accelerator facility FAIR. More than 200 high-school students from all over the state of Hesse, participating in the "Saturday Morning Physics" series of lectures, took the opportunity to gain exciting insights into current physical research at FAIR and GSI. During tours of the research facilities, the participants explored the accelerators and experiments on the GSI and FAIR campus and learned about the construction of the international accelerator facility FAIR. At the beginning, there was traditionally a small breakfast together.

During their visit, the students were also able to learn about materials research and research at the experimental storage ring ESR, to get to know the target laboratory and the cryo test facility for superconducting magnets and to take a closer look at the current progress on the FAIR construction site.

"Saturday Morning Physics" is a project of the physics department of the TU Darmstadt. The series of lectures is held annually and aims to increase the interest of young people in physics. In lectures and experiments on six consecutive Saturdays the high-school students learn about the latest developments in physical research at the university. Those who take part in all six courses receive the "Saturday Morning Physics" diploma. The visit to FAIR and GSI takes place as an excursion within the series. GSI has been one of the sponsors and supporters of this project since the start. (BP)

More information

Website of Saturday Morning Physics

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news-3564 Thu, 28 Nov 2019 10:47:13 +0100 Experimental physicist Heinz-Jürgen Kluge receives prestigious DPG award https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3564&cHash=f59bc191fc6adc72c6fa30fc7900c53c Professor Heinz-Jürgen Kluge has been awarded the renowned Robert Wichard-Pohl Prize 2020. The German Physical Society (DPG) recently announced this at the DPG Day. The former head of the atomic physics division of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and research director will receive the award in March 2020 during the DPG annual conference in Bonn. Professor Heinz-Jürgen Kluge has been awarded the renowned Robert Wichard-Pohl Prize 2020. The German Physical Society (DPG) recently announced this at the DPG Day. The former head of the atomic physics division of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and research director will receive the award in March 2020 during the DPG annual conference in Bonn.

The Robert Wichard-Pohl Prize is awarded for “outstanding contributions to physics that have a special impact on other disciplines in science and technology as well as for outstanding achievements in the dissemination of scientific knowledge in teaching, instruction and didactics of physics”. In its explanatory statement, the DPG emphasized Jürgen Kluges “groundbreaking experiments and precision measurements in the field of atomic and nuclear physics”. "He not only proved himself to be a brilliant researcher, but also a motivating teacher. His creative societal commitment has also been reflected in the establishment of symposia for students."

Jürgen Kluge studied physics at the University of Bonn and the University of Heidelberg, where he received his doctorate in 1970. As postdoc, he worked at the European Nuclear Research Center CERN, where he used optical spectroscopy to investigate the characteristics of short-lived low-neutron mercury isotopes at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE. In 1972 he became an assistant in experimental physics at the University of Mainz, where he was habilitated in 1975. He was appointed Professor of Physics at the Universities of Mainz (1978) and Heidelberg (1994).

Since the 1980s, Jürgen Kluge has been closely connected to GSI, from 1989 to 1992 as vice-chairman of the program committee, as an experimenter using the linear accelerator UNICAL, since 1994 as head of the atomic physics division and from 1999 to 2005 as research director of GSI. At CERN from 1983 to 1984 he was spokesman of the ISOLDE collaboration and from 1985 to 1987 head of the ISOLDE physics group as well as from 1984 to 1987 and from 2000 to 2004 member of the program committee PSCC respective INTC.

With his scientific work, Jürgen Kluge has achieved outstanding results in the field of optical spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. He is regarded a pioneer in the development of high-resolution Penning traps for mass spectrometry of unstable nuclei at accelerators and developed new techniques for storing, cooling and studying radionuclides and highly charged ions. Together with his students from the University of Mainz he built the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE in 1985, which pioneered similar facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, USA, National Superconducting Laboratory, USA, TRIUMF, Canada, in Jyväslylä, Finland, and also TRIGATRAP at the reactor in Mainz and SHIPTRAP at GSI, which allows spectroscopy on the heaviest elements and which he proposed in 1988. In 1994, he initiated an innovative trap experiment at the University of Mainz to measure the magnetic moment of the electron of a single stored hydrogen-like 12C-Ion. This led to a more precise determination of the electron mass and to the proposal to build HITRAP behind the storage ring ESR at GSI. With this unique experimental facility for highly precise experiments on highly charged ions up to U91+, measurements for testing quantum electrodynamics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields are to be carried out.

For his outstanding research work, the experimental atomic and nuclear physicist already received numerous awards, namely 1990 the Helmholtz Prize for his work on trace analysis with lasers, 2005 he became a fellow of the American Physical Society, 2006 he was awarded the Lise-Meitner Prize of the European Physical Society, 2008 the IUPAP Senior Scientist Medal in Fundamental Metrology and 2013 the G.N. Flerov Prize. (BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3562 Mon, 25 Nov 2019 09:37:02 +0100 Christoph Schmelzer Award 2019 for two young researchers https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3562&cHash=e19219e9dc44543c4bec60ddd9f44ba3 This year, the Christoph Schmelzer Prize was awarded for two doctoral theses: Dr. Sonja Schellhammer from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and Dr. Sebastian Meyer from the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich were awarded on November 21 at GSI and FAIR. This prize is awarded annually by the Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions e.V. for outstanding master's and doctoral theses in the field of tumor therapy with ion beams. This year, the Christoph Schmelzer Prize was awarded for two doctoral theses: Dr. Sonja Schellhammer from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and Dr. Sebastian Meyer from the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich were awarded on November 21 at GSI and FAIR. This prize is awarded annually by the Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions e.V. for outstanding master's and doctoral theses in the field of tumor therapy with ion beams.

The welcoming addresses for the 21st Christoph Schmelzer Award were given by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and Professor Gerhard Kraft, founder and former division head of GSI Biophysics, and Dr. Hartmut Eickhoff, Chairman of the Board of the Association, welcomed the participants. Prof. Dr. Dr. Jürgen Debus, Director of the Department of Radiology at the University Hospital of Heidelberg gave the keynote speech. He reported on long-term experiences in radiation therapy with heavy ions and on current study results.

In her dissertation at the TU Dresden, Dr. Sonja Schellhammer studied imaging using magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) during treatment with proton beams. The long-term goal of this combination is a more precise localization of the tumor volume. At the Institute for Radiooncology (OncoRay) of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, the world's first magnetic resonance scanner integrated into a proton beam guidance was constructed in 2017. Schellhammer's work entitled "Technical Feasibility of MR-Integrated Proton Therapy: Beam Deflection and Image Quality" analyzes both the effect of the MRT magnetic fields on the proton beam and the effect of the proton beam guidance on the quality of the resulting MRT image.

Dr. Sebastian Meyer studied for his dissertation whether ion beam computed tomography instead of X-ray computed tomography has potential for clinical use and which different detector systems and ion species would be suitable. For this purpose, he simulated CT images that can be obtained using protons, helium and carbon ion beams. In his doctoral thesis entitled "On the Clinical Potential of Ion Computed Tomography with Different Detector Systems and Ion Species", he also evaluated the integration of these images into tumor treatment planning and the resulting improvement in irradiation accuracy.

The prize money is 1500 Euro each. This award, now in its 21st year, represents a long-term continuity in the promotion of young talents in the field of ion beam tumor therapy. The topics of the scientific work are of fundamental importance for the further development of ion beam therapy, since the results of the award-winning work often find their way into clinical application. The award is named after Professor Christoph Schmelzer, co-founder and first Scientific Managing Director of GSI. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung where heavy ion therapy was developed to clinical maturity in Germany in the 1990s traditionally provides the appropriate setting for the annual ceremony.

The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy supports research activities in the field of tumor therapy with heavy ions with the aim of improving the treatment of tumors and providing general patient care. At the accelerator facility at GSI, more than 400 patients with tumors in the head and neck area were treated with ion beams as part of a pilot project from 1997 to 2008. The cure rates of this method are in some cases over 90 percent and the side effects are very low. The success of the pilot project led to the establishment of clinical ion beam therapy centers in Heidelberg and Marburg, where patients are now routinely treated with heavy ions. (LW)

Further information:

Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions e.V.

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news-3560 Fri, 22 Nov 2019 12:05:41 +0100 Hessian politicians visit energy-efficient "Green IT Cube" at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3560&cHash=0c7953e7c4d2b41f543e0637bcf525ca The energy-efficient high-performance computer center "Green IT Cube" and the progress of the FAIR project were the central themes of the visit of the Hessian politicians Martina Feldmayer, Kaya Kinkel and Ursula auf der Heide from Bündnis 90/DieGrünen at GSI and FAIR. They were received by Dr. Thorsten Kollegger, the Head of the IT Department of GSI and FAIR, and Dr. Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations of GSI and FAIR. The energy-efficient high-performance computer center "Green IT Cube" and the progress of the FAIR project were the central themes of the visit of the Hessian politicians Martina Feldmayer, Kaya Kinkel and Ursula auf der Heide from Bündnis 90/Die Grünen at GSI and FAIR. They were received by Dr. Thorsten Kollegger, the Head of the IT Department of GSI and FAIR, and Dr. Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations of GSI and FAIR.

The visit of the politicians was part of an information tour to several computer centers in the state of Hesse. Hessian Parliament Representative Martina Feldmayer is deputy chairwoman of the parliamentary group Bündnis 90/DieGrünen, spokeswoman for environmental and climate policy and a member of the parliamentary committee for the environment, climate protection, agriculture and consumer protection as well as the main committee. Member of the Hessian State Parliament Kaya Kinkel is spokeswoman for energy and economic policy and deputy chairwoman of the parliamentary committee for digital affairs and data protection and member of the parliamentary committee for economic affairs, energy, transport and housing. Ursula auf der Heide is member of the town council of Frankfurt and deputy chairwoman of the parliamentary group Bündnis 90/Die Grünen in the council. She is also a member of the city's committees for environment and sports as well as for economic affairs and women.

The "Green IT Cube" on the GSI/FAIR campus is one of the most capable scientific computing centers in the world. At the same time, it sets standards in IT technology and energy saving: Thanks to a special cooling system, it is particularly energy- and cost-efficient. Instead of air, the computers are cooled with water. Therefore, the energy required for cooling is less than seven percent of the electrical power used for computing. In conventional data centers with air cooling, this relation amounts to 30 up to 100 percent. The innovative cooling system also enables a compact and space-saving design. Scientists use the "Green IT Cube" at GSI and FAIR to carry out simulations and develop detectors for FAIR. They also evaluate measurement data from experiments at the accelerator facilities of GSI and FAIR.

After visiting the "Green IT Cube", the guests had the opportunity to inform themselves about the current status of the FAIR construction project and to view the ongoing work on the 20-hectare construction site, from the completed sections for the central ring accelerator SIS100 to the excavation pit for the first of the future large-scale experiments. (BP)

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news-3555 Wed, 20 Nov 2019 09:00:00 +0100 A new approach to the hunt for dark matter https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3555&cHash=85b20473abac8b10cbf1119244976705 A study that takes a novel approach to the search for dark matter has been performed by the BASE Collaboration at CERN working together with a team at the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU). For the first time the researchers are exploring how dark matter influences antimatter instead of standard matter. Their findings are now published in the latest edition of eminent scientific journal Nature. The news is based on a press release of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

A study that takes a novel approach to the search for dark matter has been performed by the BASE Collaboration at CERN working together with a team at the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU). For the first time the researchers are exploring how dark matter influences antimatter instead of standard matter. Their findings are now published in the latest edition of eminent scientific journal Nature.

They are the results of research undertaken by scientists at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Japan’s RIKEN research center, the Max Planck Institute of Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg (MPIK) and the National Metrology Institute Braunschweig (PTB), working jointly in the Max Planck-RIKEN-PTB Center for Time, Constants and Fundamental Symmetries, as well as scientists from CERN, the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), the University of Tokyo, and the Leibniz University Hannover.

"To date, scientists have always conducted high-precision experiments at low energies using matter-based samples in the hope of finding a link to dark matter," explains Dr. Christian Smorra, the lead author of the study. Currently working at Japan’s RIKEN research institute, he intends to use an ERC Starting Grant to establish a work group at JGU’s Institute of Physics. "Now we’ve decided to search explicitly for interactions between dark matter and antimatter. It is generally assumed that interactions of dark matter will be symmetric for particles and antiparticles. Our study seeks to determine whether this is really the case."

The project’s participants in fact see a double benefit in this approach: Little is known at this point about the microscopic characteristics of dark matter. At present one much-discussed possible component of dark matter is what is known as ALPs (axion-like particles). Moreover, the standard model of particle physics offers no explanation of why there is apparently so much more matter than antimatter in our universe. "Through our experiments, we hope to find clues that could provide a link between these two aspects," notes Dr. Yevgeny Stadnik, who participated in the study as part of a Humboldt Fellowship at HIM. "Possible asymmetrical interactions of this kind have not yet been explored, neither at the theoretical nor at the experimental level. Our current research work is taking a first real step in that direction."

The scientists are focusing their attention on one single antiproton that has been captured in a special device known as a Penning trap. The particle was produced by scientists using the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN, the world’s only research institution capable of generating low-energy antiprotons. The scientists then stored and experimented with the antiprotons created there using the BASE Collaboration’s trap system.

An antiproton has both a charge and a spin. Within a magnetic field, the spin precesses around the magnetic field lines at a constant, highly specific rate – known as the Larmor or spin precession frequency. "This means we can detect the presence of dark matter as it influences this frequency," says Christian Smorra. "For this purpose, we assume that potential dark matter particles act in the same way as a classical field with a specific wavelength. The waves produced by dark matter pass continuously through our experiment and thus have a periodic effect on the spin precession frequency of the antiproton that would otherwise be expected to remain constant."

Using their experimental set-up, the researchers have already explored a specific frequency range but without success - no evidence pointing to the influence of dark matter has come to light to date. "We've not yet been able to identify any significant and periodic changes to the antiproton’s spin precession frequency using our current measurement concept," explains Stefan Ulmer, spokesperson of the BASE Collaboration at CERN. "But we have managed to achieve levels of sensitivity as much as five orders of magnitude greater than those employed for observations related to astrophysics. As a result, we can now redefine the upper limit for the strength of any potential interactions between dark matter and antimatter based on the levels of sensitivity we’ve managed to accomplish."

The current project in effect merged the efforts of two research groups. The BASE Collaboration at CERN has a long and successful history of research into the fundamental properties of antiprotons, while the group led by Prof. Dmitry Budker, a researcher at the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at JGU and HIM, is very active in the search for dark matter and provided important interpretive input to the study. "We determined that there is a great deal of overlap in our research and this resulted in the idea for this new approach in the search for dark matter," points out Dmitry Budker.

Going forward, the scientists hope to further enhance the precision of measurement of antiproton spin precession frequency – an essential requirement if the antimatter-based search for dark matter is to prove successful. In this connection, a team headed by Prof. Jochen Walz at the Institute of Physics at JGU, working in collaboration with MPIK and RIKEN, is developing new methods for cooling protons and antiprotons, while a group of scientists from PTB Braunschweig, the Leibniz University Hannover, and RIKEN is implementing methods for quantum logic based antiproton-spin-state readout. A variety of other promising and similar antiparticle-related studies also beckon, for example, using positrons and antimuons. (JGU/BP)

Original publication

Scientific publication in Nature (Englisch)

Further information

BASE experiment

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news-3557 Mon, 18 Nov 2019 09:00:00 +0100 PANDA Collaboration honors PhD: Prize for Dr. Silke Grieser https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3557&cHash=3610e2024e459ef80081661e1c34e6e6 Dr. Silke Grieser has been honoured with the Panda PhD Prize 2019 for her doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität in Münster. She received the award at the most recent PANDA Collaboration Meeting in Darmstadt. Dr. Silke Grieser has been honoured with the Panda PhD Prize 2019 for her doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität in Münster. She received the award at the most recent PANDA Collaboration Meeting in Darmstadt.

Dr. Silke Griese received the prize for her dissertation titled „Cluster-Jet Targets for the PANDA-, MAGIX-, and CryoFlash-Experiments at Hadron-, Lepton-, and Laser-Facilities“. Her doctoral advisor was Professor Alfons Khoukaz from the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität in Münster. The award was presented by the spokesman of the Panda Collaboration, Klaus Peters from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.

The Panda Collaboration has awarded the PhD Prize once per year since 2013 in order to honor the best dissertation written in connection with the Panda Experiment. Panda will be one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR. The experiment focuses on antimatter research as well as on various topics related to the weak and the strong force, exotic states of matter, and the structure of hadrons. More than 500 scientists from 20 countries currently work in the Panda Collaboration. In her dissertation, Dr. Silke Grieser studied various aspects of Cluster Jets in order to produce an abundant number of exotic particles within the Panda detector, which is being built at the FAIR accelerator facility.

Candidates for the PhD Prize are nominated by their doctoral advisors. In addition to being directly related to the Panda Experiment, the nominees’ doctoral degrees must have received a rating of “very good” or better. Up to three candidates are shortlisted for the award and can present their dissertations at the Panda Collaboration meeting. The winner is chosen by a committee that is appointed for this task by the Panda Collaboration. The Panda Collaboration awards the PhD Prize to specifically honor students’ contributions to the Panda project. (BP)

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news-3553 Fri, 15 Nov 2019 14:00:00 +0100 Exhibition "50 Jahre GSI – Lieblingsbilder und Erinnerungen " opened https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3553&cHash=7bbd9ef72b74e3f33eb6c893e37e4226 GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung celebrates its 50th anniversary this year. It was founded in December 1969. The anniversary celebrations also included two very special activities: On the one hand, the ten favorite photos from five decades of GSI history were chosen. On the other hand, the current and former employees had the opportunity to submit their personal memories of their time at GSI as a short story. The results can now be seen in a public exhibition. GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung celebrates its 50th anniversary this year. It was founded in December 1969. The anniversary celebrations also included two very special activities: On the one hand, the ten favorite photos from five decades of GSI history were chosen. On the other hand, the current and former employees had the opportunity to submit their personal memories of their time at GSI as a short story. The results can now be seen in the public exhibition "50 Jahre GSI – Lieblingsbilder und Erinnerungen". At the opening, Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of FAIR and GSI, addressed the audience.

"GSI looks back on an impressive history with numerous scientific discoveries and, at the same time, with the construction of the international FAIR accelerator, into an eventful future that will lead us to many more highlights," said Professor Langanke. "The photos in the exhibition show just how appealing and aesthetic research can be visually. The memories give an insight into the work characterized by esteem and cooperation here on campus and, of course, also in an international environment. Our goal is to uphold these values also in the future."

The exhibition shows the ten favorite pictures chosen by staff and outsiders as large-format photo prints. Nearly 500 people took the opportunity to select their favorites from a total of 50 historical and current photos of the accelerators and experimental facilities. The photos presented are the ten with the most votes. In addition to images of detectors and accelerator components, the most frequently selected photos also include more unusual motifs, such as an autumnal impression of the campus or the visit of a Star Wars costume club.

In addition, a selection of twelve illustrated GSI memories will be presented on posters. The contributions were submitted by former and current employees as well as scientific guests from previous years. In a partly serious and partly humorous way, they portray events, encounters, successes and the overarching cooperation in the various fields of work on the campus and thus represent a lived culture of scientific exchange and joint commitment.

The exhibition will take place in the foyer of the Konferenz- und Bürogebäude West (KBW) on the GSI/FAIR Campus, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany, and will be open from November 15 to December 20, 2019 from Monday to Friday between 10 am and 4 pm. External guests are requested to bring an identification document with them for admission to the campus. (CP)

Further information
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news-3549 Wed, 13 Nov 2019 09:18:00 +0100 FAIR-GSI PhD Award 2019 for Kristian König https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3549&cHash=06c6e10fb741989062c110570aa7cc43 Dr. Kristian König has been honored with the FAIR-GSI PhD Award 2019. The annual award is endowed with 1,000 euros by Pfeiffer Vacuum. The award was presented not long ago by Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of FAIR and GSI, and Daniel Sälzer, Managing Director of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, in the framework of the GSI-FAIR Colloquium. Dr. Kristian König has been honored with the FAIR-GSI PhD Award 2019. The annual award is endowed with 1,000 euros by Pfeiffer Vacuum. The award was presented recently by Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of FAIR and GSI, and Daniel Sälzer, Managing Director of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, in the framework of the GSI-FAIR Colloquium. 

The research work for his thesis "Laser-Based High-Voltage Metrology with ppm Accuracy" was carried out by Kristian König in the research group of Professor Wilfried Nörtershäuser at the Technical University Darmstadt. The precise measurement of high voltages of several 10,000 volts is necessary in many areas of technology. Precision experiments in physics sometimes require accuracies down to one millionth of the measured voltage (1 ppm = 1 part per million). Kristian König has succeeded in measuring such voltages with the aid of a laser. He achieved this by accelerating ions (positively charged atoms) with the voltage to be measured and then measuring the influence of velocity on the "color" (frequency) of the light emitted by the ions. This method makes use of the Doppler effect which is known from daily life: If an ambulance with a siren approaches the observer at high speed, he hears a much higher tone than if the car were stationary. If the ambulance moves away, the sound becomes lower. If the pitch (frequency) is measured and the pitch of the resting siren is known, the speed of the ambulance can be calculated. Exactly the same happens with the light that atoms or ions emit in flight. This optical Doppler effect can be determined with extreme precision using lasers if the properties of the ion beam and the laser beam are controlled extremely well. Kristian König has constructed a setup enabling him to measure voltages to an accuracy of 5 ppm using this method. This accuracy is 20 times higher than what had been reached ever before with this technique. Such precise measurements are needed, for example, to determine the velocity of ions in the storage rings at GSI and at the future FAIR facility, and thus are crucial for a variety of precision experiments.

Pfeiffer Vacuum and GSI have a long-standing partnership. Vacuum solutions from Pfeiffer Vacuum have been used successfully in experimental setups at GSI for decades.

The annual FAIR-GSI PhD Award honors the best doctoral dissertation completed during the previous year. Eligible for nominations are dissertations that were financially supported by GSI as part of its strategic partnerships with the universities of Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Giessen, Heidelberg, Jena, and Mainz, or through the research and development program. In the framework of the Graduate School HGS-HIRe (Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research), more than 300 PhD students currently perform research for their doctoral dissertations on topics closely related to GSI and FAIR. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3551 Mon, 11 Nov 2019 09:00:00 +0100 Cooperation meeting between GSI/FAIR and Forschungszentrum Jülich https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3551&cHash=075d2de142067693bb597627ab3c7206 The current and future cooperation between GSI/FAIR and the divisions of the Nuclear Physics Institute (IKP) at Forschungszentrum Jülich was recently the subject of a meeting with representatives of both research institutions on the GSI campus in Darmstadt. The aim was to structure interfaces of existing projects, identify future cooperation projects, generate synergies at the same time and record the results in project profiles. The current and future cooperation between GSI/FAIR and the divisions of the Nuclear Physics Institute (IKP) at Forschungszentrum Jülich was recently the subject of a meeting with representatives of both research institutions on the GSI campus in Darmstadt. The aim was to structure interfaces of existing projects, identify future cooperation projects, generate synergies at the same time and record the results in project profiles. These preliminaries serve as basis for a collaboration agreement, which will describe the future cooperation of the institutes. The next meeting already follows.

The successful cooperation between GSI/FAIR and the IKP in science, accelerator technology and the FAIR project has existed for a long time and was a solid foundation for the contents of the workshop. The focus was on the topic "accelerators", from planning and implementation to operation as well as the associated technology and interfaces. The 30 different projects recorded during the event cover a wide range and are now described in concrete terms with milestones, deadlines and resources. Thematically, they range from the existing FAIR subprojects for the high-energy storage ring HESR and the research pillar PANDA to other subprojects such as the Collector Ring (Beam Cooling) or Commons (vacuum, beam diagnosis and power supply units) and the desired future cooperation in the fields of installation, commissioning and operation of the accelerator facilities.

A total of 50 people took part in the two-day workshop, about half of them came from Jülich, from the Institute Division "Large-scale nuclear physics facilities". One of them was Dr. Ralf Gebel, its acting director. The guests were welcomed by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR. In addition to the joint workshop, a visit to the FAIR construction site was also scheduled, including the completed sections of the central ring accelerator SIS100. In addition, the event offered participants the opportunity to exchange ideas intensively and fostered mutual understanding.

Now another event follows. This time the workshop focuses on cooperation topics in research and experiments.(BP)

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news-3545 Thu, 07 Nov 2019 14:17:00 +0100 Photopoint for the anniversary: 25 years ago the chemical element darmstadtium was discovered https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3545&cHash=65abce1dd8c0f08be62af787a8c16dae It was one of the greatest successes in fundamental research at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and at the same time a moment that became a landmark in the history of the city of Darmstadt: that 9 November 1994 at 4.39 p.m., when for the first time the chemical element 110 was produced in the GSI particle accelerator. In the meantime, it is named after its place of discovery "darmstadtium". It was one of the greatest successes in fundamental research at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and at the same time a moment that became a landmark in the history of the city of Darmstadt: that November 9, 1994, at 4:39 p.m., when for the first time the chemical element 110 was produced in the GSI particle accelerator. In the meantime, it is named after its place of discovery "darmstadtium" and Darmstadt, the city of science, is the only German city eternalized in the periodic table of the elements. In addition, the element gave its name to the science and congress center "darmstadtium". GSI and the congress center remember the discovery 25 years ago with a specially designed photopoint in the foyer of the "darmstadtium", which has now been opened on the occasion of the anniversary.

The new photopoint symbolizes cutting-edge research, which is world-leading and at the same time rooted in the region, and, as a further piece of the mosaic, sharpens the profile of Darmstadt as a city of science. The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, and the Lord Mayor of Darmstadt, Jochen Partsch, jointly opened the event. Professor Sigurd Hofmann, head of the discovery team of the element darmstadtium, gave a review of the history around the first production of element 110. The anniversary of the darmstadtium's first production also coincides with the International Year of the Periodic Table proclaimed by the United Nations: 2019 marks the 150th anniversary of the discovery of the Periodic Table.

The photopoint shows the decisive steps of the chemical element darmstadtium: discovery on November 9, 1994, official recognition by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) on August 15, 2003, naming ceremony on December 2, 2003. In addition, the decay chain of the element is depicted, the measurement of which allows the identification of the element.

To produce darmstadtium, nickel nuclei in a particle accelerator are shot with a speed of around 30,000 kilometers per second onto an extremely thin lead foil. When the two atomic nuclei merge, the element darmstadtium is formed. GSI also succeeded in discovering five other chemical elements: bohrium, hassium, meitnerium, roentgenium and copernicium. So, thanks to GSI, also the state of Hesse is the only German federal state to be honored in the periodic table.

In addition to all the reviews, the hashtag #UniverseInTheLab at the photopoint indicates the future: With the international accelerator center FAIR, currently under construction at GSI, scientists will be able to study the universe in the laboratory to address fundamental questions such as the origin of the chemical elements and the evolution of the universe.

The photopoint is 2.5 meters high, 1.2 meters wide and stands on a small platform. The arrangement also includes a 40-centimetre luminous cube to symbolize the element darmstadtium, which is very tiny in physical reality and only exists for a fraction of a second. The guests in the congress center can set themselves in scene in this photographic backdrop and eternalize themselves with a lot of imagination – an exciting piece of science to touch. The resulting photos can be published under the hashtag #UniverseInTheLab. (BP)

About GSI/FAIR:

The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt operates one of the world's leading particle accelerator facilities for research. Researchers from all over the world use the facility for experiments to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. In addition, they develop new applications in medicine and technology. The new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR is currently being built in international cooperation. It is one of the largest research projects worldwide. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world can conduct cutting-edge research at FAIR.

About the science and congress center "darmstadtium":

Whether for international conventions, meetings, product launches, annual general meetings or trade fairs, the Congress Centre Darmstadt provides excellent conditions for all kinds of events. Sustainability and the exceptional and awarded IT infrastructure make it Germany's fastest congress center with a 20Gbit/s redundant internet connection. It is situated in the heart of the city and has a direct connection to Frankfurt International Airport every 30 minutes.

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news-3547 Wed, 06 Nov 2019 18:09:00 +0100 European Physical Society visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3547&cHash=031fe81452033e8ee27212ef8f780592 Recently, the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society (EPS) visited the facilities of FAIR and GSI at its biannual meeting. The Board is the highest body for nuclear physics within the EPS. Recently, the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society (EPS) visited the facilities of FAIR and GSI at its biannual meeting. The Board is the highest body for nuclear physics within the EPS.

In a series of lectures, the participants learned more about the science at GSI during FAIR Phase 0, about the progress in the construction of the FAIR accelerators and detectors, and about the future research possibilities at FAIR. The FAIR-relevant efforts of the partner universities in Darmstadt and Frankfurt were also presented. The board also took a look at the FAIR progress from the FAIR viewpoint onto the construction site.

The European Physical Society is an association of 42 European physical societies. Founded in 1968, the scientific society represents over 100,000 physicists in Europe. Its headquarters are in Mulhouse, France. With over 62,000 members, the German Physical Society is the largest member of the EPS. Its purpose is the organization of conferences and the promotion of scientific exchange. (CP)

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news-3543 Wed, 06 Nov 2019 09:00:00 +0100 The alchemy of merging neutron stars https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3543&cHash=8e12387a78aedb76f94ff3418e0fdb48 For the first time, astronomers have identified a chemical element that was freshly formed by the merging of two neutron stars. The underlying mechanism, called the r-process – also known as rapid neutron capture – is considered to be the origin of large quantities of elements heavier than iron. This discovery sheds new light on the mystery of the environments in which this r-process takes place. This news is based on a press release of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg

For the first time, astronomers have identified a chemical element that was freshly formed by the merging of two neutron stars. The underlying mechanism, called the r-process – also known as rapid neutron capture – is considered to be the origin of large quantities of elements heavier than iron. This discovery sheds new light on the mystery of the environments in which this r-process takes place. The team of astronomers, also including scientists of FAIR and GSI, has now unequivocally demonstrated that the fusion of two neutron stars creates the conditions for this process and acts as a reactor in which new elements are bred.

The origin of heavy elements such as gold, lead and uranium has not yet been fully clarified. The lightest elements – hydrogen and helium – were already formed in significant quantities with the Big Bang. Nuclear fusion in the cores of stars is also a well-established source of atoms in the mass range from helium to iron.

For the production of heavier atoms, scientists suspect a process that attaches free neutrons to already existing building blocks. The fast variant of this mechanism is the so-called r-process (r stands for rapid) or fast neutron capture. At present, research is being carried out to determine which objects might be sites where this reaction takes place. Possible candidates so far are a rare type of supernova explosions and the merging of dense stellar remnants like binary neutron stars.

Large amounts of strontium form within less than a second

An international group of astronomers with substantial participation of Camilla Juul Hansen from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) in Heidelberg has now discovered the signature of the element strontium, which was formed by the r-process during an explosive fusion of two neutron stars. With on average 88 nucleons, of which 38 are protons, it is heavier than iron. Professor Almudena Arcones and Privatdozent Andreas Bauswein were also involved in the publication in the scientific journal Nature. In addition to their activities in the research department for theoretical physics at FAIR and GSI, they are also active at the Technical University of Darmstadt and at the University of Heidelberg, both partner universities of FAIR and GSI. They provided valuable estimates for the publication. The process and characteristics of the r-process are among the important research questions to be investigated at the future FAIR accelerator facility currently under construction in Darmstadt.

The explosive merger produced a raging expansion shell moving with 20% to 30% of the speed of light. It consists of newly formed matter, of which strontium alone amounts to about five Earth masses (1 Earth mass = 6·1024 kg). Thus, for the first time, the researchers provide clear evidence that such a collision provides the conditions for the r-process in which heavy elements form. Besides, this is the first empirical confirmation that neutron stars consist of neutrons.

The r-process is truly rapid. Per second, more than 10²² neutrons flow through an area of one square centimetre. The beta decay transforms some of the accumulated neutrons into protons, emitting one electron and one antineutrino each. The special aspect about this mechanism is that the neutrons combine to form large compounds faster than the newly formed conglomerates break up again. In this way, even heavy elements can grow from individual neutrons within less than a second.

Merging neutron stars produce gravitational waves

Using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), scientists obtained spectra following the spectacular discovery of the gravitational wave signal GW170817 in August 2017. In addition to a gamma-ray burst, the kilonova AT2017gfo, an afterglow in visible light due to radioactive processes, which faded within a few days after an initial sharp increase in brightness, occurred at the same location. The first analysis of the spectra in 2017 by another group of researchers did not yield a clear result about the composition of the reaction products.

Dr. Hansen and her colleagues based their re-evaluation on creating synthetic spectra and modelling the observed spectra, which were recorded over four days at intervals of one day each. The spectra indicate an object with an initial temperature of about 3700 K (approx. 3400 °C), which faded and cooled in the following days. The brightness deficits at wavelengths of 350 and 850 nm are conspicuous. These are like fingerprints of the element that absorbs light at these parts of the spectrum.

Taking into account the blue shift of these absorption lines caused by the Doppler effect the expansion following the merger event produces, the research group calculated spectra of a large number of atoms using three increasingly complex methods. Since these methods all yielded consistent results, the final conclusion is robust. It turned out that only strontium generated by the r-process is able to explain the positions and strength of the absorption features in the spectra.

Progress in the understanding of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements

“The results of this work are an important step in deciphering the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements and their cosmic sources,” Hansen concludes. “This was only possible by combining the new discipline of gravitational wave astronomy with precise spectroscopy of electromagnetic radiation. These new methods give hope for further ground-breaking insights into the nature of the r-process.” (CP)

Further Information:
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Aktuelles
news-3539 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 11:30:00 +0100 FAIR large-scale experiment CBM: Collaboration meeting in India https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3539&cHash=8154c68381972b7595d5bd9436f4f1f5 The status and next steps towards the realization of the CBM experiment – one of the four major research pillars of the future accelerator center FAIR – were the focus of the latest CBM collaboration meeting in India. The meeting with about 100 participants recently took place at the new campus of the Indian FAIR shareholder, the Bose-Institute in Kolkata. The status and next steps towards the realization of the CBM experiment – one of the four major research pillars of the future accelerator center FAIR – were the focus of the latest CBM collaboration meeting in India. The meeting with about 100 participants recently took place at the new campus of the Indian FAIR shareholder, the Bose-Institute in Kolkata.

The 34. CBM collaboration meeting was preceded by further sessions at the end of September: These included the “CBM Software School”, a “Students Day” and a workshop "FAIR and CBM – Prospects and Challenges" at University of Gauhati in Guwahati. Indian scientists are strongly involved in the CBM experiment and play a primary role: India provides a major in-kind contribution to CBM, which is the GEM and RPC tracking chambers for the muon detection system. In total 13 Indian institutions participate in the design of the muon system, perform feasibility studies and build twelve large-area detector stations.

An essential intermediate goal on the way to the realization of the CBM experiment is the successful commissioning of the miniCBM experiment at GSI/SIS18, which was one of the key points of the discussions. The director of the Bose-Institute, Professor Uday Bandyopadhyay, also participated in the CBM Collaboration Board Meeting. He expressed his strong interest in the collaboration with FAIR.

Another important item was the appointment of Piotr Gasik as the new CBM Technical Coordinator. Piotr Gasik was coordinating the upgrade of the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) at the ALICE experiment of the European Nuclear Research Center CERN with GEM based (Gas Electron Multiplier) read-out chambers. Now he coordinates their integration into the experiment at CERN. Piotr Gasik succeeds Walter Müller, who served as Technical Coordinator from the beginning of CBM, i.e. for more than 15 years. At the last evening of the meeting, the participants from Germany and the Indian hosts had a joint get-together with the Consul General of Germany in Kolkata, Dr. Michael Feiner. (BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3541 Wed, 30 Oct 2019 10:45:55 +0100 Video: The History of Element Discovery https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3541&cHash=52faecbfad0fe450ecc8bbee3a636b93 How was the periodic table created and do we already know all the elements that exist in the universe? An animated film by GSI and FAIR summarizes the history of the discovery of the elements: from the Ancient World to the creation of new elements at particle accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR. The year 2019 is proclaimed by the United Nations as the International Year of the Periodic Table, which celebrates its 150th anniversary this year. How was the periodic table created and do we already know all the elements that exist in the universe? An animated film by GSI and FAIR summarizes the history of the discovery of the elements: from the Ancient World to the creation of new elements at particle accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR. The year 2019 is proclaimed by the United Nations as the International Year of the Periodic Table, which celebrates its 150th anniversary this year.

Exactly 150 years ago, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published an order for the chemical elements which has been retained to this day: the periodic table of elements. On the occasion of the anniversary, GSI and FAIR, the laboratory of the element discoverers, illuminate the history of the discovery of the elements.

According to IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the periodic table is one of the most outstanding achievements of science, containing the essence of chemistry, physics and biology. It is a unique tool that has enabled scientists to predict the structure and properties of matter on Earth and throughout the universe.

Experiments at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt enabled scientists to discover six new elements, amongst them the elements darmstadtium and hassium, in honor of the city and the land of the laboratory.

The history of element discovery (YouTube)

Further activities on the Year of the Periodic Table of GSI and FAIR

Periodic Table for Schools for free

Lecture Series Wissenschaft für Alle

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Presse Aktuelles
news-3537 Mon, 28 Oct 2019 09:47:48 +0100 Positive trade fair balance: FAIR project presented at Expo Real https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3537&cHash=6f01d894bda905ae26c6e9b483bed9bd The current construction planning and the next steps towards the realization of the mega construction project FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) were the focus of this year's trade fair presentation at Expo Real in Munich. The result of the participation in the internationally renowned real estate trade fair was again very positive. The current construction planning and the next steps towards the realization of the mega construction project FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) were the focus of this year's trade fair presentation at Expo Real in Munich. The result of the participation in the internationally renowned real estate trade fair was again very positive.

The worldwide unique building project for science could be presented to the industrial sector with a lot of exciting news and was met with great interest by the visitors. Potential contractors and bidding syndicates for the upcoming work on the FAIR construction site actively took advantage of opportunities to hold direct and comprehensive talks about the construction plans for FAIR and find out about possible participation.

At present, the FAIR realization project has a large order volume related to the complex area of technical building services. There are numerous tenders and contracts to be awarded, for example for ventilation systems, sanitation, safety technology and electrical engineering. In addition, in the field of construction contracts, the focus is now shifting to the second major construction area in addition to construction area North with the central FAIR ring accelerator, which is in the process of realization. The current issue is the awarding of contracts for the extended shell construction on construction area south.

In-depth talks at the trade fair stand, a whole series of very focused one-on-one discussions and the acquisition of numerous new contacts with experts contributed to the fact that participation in the 2019 trade fair can be regarded as a success. The presence of many relevant players from the construction sector on the days of the fair also provided an excellent opportunity to further enhance the FAIR project profile in the construction industry. The expert discussions confirmed once again that a custom-made megaproject such as FAIR can be very attractive is for a construction company’s portfolio due to its unique selling points.

The proven partnership with the science city of Darmstadt was continued this year. The FAIR project had its own presentation at the Darmstadt stand, which was featured as part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main metropolitan area. With around 45,000 visitors and exhibitors from more than 40 countries, the Expo Real trade fair is one of Europe’s most important get-togethers for the real estate, construction, and location marketing sectors. (BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3535 Thu, 24 Oct 2019 11:54:32 +0200 Korean guests at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3535&cHash=6bddd6cd198cc52e2e8a3d0e8f271276 Recently, Professor Myeun Kwon, Director of the accelerator center RAON (Rare isotope Accelerator complex for ON-line experiments) in Daejeon, South-Korea, visited the facilities of GSI and FAIR with a delegation. With RAON, a large-scale research facility for nuclear physics with heavy ion beams is being built in Korea. Accordingly, the guests were particularly interested in an exchange of experiences on questions of organization and technical implementation of FAIR. Recently, Professor Myeun Kwon, Director of the accelerator center RAON (Rare isotope Accelerator complex for ON-line experiments) in Daejeon, South-Korea, visited the facilities of GSI and FAIR with a delegation. With RAON, a large-scale research facility for nuclear physics with heavy ion beams is being built in Korea. Accordingly, the guests were particularly interested in an exchange of experiences on questions of organization and technical implementation of FAIR.

Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, and Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of FAIR and GSI, welcomed the group and informed them about the scientific goals and the status of realization of the FAIR project in a talk followed by a discussion. Afterwards they accompanied the guests to the FAIR construction site, where the Korean group took a look at the FAIR construction progress. An introduction to the technical challenges and scientific capabilities of the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 and a tour of the testing facility for superconducting FAIR magnets lead by Dr. Peter Spiller, head of the subproject SIS100, were also part of the day's program. (CP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3533 Tue, 22 Oct 2019 10:06:15 +0200 Members of the European Parliament visiting GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3533&cHash=3a51c2255d7df4c026d1d1789e315027 Members of the "Renew Europe" parliamentary group, the third largest political group within the European Parliament, as well as their staff and consultants were guests at GSI and FAIR. They were informed about current research, infrastructures and the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently under construction at GSI. The international guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR. Members of the "Renew Europe" parliamentary group, the third largest political group within the European Parliament, as well as their staff and consultants were guests at GSI and FAIR. They were informed about current research, infrastructures and the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently under construction at GSI. The international guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR.

The visit was part of a closed meeting of "Renew Europe" in Frankfurt, during which information tours to international top locations were also undertaken. On the GSI and FAIR campus, the more than 100 European political visitors gained insights into the scientific successes and current status of the FAIR project, one of the largest construction projects for cutting-edge research worldwide and at the same time a strong pillar of the German and European research landscape in global competition. The FAIR and GSI management provided background information and offered a compact overview of science, structural and technical progress, and the development at the site in the heart of the Rhine-Main region.

The FAIR project is rated by experts as a top international science project for decades, offering world class opportunities and outstanding potential for groundbreaking discoveries. The social contribution of the megaproject FAIR is also significant. FAIR makes value contributions to society on many levels, whether as a driver of innovation, provider of highly qualified jobs and in education of young scientists and engineers or in the development of new medical applications.

The program for the guests also included a visit to the GSI campus and the FAIR construction site. They visited the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets (Series Test Facility, STF), where high-tech components for FAIR are examined. During a tour of the FAIR site, they were also able to take a close view on the ongoing work on the 20-hectare site, from the completed shell construction of the tunnel segments for the large ring accelerator SIS100 up to the excavation pit for the first of the future large-scale experiments.

The “Renew Europe” group is one of the political groups of the European Parliament. It unites several liberal and centrist parties, including from the German-speaking countries amongst others the FDP with five deputies and the Freie Wähler with two deputies. (BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3531 Mon, 14 Oct 2019 13:46:11 +0200 Positive response: GSI and FAIR present themselves at VDI career fair https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3531&cHash=27fba4739168b94b153758f8bdea66dc Cutting-edge technologies, international science and a mega construction project - with a large number of highly qualified jobs in this field, GSI and FAIR are an important job generator. Recently GSI/FAIR presented numerous new job offers at the "Darmstadtium" congress center in Darmstadt at the "VDI Nachrichten Recruiting Tag", a career fair of the Association of German Engineers. Cutting-edge technologies, international science and a mega construction project - with a large number of highly qualified jobs in this field, GSI and FAIR are an important job generator. Recently GSI/FAIR presented numerous new job offers at the "Darmstadtium" congress center in Darmstadt at the "VDI Nachrichten Recruiting Tag", a career fair of the Association of German Engineers.

The main focus was on specialized engineers and technicians with different emphasis, for example electrical or mechanical engineering, but also on technicians and IT specialists. Young professionals were just as much in demand as those with many years of professional experience.

There was a great demand at the FAIR and GSI booth, numerous participants took the opportunity to enter into direct dialogue with the contact persons of FAIR and GSI and inquire in detail about job profiles and career opportunities. There was also extensive information on the FAIR project, one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide, which was also presented at the central forum of the career fair as part of a company pitch.

The first applications were already received on the day of the trade fair itself, and the response via the regular application process and unsolicited applications in the following period has been great. The repeated presence at the VDI career fair is thus an important building block in the recruitment of specialized experts in the engineering disciplines. (BP)

Further information

More information on working at FAIR and GSI and current vacancies can be found here.

 

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Aktuelles
news-3529 Fri, 11 Oct 2019 16:01:17 +0200 ESA-FAIR Summer School: Experiment Proposal Awards for participants https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3529&cHash=0449b9cf53622e63bbed68b65174ec3e After two weeks of lectures and experiments at the European Space Agency in Darmstadt and at FAIR and GSI, the 1st ESA-FAIR Summer School was closed on October 1, 2019, with an award ceremony. 18 students from 8 different countries submitted experiment proposals in different fields of space radiation research. The proposals were evaluated by an ESA-FAIR panel. After two weeks of lectures and experiments at the European Space Agency in Darmstadt and at FAIR and GSI, the 1st ESA-FAIR Summer School was closed on October 1, 2019, with an award ceremony. 18 students from 8 different countries submitted experiment proposals in different fields of space radiation research. The proposals were evaluated by an ESA-FAIR panel.

After careful selection, the best proposal award was granted to Dr. Emiliano Bolesani from the Hannover Medical School (Germany) who will generate heart organoids and expose them to heavy ions to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease in spaceflight. Second best proposal was about microbiology, in particular the irradiation of arctic ice to isolate radioresistant microorganisms that could be present on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The experiment was proposed by Dr. Ligia Fonseca Coelho from IST in Lisbon (Portugal). The project ranked third was about hibernation and radiation resistance, and was proposed by Dr. Timna Hitrec from the University of Bologna (Italy). The ESA-FAIR panel found all the proposals outstanding. It is planned to submit them officially to the Program Advisory Committee to apply for implementation within the IBER program. IBER is funded by ESA to study biological effects of space radiation at GSI.

The ESA-FAIR Summer School included lecturers from GSI, ESA and other European institutes such as DLR (German Aerospace Center), SCK-CEN (Belgium) and the Technical University of Darmstadt. The second edition of the school is slated for September 2020 in Darmstadt. (LW)

More information

www.gsi.de/esa-fair-summer-school.htm

www.gsi.de/IBER

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3519 Mon, 07 Oct 2019 10:03:00 +0200 The favourite picture of FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3519&cHash=8777a0daaa7a5426de5095ce11908bef Our FAIR-GSI favourite pictures are chosen! Around 500 people took part and voted for their favorites out of 50 photos. The then photos with the most votes are compiled on our favourite picture website. We will also present these pictures in an exhibition on the GSI and FAIR campus in the KBW foyer at the end of the year. Our FAIR-GSI favourite pictures are chosen! Around 500 people took part and voted for their favorites out of 50 photos. The then photos with the most votes are compiled on our favourite picture website. We will also present these pictures in an exhibition on the GSI and FAIR campus in the KBW foyer at the end of the year.

Our first place with a total of 87 votes is a picture by photographer Thomas Ernsting showing the large-scale detector FOPI. For high-energy research with the particle accelerator SIS18, which can bring heavy ions up to 90 percent of the speed of light, new detectors were put into operation in the 1990s, including FOPI (4Pi) — a detector that covers almost the entire solid angle. The aim of FOPI was to investigate the hot, dense nuclear matter that is produced for a very short time during a high-energy heavy ion collision. It expands explosively and emits newly produced particles. FOPI was designed by an international collaboration of 13 institutes and operated at GSI until a few years ago.

The photo on place 2 with 77 votes was taken by Christian Grau. It was produced on the occasion of our Open House in 2017 and shows a girl looking through an accelerator structure of our linear accelerator UNILAC. With 11,000 visitors, the Open House was the largest event in the history of GSI and FAIR. Place 3 with 63 votes, also by Thomas Ernsting, opens a view into our large-scale detector HADES. HADES (High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer) is used to investigate hot, dense nuclear matter, among other things to answer the question of mass. It is not yet clear why a proton has significantly more mass than its individual components. HADES will continue to be used at FAIR as a component of the CBM detector for the investigation of compressed nuclear matter.

The ten winners of the GSI coffee cups "The Universe in the Lab" from our prize draw have been notified of their prize via e-mail. (CP)

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Aktuelles
news-3527 Wed, 02 Oct 2019 13:45:50 +0200 Groundbreaking ceremony for extension of the Helmholtz Institute in Jena https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3527&cHash=b162fe092066bdbc346a0f7dd4d572c3 The structural extension of the Helmholtz Institute Jena (HI-Jena) has begun, the ground-breaking ceremony has taken place. The new building, which will be erected in the immediate vicinity of the existing institute building, will create additional office, seminar and laboratory space. The groundbreaking ceremony is also an important starting signal for further fostering the successful growth of the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a branch of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH located on the The structural extension of the Helmholtz Institute Jena (HI-Jena) has begun, the ground-breaking ceremony has taken place. The new building, which will be erected in the immediate vicinity of the existing institute building, will create additional office, seminar and laboratory space. The groundbreaking ceremony is also an important starting signal for further fostering the successful growth of the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a branch of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH located on the campus of the Friedrich Schiller University (FSU) Jena.

After the welcome address by the Director of the Helmholtz Institute Jena, Professor Thomas Stöhlker, the Minister for Economy, Science and Digital Society of the State of Thuringia, Wolfgang Tiefensee, and the Minister for Infrastructure and Agriculture, Birgit Keller, passed on their greetings. On behalf of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung spoke Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke, and Professor Georg Pohnert, Vice President of Research, spoke on behalf of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena.

The Thuringian Ministry of Infrastructure had announced an architectural competition for the new research building. The winner was a regional office: The jury unanimously selected the design of the "Osterwold°Schmidt EXP!ANDER Architekten" office in Weimar, which had submitted the plans jointly with Impuls Landschaftsarchitektur Jena. The four-storey, cube-shaped building with a floor area of around 240 square meters connects to the target laboratory in the basement. As link to the existing institute building, an interlocking gate is planned.

The construction period for the new building, which will be erected on a slope on a federal state property within the university site, will be approximately two years. The state of Thuringia is financing the construction project and has scheduled eight million euros for it in its state budget.

With the additional institute building, the infrastructural conditions for cutting-edge research, which has been carried out at the HI-Jena since the institute was founded ten years ago, will be further improved. The institute's research activities focus on the physics occurring at the border between conventional particle-acceleration technology and the fast-evolving field of laser-induced particle acceleration. The HI-Jena offers outstanding research in the field of coupling of intense photon fields and the supporting development of appropriate instrumentation. In addition, the Helmholtz Institute Jena will further expand and strengthen the close connection between the university and the large-scale research facility GSI with the international accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built here.

Around 100 employees and associated scientists in ten working groups are currently working at the HI-Jena. There is also an own research school (“Research School of Advanced Photon Science”) with around 60 doctoral students. In addition, the successful acquisition of third-party funding and regional networking – for example through cooperation and collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute for Optics and Precision Engineering and the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology – have increased steadily. (BP)

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Aktuelles
news-3525 Mon, 30 Sep 2019 10:00:00 +0200 Stage step reached: Half of the dipole magnets for the large FAIR ring accelerator tested https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3525&cHash=194563972c4d46537965cd3471f76e83 It is an important step: Half of over 100 superconducting dipole magnets required for the large FAIR accelerator ring SIS100 have been successfully tested. The measurement results of the tests carried out in the Series Test Facility (STF) at GSI: The tested magnets have excellent properties throughout which indicates a high production quality. This decisive moment – the testing of the 55th magnet- was honoured with a ceremony on GSI and FAIR campus. It is an important step: Half of over 100 superconducting dipole magnets required for the large FAIR accelerator ring SIS100 have been successfully tested. The measurement results of the tests carried out in the Series Test Facility (STF) at GSI: The tested magnets have excellent properties throughout which indicates a high production quality. This decisive moment – the testing of the 55th magnet- was honoured with a ceremony on GSI and FAIR campus.

The testing of the superconducting dipole magnets at the test facility at GSI is ongoing since September 2017, when the first magnet was delivered. Subsequently, series production had been launched at Bilfinger Noell in Würzburg. In total 110 dipole magnets will be produced, 108 will be installed in the ring accelerator tunnel and two more are spare ones. The dipoles, that will mainly be needed for deflecting the particle beam, make up more than a quarter of all 415 fast ramped superconducting magnets utilized in the SIS100.

Each of the dipole magnets, which weight about three tons and are three meter long, is subjected to a comprehensive test program: The quality control of the production as well as the factory acceptance test at normal ambient conditions are performed in Würzburg, while an extended test program, at both ambient and cryogenic conditions (Site Acceptance Test, SAT), is being conducted at the GSI test facility.

The almost 700 square meter test facility, which was especially built at GSI, is equipped with a cryogenic plant with a local liquid helium distribution system to cool the magnets on the operational temperature of 4.5K (i.e. 4.5 degrees Celsius above absolute zero, which is about -273 degrees Celsius). In addition, two 20-kiloampere power supply units enable to perform functionality tests on the magnets. The duration of the regular SAT program for a single magnet is approximately four weeks. The successful testing campaign is the result of the joint work of more than 30 colleagues from various GSI departments.

The goal of the acceptance and functionality tests is to verify the production quality regarding the specified parameters, qualifying the magnets for the operation in the SIS100 accelerator and acquire the data required for machine control. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3521 Thu, 26 Sep 2019 10:42:00 +0200 Timeline: Review of 50 years GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3521&cHash=5659cf285bdd55f5013c070565776593 The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung celebrates its 50th anniversary in 2019. During the decades, GSI has developed from a national research institute with worldwide collaborations into an international campus where the new international FAIR accelerator facility is under construction. On the occasion of the anniversary year 2019, we have summarized the history of the research institute in a timeline. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung celebrates its 50th anniversary in 2019. During the decades, GSI has developed from a national research institute with worldwide collaborations into an international campus where the new international FAIR accelerator facility is under construction. On the occasion of the anniversary year 2019, we have summarized the history of the research institute in a timeline.

50 years of GSI are also 50 years full of impressive research results, advanced experiments, new technologies and important decisions. We have compiled the highlights from the history of GSI. The timeline "50 Years GSI" gives an overview of the milestones that have shaped the history of the research institute. Join us on a journey through time, click your way through 50 years of top research at GSI and take a look at the promising future of FAIR. (LW)

Further information:
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Aktuelles
news-3523 Tue, 24 Sep 2019 13:45:07 +0200 First place in the campaign City Cycling 2019: More than 35,000 kilometers ridden https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3523&cHash=cb442eb0d87f56bf787fceed8663947a Team GSI has achieved a great success in this year’s city cycling campaign and has reached first place in the team ranking. A total mileage of 35,049 kilometers was covered. A total of 142 employees from GSI, FAIR and externals took part in city cycling as team GSI. The kilometers travelled avoided the emission of 4.9 tonnes of carbon dioxide. Second and third places were taken by "Merck fährt Rad" (32,057 kilometers) and the Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences (13,190 kilometers). Team GSI has achieved a great success in this year’s city cycling campaign and has reached first place in the team ranking. A total mileage of 35,049 kilometers was covered. A total of 142 employees from GSI, FAIR and externals took part in city cycling as team GSI. The kilometers travelled avoided the emission of 4.9 tonnes of carbon dioxide. Second and third places were taken by "Merck fährt Rad" (32,057 kilometers) and the Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences (13,190 kilometers).

This year's result of team GSI once again is a clear improvement on the very successful last years: In 2018 there were 102 cyclists in the GSI team who had covered 25,766 kilometers and reached second place. In 2017, a team of 67 cyclists with more than 15,000 kilometers already achieved first place.

The winning prizes for the best teams and individual cyclists were awarded during the Bicycle Action Day on the market square in Darmstadt by Barbara Akdeniz, head of the environmental department. The prizes for the winning teams were vouchers for a joint visit to the climbing forest in order to strengthen the team spirit.

Over 1400 people in 85 teams took part in the 21-day campaign in May and June. During this period, they covered a total of 285,809 kilometers, thus avoiding 41 tonnes of CO2 compared with driving a car. "I am delighted that so many cyclists have again taken part in city cycling and have thus set an example for the high significance of cycling in Darmstadt," explained environmental department head Akdeniz during the award ceremony. In the coming year, the city of Darmstadt wants to participate in city cycling again. (BP)

More information

Website of the campaign City Cycling

Website of the City of Darmstadt (in German)

 

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3517 Fri, 20 Sep 2019 09:41:38 +0200 Opening for joint ESA-FAIR Summer School: Focus on cosmic radiation research https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3517&cHash=c04df02a3ac6365d9ef3bd1f996d954c They are the first participants in a new high-quality offer for international young scientists: Currently 15 young researchers from eight countries come together for the first time during the "ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School" to work intensively on the topic of cosmic radiation. They are the first participants in a new high-quality offer for international young scientists: Currently 15 young researchers from eight countries come together for the first time during the "ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School" to work intensively on the topic of cosmic radiation. The Summer School for radiation research was jointly established by the European Space Agency ESA and the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.

Researching cosmic radiation and their effects on humans, electronics and materials is a decisive contribution to the future of human spaceflight, so that astronauts and satellites in space are provided with the best protection during the exploration of our solar system. Furthermore, it also contributes to detailed knowledge about the risks of radiation exposure on Earth.

The Summer School will be held at ESA´s European Space Operations Centre ESOC as well as at the GSI/FAIR campus in Darmstadt in order to train students in basic heavy ion biophysics for space applications, e.g. space radiation detection, monitoring and protection.

The Summer School's top-class scientific program, opened by Thomas Reiter, ESA Interagency Coordinator, and Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, includes lectures from experts in the field, site visits to facilities in Darmstadt and practical training and research opportunities at GSI/FAIR. The participants commute between the two locations ESOC and GSI/FAIR Campus. Among other things, there will be the opportunity to discuss the radiation risk during life and work in space with Marco Durante, Director of the GSI Biophysics Department. At the GSI and FAIR accelerator facilities, the students have the opportunity to participate in experiments and learn more about the research fields of radiation biology, electronic components, materials research, shielding materials and instrument calibration. At the end of the ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School, participants will take written exams and carry out teamwork, which will be evaluated and rated by the lecturers.

The establishment of the Summer School is a direct result of the close cooperation between ESA and FAIR on cosmic radiation research. The existing GSI accelerator facility already is the only one in Europe that can generate all of the ion beams that occur in our solar system, which range from the lightest one, hydrogen, to the heaviest, uranium. The research opportunities will be expanded even further by the future FAIR accelerator center: FAIR will enable researchers to conduct experiments with an even wider spectrum of particle energies and intensities, and to simulate the composition of cosmic radiation with a precision that no other accelerator facility will be able to match. The proximity to the European Space Operations Centre ESOC in Darmstadt in addition creates ideal conditions for local cooperation in one of the key research fields of the future. (BP)

More information

Website about ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School

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news-3515 Wed, 18 Sep 2019 16:22:10 +0200 Improvement in accelerator technology: Award for Dr. Rahul Singh https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3515&cHash=eb28f4ec27358c08f1e2c1bf3480c159 GSI Management awarded Dr. Rahul Singh of the GSI Beam Instrumentation department a certificate for significant technical improvement to optimize beam properties for physics experiments. Together with an expert team (comprising of Dr. Peter Forck from beam instrumentation, Dr. Stefan Sorge from the Accelerator Physics department and Dr. Andrzei Stafiniak of the Electric Power Systems department) Dr. Singh carried out very successful development works to improve the slow extraction from SIS18. As a result, The GSI Management awarded Dr. Rahul Singh of the GSI Beam Instrumentation department a certificate for significant technical improvement to optimize beam properties for physics experiments. Together with an expert team (comprising of Dr. Peter Forck from beam instrumentation, Dr. Stefan Sorge from the Accelerator Physics department and Dr. Andrzei  Stafiniak of the Electric Power Systems department) Dr. Singh carried out very successful development works to improve the slow extraction from SIS18. As a result, the beam quality provided by GSI accelerators to the science community was significantly improved.

Main goal of the Beam Instrumentation department is to inspect the ion beam with highest precision. The key feature is high-end measurement technology for ion beams, which is applied to detect all relevant beam parameters, such as beam position or intensity and their temporal evolution. Only through high-precision measurements provided to the operating team, both, accelerator and ion beam, can be further optimized.  

An important pre-requisite to carry out nuclear physics experiments at GSI and FAIR efficiently, is the provision of ion beams with constant intensity during slow extraction of the accelerated ions from SIS18. The slow extraction process reacts very sensitive on perturbations, like e.g. small fluctuations of the magnet currents. Since many years these perturbations are the subject of detailed experimental studies, as well as investigations based on particle dynamics simulations, with the goal to efficiently suppress the perturbations. In the past two years, Dr. Rahul Singh carried out a number of measurements to pinpoint the source of the fluctuations in the so-called spill-structure in the millisecond regime and to model the influence of the magnet power supplies on beam quality. 

In a joint effort, Dr. Rahul Singh and the team of experts successfully developed a novel technique to improve the spill-structure and immediately implemented the system during the beamtime. The new technique allowed for smoothing out the spill-structure. In particular, the HADES experiment benefited instantaneously from the technical improvement by a 45% increased event statistics in the previous experiment campaign.

The technology developed by the team is very promising for the future and will not only increase the efficiency for many physics experiments at SIS18, but also at the large SIS100 accelerator ring of the future FAIR accelerator center. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3513 Fri, 13 Sep 2019 10:54:11 +0200 ESA workshop at GSI and FAIR to launch the new experimental program IBER-19 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3513&cHash=147c1b7a88e1344e3e174c0529959615 On September 9, 2019, GSI and FAIR hosted a workshop to discuss the results of the previous experiments in the FAIR Phase-0 beam time that took place from February until April of 2019 and to plan the future experiments in 2020. Over 30 investigators from Germany, Italy, Belgium, Czech Republic and Romania attended the workshop and presented the results of the experiments, covering cancer risk, central nervous system damage, alterations in heart rhythm, shielding and effects of radiation on ultra-resistant On September 9, 2019, GSI and FAIR hosted a workshop to discuss the results of the previous experiments in the FAIR Phase-0 beam time that took place from February until April of 2019 and to plan the future experiments in 2020. Over 30 investigators from Germany, Italy, Belgium, Czech Republic and Romania attended the workshop and presented the results of the experiments, covering cancer risk, central nervous system damage, alterations in heart rhythm, shielding and effects of radiation on ultra-resistant organisms. The next experiments will use protons, carbon and iron ions at very high energy in the FAIR Phase-0 beam time window in 2020.

The European Space Agency (ESA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding  with FAIR in February 2018 to use the accelerator facilities for space radiation protection. The current plans for moon exploration, already planned in 2024, make this experiments urgent to understand the space radiation risk and find appropriate countermeasures. Within the Memorandum of Understanding, ESA is funding the Investigations on Biological Effects of Radiation (IBER) program that supports European investigators to perform radiobiology experiments at GSI and FAIR on space radiation protection.

More information

IBER program

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3511 Wed, 11 Sep 2019 21:53:10 +0200 Probing a nuclear clock transition https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3511&cHash=a5176a6320d0295d8a6f60955db1a64d Physicists have measured the energy associated with the decay of a metastable state of the thorium-229 nucleus. This is a significant step on the way to a nuclear clock which will be far more precise than the best of today’s atomic timekeepers. The press release is based on the release of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Physicists have measured the energy associated with the decay of a metastable state of the thorium-229 nucleus. This is a significant step on the way to a nuclear clock which will be far more precise than the best of today’s atomic timekeepers.

Modern atomic clocks are the most accurate measurement tools currently available. The best current instruments deviate by just one second in 30 billion years. However, even this extraordinary level of precision can be improved upon. Indeed, a clock based on an excited nuclear state of thorium-229 should make it possible to enhance timing accuracy by another order of magnitude. Now a research team led by LMU physicist Peter Thirolf, in collaboration with colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Helmholtz Institute Mainz, the University of Bonn and the Technical University of Vienna has taken an important step towards such a clock. Indeed, the new study is featured on the title page of the leading journal Nature. In the paper, the authors report that they have succeeded in quantifying the energy released by the decay of the excited thorium-229 nucleus, which is an essential prerequisite for the realization of a thorium-based nuclear clock.

Clock generators are oscillations in the atomic nucleus

Unlike current atomic clocks, which make use of oscillations in the outer electron shells of atoms, nuclear clocks employ oscillations within the nucleus as their timekeeper. In both cases, the oscillations are the product of transitions between defined energy levels, which can be excited by laser light of a specific wavelength. Typically, the energies required to excite oscillations in the vast majority of atomic nuclei are orders of magnitude higher than those required to stimulate transitions in the orbital shells of electrons – which precludes the use of conventional lasers for this purpose. However, there is only one viable candidate for the development of a nuclear clock – the thorium-229 nucleus. Its excited state is located at an energy that is by far the lowest of any state found in the approximately 3800 currently known atomic nuclei. Irradiation with UV light, which is within the capability of lasers now available, is sufficient to populate this excited state.

However, up to now, the precise energy required to generate the excited thorium-229 has remained unknown. “To induce the nuclear transition, the wavelength of the laser light must be tuned to match the transition energy exactly. We have now succeeded in measuring this precisely for the first time,” says Benedict Seiferle, lead author of the new paper.

Uranium-233 sources as suppliers of excited thorium-229

For these measurements, carried out at LMU, the authors of the study made use of the doubly charged thorium-229 cation. Sources providing this cation in the excited nuclear state were developed in Mainz. “Uranium-233 was chemically purified and subsequently deposited on titanium-covered silicon wafers using an electrochemical method. This yields homogeneous thin films. Uranium-233 undergoes alpha decay, producing thorium-229. Thorium-229 recoils from the thin film due to the energy released in the alpha decay, hence entering into a dedicated ion trap developed at LMU in which thorium-229 cations are recovered,” Christoph Düllmann, chemist at GSI Helmholtzzentrum, University Mainz and HIM, describes the process. The excited state of the cation has a lifetime of hours. This is relatively long for an excited nuclear state and is crucial for the future development of the clock, but it hampers measurement of the decay energy. “This long lifetime means that decay to the ground state occurs only rarely. As measurement of this decay was the goal of our experiment, we exploited the fact that decay occurs rapidly when the cations are given the opportunity to collect the missing electrons,” says Seiferle.

To provide electrons, Seiferle and colleagues guided the ions through a layer of graphene. On its way through this layer, each ion picks up two electrons and emerges as a neutral atom on the other side. Thanks to this controlled neutralization step, the excited state then decays to the ground state within a few microseconds. The neutralized atoms expel an electron from an outer atomic shell, thus generating a positively charged thorium-229 ion. The kinetic energy of the free electron depends on the excitation energy of the nuclear state and is determined using an electron spectrometer. However, this energy is only a fraction of the energy used to generate the excited nuclear state. The rest remains in the thorium-229, which renders the interpretation of the resulting spectra complex. To get around this problem, the authors based at the Max-Planck Institute for Theoretical Physics in Heidelberg calculated the spectra to be expected. With the aid of these predictions, and in collaboration with their colleagues in Vienna and Bonn, the team in Munich was then able to determine the energy actually associated with the decay of the excited nuclear state.

Nucleus excitation by laser beams with a wavelength of 150 nanometers possible

The result indicates that the thorium-229 nucleus can be excited to this level by irradiation with laser light at a wavelength . Now lasers specifically designed to emit in this wavelength range can be constructed. This step will bring the first nuclear clock a great deal closer to practical realization. The researchers believe that a thorium-based nuclear clock will open up new avenues in the basic sciences, but will also find many applications, which only become possible on the basis of extremely precise measurements in the time domain.

The current results opens the way for new research prospects at the FAIR accelerator facility currently being built at GSI. Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Vice Director of Research and head of the Atomic Physics division at GSI, says: „This refined energy value opens up future research opportunities at the FAIR storage rings, allowing for precision studies of thorium-229 and its isomer at highest charge states via di-electronic recombination.“ (LMU/CP/JL)

Further information

Scientific publication in Nature

 

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3509 Wed, 11 Sep 2019 10:02:00 +0200 GSI and FAIR inform at the Darmstadtium Congress Center https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3509&cHash=df80b5c6a0a62059d4477d6d48077737 Many interesting facts about the discovery of chemical elements and the physics at particle accelerators were presented by GSI and FAIR during the event “Tag der Vereine” at the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center. Numerous visitors came to the GSI stand and took the opportunity to gain insights into current research and the outstanding opportunities at the future FAIR accelerator center, which is currently being built at GSI. Many interesting facts about the discovery of chemical elements and the physics at particle accelerators were presented by GSI and FAIR during the event “Tag der Vereine” at the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center. Numerous visitors came to the GSI stand and took the opportunity to gain insights into current research and the outstanding opportunities at the future FAIR accelerator center, which is currently being built at GSI.

In addition to the wide range of information, it was also possible to simulate playfully the production of the element Darmstadtium on an accelerator model. In experiments at the GSI accelerator facility, scientists succeeded in discovering a total of six new elements. One of them is the Darmstadtium. The Science and Congress Center was named after this one.

The commitment during the “Tag der Vereine” is a further component of the good cooperation between GSI and the Darmstadtium Congress Center: With the discovery of the element Darmstadtium, GSI is not only eponymous for the Science and Congress Center, but was also one of the event partners of the “Tag der Vereine”. In addition, both jointly published a new periodic table of the elements as teaching material for schools, an important tool for chemistry lessons. GSI and Darmstadtium are giving out the periodic table to schools free of charge (for as long as stocks last). Teachers can order copies for their school classes. (Shipping within Germany.) (BP)

Ordering the periodic table for school classes

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3507 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 09:40:27 +0200 Silvia Masciocchi elected as Chair of the ALICE Collaboration Board https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3507&cHash=ccb9c7825879143b170ffb27bef1615e Professor Silvia Masciocchi, head of the GSI’s research department ALICE, has been elected as Chair of the ALICE Collaboration Board. Her term of office will begin in October and last three years. ALICE is one of the four large-scale experiments at the Large Hadron Collider of the European Research Center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The experiment is run by the ALICE collaboration, which consists of approximately 2000 members from 175 different institutes in 40 countries. Professor Silvia Masciocchi, head of the GSI’s research department ALICE, has been elected as Chair of the ALICE Collaboration Board. Her term of office will begin in October and last three years. ALICE is one of the four large-scale experiments at the Large Hadron Collider of the European Research Center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The experiment is run by the ALICE collaboration, which consists of approximately 2000 members from 175 different institutes in 40 countries.

The Collaboration Board is the highest body overseeing the work of the ALICE collaboration. It considers all issues, policies, decisions and recommendations relevant to the construction, maintenance, operation and upgrading of the ALICE experiment, as well as any issues related to the analysis and publication of information or data taken during experiments with the ALICE set-up.

"It is a great honor for me to be elected as Chair by the Collaboration Board. I am very thankful for the very large support and the trust the Collaboration puts in me," explained Silvia Masciocchi after the election. "I look forward to the many tasks and challenges that this responsible position brings with it. ALICE is going through a very exciting and very challenging phase: While we are still publishing many physics results from the first two periods of LHC running (from 2009 to 2018), we are currently upgrading most of the experimental apparatus and software framework. From 2021 onwards, ALICE will record heavy-ion collisions at the unprecedented rate of 50 kilohertz in continuous readout mode. The Collaboration faces ambitious and intense work in order to ensure that ALICE will be ready for a successful data taking starting in 2021, which will allow a significantly extended physics program. I am looking forward to steering the efforts of the whole collaboration through the Collaboration Board in the next exciting years. Also, in this way GSI continues to have a leading and essential role in the success of ALICE.”

Silvia Masciocchi studied physics in Milan, Italy. After completing her PhD at the University of Heidelberg, she worked at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich and the Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY in Hamburg. In 2006, she joined GSI in the research department ALICE, which she has also headed since 2011. In 2017, she was appointed Professor at the University of Heidelberg.

From the beginning, GSI has played a leading role in the construction and scientific program of ALICE. GSI's research department ALICE shares responsibility for the operation of ALICE's two largest detector systems. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) were designed and built with significant contribution of GSI’s ALICE department and Detector Laboratory. Currently, GSI gives an essential contribution to the ALICE upgrade program, specifically in the TPC project and in the development of the new Online-Offline (O2) software framework. To do this, GSI’s ALICE department, Detector Laboratory and IT department work closely together. GSI scientists have several leading roles in data analysis and in the physics program of ALICE. (cp)

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Aktuelles
news-3505 Thu, 29 Aug 2019 09:00:00 +0200 TIARA Collaboration: Accelerator experts meet at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3505&cHash=177c8961bff267e47a5ccb8314fa1634 The TIARA Collaboration Council met on the GSI and FAIR campus recently. Representatives of the most important European accelerator laboratories and institutions participated. They came from eleven institutions from eight different countries. The TIARA Collaboration Council met on the GSI and FAIR campus recently. Representatives of the most important European accelerator laboratories and institutions participated. They came from eleven institutions from eight different countries.

The Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (TIARA) is a dedicated structure, the purpose of which is to exchange expertise and to facilitate and support the setting-up of joint research and development programs and education and training activities in the field of accelerator science and technology in Europe. The TIARA activities includes among other things the provision of scientific and technical guidance and advice for cooperative research and development (R&D) toward future accelerator science and technology.

TIARA is coordinated by Roy Aleksan from the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission CEA with support in managing the major EU funded programs by Maurizio Vretenar from the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. The local organization of the meeting at GSI has been performed by the subproject SIS100/SIS18. One reason to meet at GSI-/FAIR campus was to inform the international experts on the status of the FAIR project. One point of the agenda was a visit to the FAIR construction site, accompanied by a presentation of Peter Spiller and Niels Pyka on the status of the FAIR project. A personnel decision was also to be made. The committee has elected Eugenio Nappi as new chair of the TIARA council. (BP)

More information

Homepage of the TIARA Collaboration

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3503 Mon, 26 Aug 2019 14:48:00 +0200 Historical gathering: International meeting of the discoverers of chemical elements https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3503&cHash=8f14884d90790ba1d937365da58d45d2 As part of the International Year of the Periodic Table 2019, the Conference on the Chemistry and Physics of Heavy Elements (TAN) taking place in Wilhelmshaven, Germany from the 25th to the 30th of August, brought together the discoverers of new chemical elements in a unique historical gathering. Researchers from Germany, Russia and Japan, who have added new elements to the periodic table in recent years, met at the international congress. As part of the International Year of the Periodic Table 2019, the Conference on the Chemistry and Physics of Heavy Elements (TAN) taking place in Wilhelmshaven, Germany from the 25th to the 30th of August, brought together the discoverers of new chemical elements in a unique historical gathering. Researchers from Germany, Russia and Japan, who have added new elements to the periodic table in recent years, met at the international congress. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (GSI), the Johannes Gutenberg University and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz are the organizers of this year's TAN conference.

There are currently 118 elements listed in the periodic table. 92 of them occur naturally on Earth. The search for further new elements is conducted using particle accelerators. To produce elements, researchers collide an ion beam consisting of atomic nuclei of one element with a material sample of another element. In the fusion of the atomic nuclei of both elements a new, heavy element can be produced. The recognition and inclusion of a new element in the periodic table takes place as soon as the discovery has been confirmed. Heavy elements produced in this way are unstable, i.e. they decay within a short time. Unresolved research questions in this field include, for example, how heavy elements are formed, whether heavier elements can have longer lifetimes again due to their special nuclear configuration (known as the island of stability) and which chemical and physical properties the heavy elements have.

Professors Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg, who held leading positions in the production of elements 107 to 112 (bohrium, hassium, meitnerium, darmstadtium, roentgenium and copernicium) at the GSI Helmhotzzentrum during their active research careers, are present at the conference. Professor Yuri Oganessian is also on site. He is an element discoverer from Russia and currently the only living person an element is named after: element 118, Oganesson. He was head of the discovery team of Elements 114 to 118 (flerovium, moscovium, livermorium, tennessine and oganesson) at the Flerov Laboratory of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR in Dubna, Russia. Dr. Kouji Morimoto from Japan of the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, who was a member of the element 113 discovery team, attends as well. The current heads of GSI, the Flerov Laboratory and the RIKEN Nishina Center, where the respective elements were discovered, also participate in the conference.

“Research on the heavy elements is an incredibly exciting field, there are many unanswered questions,” explained Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI, as well as the new international research facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) being built in Darmstadt. “Where do the elements come from? How are they produced in explosions of stars and other stellar events? We would like to elicit answers to these questions from the cosmos with the help of our accelerator facilities. The investigation of the heaviest elements will continue to play a very important role in the future of our laboratory. The FAIR facility, which is currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt in international cooperation, offers new opportunities to bring the universe into the laboratory.”

Professor Sergey Dmitriev, Director of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) said at the congress: “Priority experiments on the synthesis of new superheavy elements — flerovium (114), moscovium (115), livermorium (116), tennessine (117), oganesson (118) — were carried out at the FLNR using the U400 accelerator. Further progress required the construction of a superheavy-element factory at FLNR whose key facility is the DC280 cyclotron with the ion beam intensity an order of magnitude higher than that achieved to date. The commissioning of the factory will allow experiments on the synthesis of the elements 119 and 120 and will significantly expand the work on the study of nuclear and chemical properties of superheavy elements."

In Japan, the search for new elements also continues: “Since December 2018, we run ‘119th element search’ experiment using one of the five cyclotrons in the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. At the end of 2019, our linear accelerator will be equipped with newly-built super conducting cavities and ready to synthesize new elements with higher beam intensity.  We will run both experiments in parallel as long as resource permits. We will continue these experiments until somebody, hopefully RIKEN, finds the 119th element,” Hideto En’yo, head of the RIKEN Nishina Center, described the current research goals.

A total of 120 researchers from 19 countries and 4 continents take part in the TAN conference. During the conference week, they discussed the current results and perspectives of research on the so-called transactinides, the namesakes of the TAN conference series. This refers to the elements starting with the atomic number 104 which follow the subgroup of actinides. They are all artificially produced and will be further investigated in the course of research on heavy elements. “We are trying to determine their chemical properties, for example” explained Professor Christoph Düllmann, co-organizer of the TAN, professor at the University of Mainz and head of the GSI and HIM research departments on the chemistry of heavy elements. “The elements are sorted into the groups of the periodic table according to their atomic number. Elements with similar chemical properties stand below each other. In the case of new artificial elements, of course a clarification is needed which properties they have, and whether they also belong to these groups, or whether the high nuclear charge in these exotic atoms causes a disruption of the electron shell and thus leads to unexpected chemical properties.”

“We are also investigating the physical properties of the new elements in the same way,” commented Professor Michael Block, another TAN co-organizer and professor in Mainz, who is also head of the GSI and HIM research department on the physics of heavy elements. “For example, the configuration and the energy levels of the nuclear building blocks can be determined by spectroscopic investigations, or high-precision mass measurements of the nuclei can be carried out in order to understand the behavior of the elements in detail and further improve the current nuclear models.”

The TAN Conference takes place in the International Year of the Periodic Table 2019 (IYPT) proclaimed by UNESCO, which celebrates the 150th anniversary of the Periodic Table. In 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev introduced a system to the elements, which were previously disordered, and made predictions about missing, then unknown elements. He is thus regarded as the father of the periodic table. The conference has a local connection to the physician and chemist Lothar Meyer, who also proposed a corresponding system for the elements. He came from the neighboring village of Varel, south of Wilhelmshaven.

In addition to scientific discourse, a symposium on the occasion of the IYPT with information on the history of the periodic table and the element discoveries, as well as an outlook on the future of research on heavy elements, takes place over the course of the TAN. Representatives of the international organizations IUPAC and IUPAP, responsible for naming the elements, as well as the German Physical Society and the Society of German Chemists are also present. The TAN is one of many examples of successful international cooperation in the world of research. (CP/JL)

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Presse Aktuelles
news-3501 Thu, 22 Aug 2019 13:51:27 +0200 A lot of power for the FAIR magnets: India supplies ultra-modern power converters https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3501&cHash=a1b71b375d6a66f3d233f512f4c92291 Highest quality for research is the principle at the future FAIR accelerator center. The sophisticated beam transport, which is guided by the magnetic fields produced by electromagnets weighing several tons, is one of the main contributions to this. To supply them with power, ultra-stable high power converters are needed. These high-tech components come from India and are an important contribution to the FAIR project. Highest quality for research is the principle at the future FAIR accelerator center. The sophisticated beam transport, which is guided by the magnetic fields produced by electromagnets weighing several tons, is one of the main contributions to this. To supply them with power, ultra-stable high power converters are needed. These high-tech components come from India and are an important contribution to the FAIR project. On the occasion of the completion of the first batch of power converters, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, visited India with a delegation.

India, one of the founding members and shareholders of FAIR GmbH, is participating in the FAIR project with numerous in-kind contributions to the accelerator and several experiments. These include the most modern ultra-stable high-power converters (USHPC) for the FAIR magnets. They are being manufactured by the Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) in association with Bose Institute of Kolkata with design assistance provided by the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC).

In a festive act at the ECIL site in Hyderabad, the first batch of 67 power converters was put on the road to shipment to Germany in the presence of the GSI and FAIR delegations. Jörg Blaurock and ECIL Managing Director Sanjay Chaubey, spoke of an important moment. "This is a special highlight of a ten-year journey in close cooperation with various institutions. We started from scratch and delivered what the nation has expected us to," said Sanjay Chaubey. Jörg Blaurock stressed: "ECIL is an important and reliable partner for us. We have a very successful cooperation. India is making a valuable contribution to the FAIR project with its in-kind deliveries".

In India and on the GSI and FAIR campus, in advance prototypes and first series specimens of the power converters had already successfully undergone extensive quality and performance tests. ECIL will produce a total of about 700 converters for the magnets of the large FAIR ring accelerator SIS100, the High-Energy Beam Transport HEBT and the Superconducting Fragment Separator Super-FRS.

The Electronic Corporation of India ECIL was setup in 1967 under the Indian Department of Atomic Energy with the aim of generating a strong indigenous capability in the field of high-performance electronics. The Institute has been involved already in several high-level international research programs, such as the supply of components for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Nuclear Research Centre CERN. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3491 Mon, 19 Aug 2019 11:30:00 +0200 Funding for joint project: Team conducts research at CRYRING https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3491&cHash=97af33c987d6ac43d0a365106af9a774 The research is concerned with the properties of magnetic materials and tailor-made changes to new materials: Two teams of female physicists from the University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) will receive a total of 2.8 million euros for a period of three years. They are developing new instruments for experiments on particle accelerators. One project will be implemented at the CRYRING ion storage ring at the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt. The news is based on a press release of the University of Duisburg-Essen

The research is concerned with the properties of magnetic materials and tailor-made changes to new materials: Two teams of female physicists from the University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) will receive a total of 2.8 million euros for a period of three years. They are developing new instruments for experiments on particle accelerators. One project will be implemented at the CRYRING ion storage ring at the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt.

At CRYRING, which will also be part of the future accelerator facility FAIR, the researchers under the direction of Professor Marika Schleberger are investigating solids using ion beams. In order to do this, a measuring station on the 17-meter-diameter ring, in which the ions fly from low speeds to a quarter of the speed of light, is being equipped with novel instruments. They are being specially developed by the project partners of the UDE and the University of Gießen. The researchers want to analyze the particles that are released during bombardment with ions in order to answer key questions: How to achieve customized changes in new materials using the targeted removal of individual atoms? In which subunits do biomolecules break under particle bombardment, and can one control this process? How can detection sensitivity be further increased?

The CRYRING is a contribution from Sweden to FAIR, which was transported from Stockholm to GSI. It was initially set up in cooperation with GSI for experiments and machine tests on the existing GSI accelerator facility. The system is planned for long-term use in atomic research with slow antiprotons at the FAIR facility.

Another project, under the direction of Dr. Katharina Ollefs deals with novel, energy-efficient cooling using magnetic materials. The previous systems damage the environment or consume a lot of electricity. Magnetocaloric materials offer an alternative: Their temperature can be altered with the use of a magnetic field. Within the framework the ULMAG project (ULtimate MAGnetic Characterization) that is currently being funded, Ollef’s Team, together with colleagues from the Technical University of Darmstadt, wants to investigate elementary and magnetic properties of materials under exactly the same conditions. The experiments will take place at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France). The ESRF produces x-rays that are 100 billion times more intense than the radiation used in hospitals. “The new device at the synchrotron radiation source tracks minute changes in magnetism and structure with high precision from the direct point of view of the crucial atoms at the same time as the phase transition. From this, we are hoping to achieve groundbreaking new developments in the field of magnetocaloric materials,” explains Ollefs.

Both joint projects are funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research with 1.4 million euros each for a period of three years. (UDE/BP)

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news-3499 Fri, 16 Aug 2019 09:00:00 +0200 Industrial culture: Insights into research and construction project at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3499&cHash=a2938bd916527d3ea573b8ce7e28b1d0 Where do the chemical elements come from? What does it look like in the interior of a neutron star? Is it possible to destroy tumors with ion beams? Answers to many exciting questions about particle accelerators and ongoing experiments were given to the visitors who were guests on the GSI and FAIR campus during the campaign days of industrial culture. Where do the chemical elements come from? What does it look like in the interior of a neutron star? Is it possible to destroy tumors with ion beams? Answers to many exciting questions about particle accelerators and ongoing experiments were given to the visitors who were guests on the GSI and FAIR campus during the campaign days of industrial culture.

The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR accelerator center once again took part in the cooperation “Tage der Industriekultur Rhein-Main” and opened their campus and research facilities to the public by appointment. Under the theme “The Universe in the Lab”, guests were able to explore the campus, get information on current research, and find out more about the mega construction project FAIR. The observation platform provided them with a comprehensive overview of the development of one of the largest construction sites for cutting-edge research worldwide. On the 20-hectare building site north-east of the GSI campus is currently being built a fascinating scientific project with accelerator and storage rings, high-tech infrastructure and outstanding experimental opportunities.

At FAIR, matter that usually only exists in the depth of space will be produced in a lab for research. Scientists from all over the world will be able to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present. (BP)

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news-3497 Thu, 15 Aug 2019 09:00:00 +0200 University of Texas award for Biophysicist Marco Durante https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3497&cHash=15372c634608fd3a1e3b9094ffb34df2 Professor Marco Durante, Head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department, has received the Martin Schneider Memorial Award. With this award, the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston honors scientists providing outstanding contributions in radiology or radiotherapy. Professor Marco Durante, Head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department, has received the Martin Schneider Memorial Award. With this award, the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston honors scientists providing outstanding contributions in radiology or radiotherapy.

The award is associated a special lecture assigned to the laureate. Marco Durante gave the Schneider Memorial Lecture on August 5 in Galveston. The title of the lecture was "Heavy ions in radiotherapy: Do the improved physical and biological properties translate to better outcome in patients?”

The Martin Schneider Memorial Awards is assigned yearly by the University of Texas to honour the first Chairman of the Radiology Department at UTMB. Schneider headed the department form the foundation in 1948 until his death in 1966. With the awarding to Professor Durante it is the first time that the Schneider Memorial Lecture is delivered by a non-US scientist. The award has been given by the Chair of Radiation Oncology at UTMB, Professor Sandra “Sunny” Hatch. (BP)

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news-3495 Fri, 09 Aug 2019 10:00:00 +0200 800 billion degrees Celsius: temperatures as they occur in star collisions measured in the laboratory https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3495&cHash=20d7001c0ae5b33d44b4b1b7ce51a692 They are among the hottest moments in cosmic events: the collisions of neutron stars in the universe, in which chemical elements are formed. With particle collisions in the accelerator scientists are able to create similar conditions at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR accelerator center. Now, an international group of researchers at the HADES collaboration has succeeded for the first time in measuring the thermal electromagnetic radiation – the so-called black-body ra They are among the hottest moments in cosmic events: the collisions of neutron stars in the universe, in which chemical elements are formed. With particle collisions in the accelerator scientists are able to create similar conditions at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR accelerator center.  Now, an international group of researchers at the HADES collaboration has succeeded for the first time in measuring the thermal electromagnetic radiation – the so-called black-body radiation – produced in this process. This allowed them to determine the temperature at 800 billion degrees Celsius and to explore further details about building blocks of matter under such conditions. The results were recently published in the journal "Nature Physics".

The HADES detector system on the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt, as tall as a house, provides researchers with exciting insights into the events of the collision of two heavy nuclei at relativistic energies and – as has now been very successfully done – allows them to track down the microscopic properties of extreme states of matter in the laboratory. The latest results of the HADES collaboration, involving more than 110 scientists from numerous countries, mark an important moment: “The reconstruction of thermal radiation from compressed matter is a milestone in the understanding of cosmics forms of matter.  It not only allows to extract the temperature of the system formed in the collision but also provides deep insight into the microscopic structure of matter under such conditions,” says Professor Joachim Stroth, spokesperson of the HADES collaboration, who coordinated the current analyses together with Professor Tetyana Galatyuk. Numerous other scientists from GSI and FAIR were involved in the current publication.

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, whose research focus is the physics of high-energy heavy ion collisions and the matter produced in them, is already looking forward to the future and to the worldwide unique accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI: “HADES will continue to contribute a lot to the exploration of atomic nuclei and their building blocks and will be an important part of FAIR's Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment. Among other things, researchers there will be able to investigate processes within neutron stars with unprecedented precision and over a very wide range of densities."

The electromagnetic radiation observed by the HADES detector within the scope of the study now presented is mediated by virtual photons. They exist for an instant and soon decay into a pair of leptons (dilepton), e.g. an electron and a positron. Since leptons do not undergo strong interactions, the dense hadronic medium is nearly transparent to this radiation. Nevertheless, it is produced throughout the whole evolution of the reaction and therefore provides an ideal probe for the microscopic properties of the dense and hot medium created in the collision. From the spectral distribution of the radiation it could be deduced, that the matter must have reached temperatures in excess of 70 megaelectron volt (800 Giga Kelvin) and densities three times nuclear saturation density.

Indeed, the densities and temperatures reached in the collision zone of such heavy-ion reactions resemble the conditions in neutron star merger processes. Since the detection of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation emitted from these Giga Novae events in a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, it is suggested that such merger events are the cosmic kitchens for the synthesis of heavy nuclei.  An important input to respective theoretical investigations is the so-called equation of state of matter under extreme conditions. With heavy-ion reaction experiments at relativistic energies some of the relevant properties are now accessible in the laboratory.

An advantage of detecting virtual photons, in contrast to real photons, is the fact that they carry additional information. This allows reconstructing a Lorentz-invariant quantity, which has the same value independent of the relative velocity of the emitting system with respect to the laboratory frame. Since energy and momentum is conserved throughout the process, this invariant mass is identical to the mass of the hadronic system which has emitted the virtual photon in the first place. Hence, this radiation literally allows to look inside the hot and dense interaction zone.

As a surprising outcome of this HADES experiment it was found, that very likely the photons are produced by so-called vector meson which undergo a strong modification due to the dense environment they are embedded in. The reconstructed invariant mass distribution of the virtual photons, which shows a remarkably smooth exponential falloff, suggests that the mediating mesonic states, the ρ mesons, are actually nearly dissolved in the dense matter. A similar modification of the properties of the ρ vector meson is expected if the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry is restored. The dynamical breaking of this symmetry is a fundamental property of QCD, the theory of the strong interaction, and explains e.g. the existence of the exceptionally light mesons like the pion. The degree of chiral symmetry breaking therefore controls how nucleons are interacting with each other.

The HADES experiment is the first to successfully reconstruct thermal electromagnetic radiation in collision of heavy-ions at energies around 1 A GeV, where the emission of virtual photons with mass of a few hundred MeV/c2 is a truly rare process: About 3 billion Au+Au collisions had to be recorded and analyzed to finally reconstruct 20,000 virtual photons via their decay into a pair of electrons and with masses larger than 200 MeV/c2. (BP)

Further information

Scientific publication in Nature Physics

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3493 Thu, 08 Aug 2019 09:22:12 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Dr. Stefan Kaufmann visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3493&cHash=7496d14b3d9dc09c19837f91c313e9f7 The progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus were the central topics during the visit of Dr. Stefan Kaufmann, a member of the Bundestag. The politician comes from Stuttgart and belongs to the CDU party. He is member of the committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment of the Bundestag and deputy member of the parliamentary budget committee. He was received by Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy The progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus were the central topics during the visit of Dr. Stefan Kaufmann, a member of the Bundestag. The politician comes from Stuttgart and belongs to the CDU party. He is member of the committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment of the Bundestag and deputy member of the parliamentary budget committee. He was received by Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy Research Director of GSI and FAIR, FAIR Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp and Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations.

The politician, who is also member of the Senate of the Helmholtz Association, informed himself about the status of the FAIR construction project, which is one of the largest cutting-edge research projects worldwide, and about previous research successes and the current experiments. After an introductory presentation and opportunity for discussion, he was able to take a close view on the great progress made on the mega construction site FAIR during a tour of the site, from the completed shell construction of the first tunnel segments for the large ring accelerator SIS100 up to the excavation pit for the first of the further large-scale experiments

The visit of Dr. Stefan Kaufmann concluded with a walking tour on the GSI and FAIR Campus, which provided him with an insight into the existing accelerator and research facilities. He visited the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where high-tech components for FAIR are examined, the Experimental Storage Ring ESR and the therapy unit for tumor treatment using carbon ions. It became clear that, in addition to the great construction progress, top research and high-tech developments for the mega-project FAIR are also very active. (BP)

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news-3489 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 10:47:34 +0200 Cryogenic testing of magnet modules for FAIR ring accelerator: GSI and INFN sign collaboration agreement https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3489&cHash=d1593c49a5b2eca986eded98cf7f6d61 The successful cooperation between the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schweronenforschung and the Italian National Nuclear Physics Institute (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN) in development and construction of superconducting magnets has existed for many years. On this basis the foundation for further collaboration in this area has now been laid. The INFN will put a series of complex magnet systems, so-called quadrupole modules, for the large FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 through extensive cold testin The successful cooperation between the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schweronenforschung and the Italian National Nuclear Physics Institute (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN) in development and construction of superconducting magnets has existed for many years. On this basis the foundation for further collaboration in this area has now been laid. The INFN will put a series of complex magnet systems, so-called quadrupole modules, for the large FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 through extensive cold testings and thus make an important contribution to the FAIR project. A corresponding collaboration agreement has now been signed.

In preparation for this cooperation, the FAIR subproject team SIS100/SIS18 first compared different options and locations. A good basis for this was also a broader Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for scientific cooperation between Germany and Italy. The collaboration agreement now signed by GSI/FAIR and INFN is an important part of the technical acceptance of the quadrupole modules to be integrated at Bilfinger Noell in Würzburg.

The high-tech modules for the large FAIR ring accelerator are the result of a complex international production process: first, custom-made superconducting quadrupole units consisting of various types of focusing and correction magnets are produced in Russia and then sent to Germany. There they are brought together with other components procured by GSI and assembled into complete modules for the FAIR ring accelerator.

More than 80 of these integrated quadrupole modules will then be shipped from Würzburg to the National Facility for Superconducting Systems (NAFASSY) in Salerno, Italy, where they will be tested at the final operating temperature of -270 degrees Celsius on a cryogenic test facility specially converted for this process. Main subject of the cold test are the new subsystems formed at Bilfinger Noell as a result of the integration, such as the electric circuits of the correction magnets, the UHV system (ultra-high vacuum) and the thermomechanical characteristics of the cryostat system itself.

The cooperation at the Salerno site, which is well suited for these tasks due to the already existing technical equipment, is to last for several years until all quadrupole modules for the SIS100 ring accelerator have been manufactured, accepted and stepwise set up in the tunnel on the FAIR construction site. (BP)

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news-3487 Fri, 26 Jul 2019 09:12:36 +0200 Hessian Minister for Higher Education, Research and the Arts Angelika Dorn visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3487&cHash=2bd251493efd08966364d0544bd87a7e Angela Dorn, the Hessen State Minister for Higher Education, Research and the Arts, recently visited GSI and FAIR. She was welcomed by Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, as well as by Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke and FAIR Construction Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp. Minister Dorn was accompanied by Dr. Ulrike Mattig, Head of Unit III 5 for non-university research institutions of the ministry. Angela Dorn, the Hessen State Minister for Higher Education, Research and the Arts, recently visited GSI and FAIR. She was welcomed by Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, as well as by Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke and FAIR Construction Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp. Minister Dorn was accompanied by Dr. Ulrike Mattig, Head of Unit III 5 for non-university research institutions of the ministry, which is responsible for GSI and FAIR. Ulrike Mattig is the representative of the State of Hesse in the FAIR Council and deputy chairperson of the GSI supervisory board.

In an introductory lecture, Minister Dorn received information on the existing accelerator facilities and experiments of GSI as well as on the previous research successes. She also learned more about the planning and construction progress of the international accelerator center FAIR. During a subsequent bus tour of the FAIR construction site, she was able to see the work for herself. On the FAIR/GSI campus, the visit then led her to the treatment center for tumor therapy with carbon ions and to the large-scale detector HADES. The Minister was very interested in the research results and impressed by the unique scientific possibilities and complexity of the FAIR construction project. The Minister commented on Twitter: "When you can only speak in records and the human imagination reaches its limits — the fascination of particle acceleration during a visit including a tour of the construction site". (CP)

Further information:
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3485 Fri, 19 Jul 2019 11:21:33 +0200 Start of the Summer Student Program https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3485&cHash=ef95e5c5be74349a090ef5a30bf416db 37 Students from 19 countries participate in the Summer Student Program of GSI and FAIR this year. They spend eight weeks on campus, getting to know the experiments and research areas of GSI and FAIR and experiencing everyday work at an international accelerator laboratory. 37 Students from 19 countries participate in the Summer Student Program of GSI and FAIR this year. They spend eight weeks on campus, getting to know the experiments and research areas of GSI and FAIR and experiencing everyday work at an international accelerator laboratory. 

Every year, the Summer Student Program offers participants an insight into research at a particle accelerator facility. Each summer student works in a research group on a small scientific or technical project from ongoing research operations. The topics range from plasma physics and tumor therapy to nuclear and astrophysics. Developments and tests of technical and experimental components for the FAIR accelerator facility, which is currently under construction at GSI, and their future experiments are in focus.

Many students, mainly from European and Asian countries, return to Darmstadt after the Summer Student Program for a master's or doctoral thesis at GSI and FAIR. The Summer Student Program that takes place for the 39th time is organized in cooperation with the graduate school HGS-HIRe. In addition to scientific events, the program also includes barbecues, a football tournament and activities in the region. Accompanying lectures will present the broad research spectrum of GSI and FAIR and the scientific results achieved. The lectures are held in English. They are open to the public and can be attended by anyone interested. (LW)

More information

Summer Student Program of GSI and FAIR

Lectures

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3483 Thu, 18 Jul 2019 09:26:34 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Bernd Reuther gets informed about GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3483&cHash=d807cda24990e426341a13ae5bedb89e The visit of Bernd Reuther, FDP Member of the Bundestag, to GSI and FAIR focused on the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. The politician was received by Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, FAIR Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations. The visit of Bernd Reuther, FDP Member of the Bundestag, to GSI and FAIR focused on the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. The politician was received by Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, FAIR Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations.

Bernd Reuther is delegate from the Wesel I district and member of the parliamentary Committee on Transport and Digital Infrastructure, in addition member of the federal state executive of the FDP Nordrhein-Westfalen and district chairman of the FDP Wesel.

After an introductory presentation and opportunity for discussion, Bernd Reuther was able to take a close view on the great progress on the construction site FAIR during a tour of the area, from the completed shell construction of the first tunnel segments for the large ring accelerator SIS100 and the work for the central transfer building up to the excavation pit for the further large-scale experiment CBM.

The visit to the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where high-tech components for FAIR are tested, was also on the agenda. It became clear that, in addition to the great progress in construction, the high-tech developments for the mega-project FAIR are already in full swing. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3481 Mon, 15 Jul 2019 11:28:37 +0200 Radiation protection: Federal Ministry appoints GSI researcher to UN committee https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3481&cHash=2cbc6a2069d67f8a494721331a729076 The broad expertise of the scientists at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and at the accelerator center FAIR, currently under construction, is in demand. Latest occasion: The radiation biologist Professor Claudia Fournier from the Biophysics Department of GSI was appointed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) as an expert to a United Nations scientific committee meeting. The broad expertise of the scientists at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and at the accelerator center FAIR, currently under construction, is in demand. Latest occasion: The radiation biologist Professor Claudia Fournier from the Biophysics Department of GSI was appointed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) as an expert to a United Nations scientific committee meeting.

Claudia Fournier, who leads the research field "Immune system and tissue radiobiology” at GSI, was member of the German delegation for the annual meeting of UNSCEAR. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), set up by resolution of the United Nations, publishes reports, which provide a scientific basis for the recommendations of the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) on radiological protection concerning ionizing radiation. (BP)

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news-3472 Fri, 12 Jul 2019 07:58:00 +0200 Yuri Oganessian, after whom a chemical element is named, visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3472&cHash=8916c957e3ad809989673df169a91ec7 Professor Yuri Tsolakovich Oganessian, Russian researcher of Armenian descend and currently scientific leader of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, visited FAIR and GSI. The 86-year-old Oganessian has led many experiments on the synthesis of artificially produced chemical elements, including the heaviest currently existing element of the periodic table, element 118, which was named Oganesson in his honor. Professor Yuri Tsolakovich Oganessian, Russian researcher of Armenian descend and currently scientific leader of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, visited FAIR and GSI. The 86-year-old Oganessian has led many experiments on the synthesis of artificially produced chemical elements, including the heaviest currently existing element of the periodic table, element 118, which was named Oganesson in his honor. He is thus the only living human being after whom a chemical element is named.

In addition to talks with the scientists from FAIR and GSI, Oganessian also held the traditional Tuesday Colloquium. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Periodic Table of the Elements, he spoke in front of a full auditorium about its development and in particular about the efforts to expand it by producing superheavy elements. Numerous questions showed the great interest of the audience in the topic. Oganessian has been in friendly scientific contact with FAIR and GSI since the establishment of GSI in the 1970s. Especially in the efforts to generate new chemical elements, there has been and still is a lively exchange between the researchers at FAIR/GSI and at JINR.

In addition to the synthesis and description of the heavy elements, Oganessian's work focuses on the development of ion accelerators and methods for investigating nuclear reactions. He developed new ideas for the production of the elements 102 to 118 and successfully implemented them in the discovery of many new elements. The element with the atomic number 118 was last detected by his research group in October 2006. Ten years later, in 2016 the name Oganesson (chemical symbol Og) was proposed by the participating research groups for this element and, subsequently, officially awarded. Following Glenn T. Seaborg, Oganessian is thus only the second human after whom an element was named during his lifetime. (CP)

More information

Production and detection of new elements

Original publication on the discovery of element 118

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news-3470 Thu, 11 Jul 2019 08:50:00 +0200 Michael Boddenberg visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3470&cHash=0adc085d34f483f34621bd079af4ca42 Recently, Michael Boddenberg visited the FAIR and GSI facilities. Boddenberg is a member of the Hessian state parliament and chairman of its CDU parliamentary group. He was accompanied by Dr. Tobias Kleiter, head of the parliamentary group chairman's office. The guests were welcomed by the joint management of FAIR and GSI. Recently, Michael Boddenberg visited the FAIR and GSI facilities. Boddenberg is a member of the Hessian state parliament and chairman of its CDU parliamentary group. He was accompanied by Dr. Tobias Kleiter, head of the parliamentary group chairman's office. The guests were welcomed by the joint management of FAIR and GSI.

In an introductory lecture followed by a discussion, Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, provided information on the research at the existing GSI facilities as well as on the objectives and status of the FAIR project. During a tour of the FAIR construction site, the guests were afterwards able to see the progress of construction and, in particular, take a look at the work on the transfer building and the tunnel segments.

Subsequently, they visited the test stand for the superconducting magnets of the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 on the FAIR/GSI campus, which are cooled down to minus 269°C during operation. At the large-scale detector HADES, they were informed about the detector technology and the research carried out on the measuring setup. Special attention was paid to the complex data acquisition, storage and analysis of large amounts of measurement data. (cp)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3479 Mon, 08 Jul 2019 10:14:38 +0200 50 years, 50 pictures — Vote for your favorite photos https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3479&cHash=50f4cc23e703edbd683f5176f70845f2 50 years of GSI are also 50 years full of impressive images of our accelerators, experiments and facilities. We have selected 50 of the best photos and now ask you to select your three favorite pictures. We will give away ten of our coffee mugs "Das Universum im Labor" in a prize draw among all entries. 50 years of GSI are also 50 years full of impressive images of our accelerators, experiments and facilities. We have selected 50 of the best photos and now ask you to select your three favorite pictures. You are also welcome to invite your friends and acquaintances, everyone can take part.

We will give away ten of our coffee mugs "Das Universum im Labor" in a prize draw among all entries (shipping only to Germany). The photos with the most votes will be presented in an internal photo exhibition in the KBW foyer at the end of the year, as well as published via our website and our social media channels.

The campaign runs until August 31, 2019. Find all information, the conditions of participation and the entry form at www.gsi.de/en/lieblingsbild.

We are looking forward to your selection. (cp)

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news-3475 Thu, 04 Jul 2019 09:37:00 +0200 State Secretary of the Hessen State Ministry of Science Ayse Asar visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3475&cHash=b6b57131f6ac96267259512604d54253 Ayse Asar, State Secretary at the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Science and the Arts, recently visited FAIR and GSI. She was informed about the current research and the progress of FAIR, one of the largest projects for cutting-edge research worldwide. She was received by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director. Ayse Asar, State Secretary at the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Science and the Arts, recently visited FAIR and GSI. She was informed about the current research and the progress of FAIR, one of the largest projects for cutting-edge research worldwide. The former Chancellor of the RheinMain University of Applied Sciences was received by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director, and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations.

Following a presentation on GSI and the future FAIR accelerator center, they, among other topics, exchanged views on the strategic goals for FAIR and GSI. Afterwards, a tour of the existing research facilities and the FAIR construction site was part of the program.

During the bus tour of the FAIR construction site, Ayse Asar was able to personally inspect the work on the 20-hectare site, for example the first tunnel sections for the main ring accelerator SIS100, the ongoing work for the transfer building, the central node for the beamlines, and the excavation pit for the future large-scale experiment CBM. During the subsequent tour of the test facility for the superconducting magnets of the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100, it was visible that the high-tech developments for the mega-project FAIR are already in full swing. (LW)

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news-3477 Wed, 03 Jul 2019 09:30:42 +0200 New International Biophysics Collaboration Meets at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3477&cHash=8d593c6e671e76f7a016838bbb2027f9 The first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration took place at GSI and FAIR. More than 200 researchers, scientists and students from all over the world attended the three-day conference. The Collaboration exploits the opportunities offered by FAIR and other new accelerator facilities in biomedical applications of ion beams. Astronaut Reinhold Ewald was among the top-class speakers. The first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration took place at GSI and FAIR. More than 200 researchers, scientists and students from all over the world attended the three-day conference. The Collaboration exploits the opportunities offered by FAIR and other new accelerator facilities in biomedical applications of ion beams. Astronaut Reinhold Ewald was among the top-class speakers.

In order to network, coordinate and strengthen future biophysical research at FAIR and other large accelerator facilities, the first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration took place at GSI and FAIR. The participants were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of GSI and FAIR, and Professor Marco Durante, Head of the Biophysics Department.

“We are proud of the success of this first meeting of the new international biophysics collaboration,” said Giubellino. “FAIR will open up new opportunities for experimentation for the international biophysics community with particularly high energies and intensities. The numerous and active participation in the meeting shows how important the FAIR Phase 0 Research Program, which has already begun, is in view of the later unique research opportunities in FAIR which is currently under construction. As a user facility, our mission is to offer scientists the opportunity for excellent research, and the response of the international scientific community is the most direct measure of the quality of our work.”

“We are thrilled of the community's great interest in the first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration,” says Durante. “Participants have arrived from 27 countries in all 5 continents. The beginning of the FAIR experiments with FAIR Phase 0 is the occasion for us to establish a solid collaboration from the already existing cooperation of the user groups. FAIR offers completely new opportunities for biology, medicine and space research. The other new facilities that are currently being built in Europe, Asia and the USA also want to develop research programs in biomedical applications, and therefore they knit together in the FAIR Collaboration. We jointly want to develop new cooperative research programs and tools for the future.”

One of the first speakers was astronaut Reinhold Ewald: “For a mission to Mars, research is still needed in many areas. How, for example, do the vitamins in astronaut food change when exposed to space radiation for a long time? As an astronaut, I would only get into the rocket if all the biological and physiochemical systems had been tested under conditions that were as real as possible on earth. It seems that this will be possible with FAIR,” said Ewald, who is also a professor at the Institute of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart.

The speakers included Professor Gerhard Kraft, who introduced carbon ion therapy in Europe and founded the Biophysics Department at GSI; Professor Thomas Haberer, scientific and technical director at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT); and Professor Jürgen Debus, medical director of the Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy and Scientific-medical manager at HIT. “We want to continue the long-term cooperation with GSI also in regards of FAIR research,” said Debus. “Both biophysics and accelerator physics offer new technologies that are of interest for clinical application. The large and international response to the first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration demonstrates the potential of biomedical applications of ion beams and speaks in favor of the new collaboration.”

The international guests saw the meeting as a chance for new ideas and cooperation. Prof. Vincenzo Patera from the University of Rome, elected spokesperson of the Collaboration,  said: “In the field of biophysics we need a comprehensive network to facilitate the exchange of information, the joint application for funding and to offer more flexibility for students. In that regard the International Biophysics Collaboration could play an important role and could improve the coordination of the various smaller research groups.”

The collaboration is supposed to support the cooperation beyond FAIR and to include experiments at other new accelerator facilities (NICA, RAON, FRIB, SPIRAL2, SPES, SEEIIST, ELI). Dr. Sanja Damjanovic, Minister of Science of Montenegro, presented one of the newly planned facilities during the conference, the South East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies (SEEIIST): „SEEIIST is a facility for tumor therapy and biomedical research which is supposed to be equally used for patient treatment and for research. Our aim is offering a regional possibility for excellent research to students and scientists of all countries from Slovenia to Greece.”  

The meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration is planned to take place regularly in the future. (LW)

More information:

Link to the paper on Physics Reports: Durante M., Golubev A., Park W.-Y., Trautmann C., Applied nuclear physics at the new high-energy particle accelerator facilities. Phys. Rep. 800 (2919) 1-38

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news-3468 Thu, 27 Jun 2019 11:01:30 +0200 Klaus Blaum is member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3468&cHash=34f37d77fb7375d9a1a8e2a4b8835d4f Klaus Blaum, Director of the division “Stored and cooled ions” at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg is foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 2019. Blaum is a member of the GSI Supervisory Board, Vice Chair of the FAIR-GSI Joint Scientific Council and Professor and faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg. Klaus Blaum, Director of the division “Stored and cooled ions” at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg is foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 2019. Blaum is a member of the GSI Supervisory Board, Vice Chair of the FAIR-GSI Joint Scientific Council and Professor and faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg.

“I feel very honored and pleased to be a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences”, says Blaum. He got nominated for the physics class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences because of his excellent scientific achievements and his international reputation. "This is a personal award, but it can be considered as award for the performance of my entire department at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics," says Blaum. "It is only due to the outstanding achievements of my team, which does excellent scientific work, that we are among the world leaders in our field of research. This was the basis for my award. I therefore accept it on behalf of my entire research group."

The election took place at the General Meeting of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm in February 2019. In the FAIR-GSI Joint Scientific Council there are now two members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences: Eva Lindroth, Professor at the Stockholm University, also is a member.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded in 1739 and is an independent non-governmental organization, whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. It enhances the status of science in society by drawing attention to key social issues, examining them in scientific terms and communicating the results, and joins in cooperation on global issues, with the aim of being an international  scientific proponent of sustainable development. The Academy consists of approximately 460 Swedish and 175 foreign members, who together represent the country’s foremost expertise in the sciences.

Klaus Blaum studied physics at the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz (Germany). After receiving his PhD, he worked as PostDoc for the “GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung” (Darmstadt, Germany) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. From 2004 to 2007, he was leader of a Helmholtz Research Group in Mainz (Germany), where he habilitated in 2006. At the age of only 35 years, he was appointed as Director of the division “Stored and cooled ions” at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and as Professor and faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg. For his groundbreaking research, he was awarded numerous prestigious prizes, among others the Mattauch-Herzog-Price 2005 of the German Society for Mass Spectrometry, the G.N. Flerov-Prize in 2013 and the 2016 Lise-Meitner-Award of the Gothenburg Physics Centre. In 2008, he was nominated Fellow of the American Physical Society. (LW)

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news-3466 Tue, 25 Jun 2019 08:57:00 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Christoph Meyer visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3466&cHash=89d68ec6fac1f65c48d4121fe0d08bc4 Christoph Meyer, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The FDP politician from Berlin is a member of the parliamentary Committee on Budget and in this context concerned with education and research, amongst others also with the FAIR project. Important topics during his visit on Monday, 17 June 2019, were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. He was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director ... Christoph Meyer, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The FDP politician from Berlin is a member of the parliamentary Committee on Budget and in this context concerned with education and research, amongst others also with the FAIR project. Important topics during his visit on Monday, 17 June 2019, were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. He was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock, as well as Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations Department.

Christoph Meyer used the visit to Darmstadt to inform himself personally about the progress of the mega project FAIR and to visit the construction site. The tour included a look at the first completed shell construction sections for the large SIS100 ring accelerator, the construction activities for the central transfer building and the excavation pit for the future large-scale experiment CBM. Information was also provided on the FAIR project organization and construction site logistics.

Afterwards, Christoph Meyer, who was accompanied by his team member Marcel Schwemmlein, was able to gain insights into the existing research facilities during a guided tour on the GSI and FAIR campus. For example he visited the test facility for superconducting magnets for the accelerator ring SIS100 as well as the experimental storage ring ESR and the large detector HADES. The treatment unit for tumor therapy with carbon ions was also part of the visit. (LW)

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news-3460 Mon, 24 Jun 2019 08:31:00 +0200 As hot as the Sun’s interior — Physicists create plasma for the first time using nanowires and long-wavelength ultrashort pulse laser https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3460&cHash=c985c283f86dc323ff0f0f2bb741c769 Physicists at the University of Jena have developed a new method for producing plasma, enabling them to deal with some of the problems that stand in the way of this extremely difficult process. The three classic physical states – solid, liquid and gaseous – can be observed in any normal kitchen, for example when you bring an ice cube to the boil. But if you heat material even further, so that the atoms of a substance collide and the electrons separate from them, then another state is reached: plasma. The news is based on a press release of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena

Physicists at the University of Jena have developed a new method for producing plasma, enabling them to deal with some of the problems that stand in the way of this extremely difficult process. The three classic physical states – solid, liquid and gaseous – can be observed in any normal kitchen, for example when you bring an ice cube to the boil. But if you heat material even further, so that the atoms of a substance collide and the electrons separate from them, then another state is reached: plasma. More than 99 per cent of material in space is present in this form, inside stars for instance. It is therefore no wonder that physicists are keen to study such material. Unfortunately, creating and studying plasmas on Earth using the high temperature and pressure that exist inside stars is extremely challenging for various reasons. A team of physicists under participations of GSI and the Helmholtz Institute Jena, once o GSI's branches, has now managed to solve some of these problems at Friedrich Schiller University Jena, and they have reported on their results in the renowned research journal ‘Physical Review X’.

Nanowires let light through

“To heat material in such a way that plasma is formed, we need correspondingly high energy. We generally use light in the form of a large laser to do this,” explains Christian Spielmann of the University of Jena. “However, this light has to be very short-pulsed, so that the material does not immediately expand when it has reached the appropriate temperature, but holds together as dense plasma for a brief period.” There is a problem with this experimental setup, though: “When the laser beam hits the sample, plasma is created. However, it almost immediately starts to act like a mirror and reflects a large part of the incoming energy, which therefore fails to penetrate the matter fully. The longer the wavelength of the laser pulse, the more critical the problem,” says Zhanna Samsonova, who played a leading role in the project. 

To avoid this mirror effect, the researchers in Jena used samples made of silicon wires. The diameter of such wires – a few hundred nanometres – is smaller than the wavelength of around four micrometres of the incoming light. “We were the first to use a laser with such a long wavelength for the creation of plasma,” says Spielmann. “The light penetrates between the wires in the sample and heats them from all sides, so that for a few picoseconds, a significantly larger volume of plasma is created than if the laser is reflected. Around 70 per cent of the energy manages to penetrate the sample.” Furthermore, thanks to the short laser pulses, the heated material exists slightly longer before it expands. Finally, using X-ray spectroscopy, researchers can retrieve valuable information about the state of the material.

Maximum values for temperature and density

“With our method, it is possible to achieve new maximum values for temperature and density in a laboratory,” says Spielmann. With a temperature of around 10 million Kelvin, the plasma is far hotter than material on the surface of the Sun, for example. Spielmann also mentions the cooperation partners in the project. For the laser experiments, the Jena scientists used a facility at the Vienna University of Technology; the samples come from the National Metrology Institute of Germany in Braunschweig; and computer simulations for confirming the findings come from colleagues in Darmstadt and Düsseldorf.

The Jena team’s results are a ground-breaking success, offering a completely new approach to plasma research. Theories on the state of plasma can be verified through experiments and subsequent computer simulations. This will enable researchers to understand cosmological processes better. In addition, the scientists are carrying out valuable preparatory work for the installation of large-scale apparatus. For example, the international particle accelerator, ‘Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research’ (FAIR), is currently being set up in Darmstadt and should become operational around 2025. Thanks to the new information, it will be possible to select specific areas that merit closer examination look. (FSU/CP)

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news-3458 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 08:14:00 +0200 Marco Durante is member of the ICRP https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3458&cHash=5404450dae8fb8b223baa8b85b9e11aa Professor Marco Durante, the head of the GSI Biophysics Department, has been appointed member of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International organisation providing recommendations and guidance on radiological protection from ionising radiation. The appointment follows a long-standing commitment of Durante and the GSI Biophysics to the investigation of and protection from ionizing radiation in space, in particular in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA. Professor Marco Durante, the head of the GSI Biophysics Department, has been appointed member of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International organisation providing recommendations and guidance on radiological protection from ionising radiation. The appointment follows a long-standing commitment of Durante and the GSI Biophysics to the investigation of and protection from ionizing radiation in space, in particular in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA. With the GSI accelerator facilites, particle radiation as it is prevalent in outer space can be generated and used for experiments.

Durante will join the Task Group 115 on Risk and Dose Assessment for Radiological Protection of Astronauts. The goal is to provide recommendations for the space agencies (including NASA, ESA, JAXA, Canadian, Russian and Chinese space agencies) on dose limits for astronauts in exploratory-class missions. At the moment different space agencies apply different career or mission-specifc limits, making an international mission to moon and Mars almost impossible. (cp)

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news-3456 Wed, 19 Jun 2019 08:42:00 +0200 Six million euros for "Smallest Particles" https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3456&cHash=385093ed2ae343e9b5891b026ab53ac5 The origin of mass, the properties of the building blocks of matter and their interaction in the formation of our universe — several research groups of the Physics Institutes at Justus Liebig University Giessen (JLU) are dealing with fundamental questions such as these. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is funding their research on these topics with a total of around six million euros as part of several joint research projects. Press release of the Justus Liebig University Gießen

The origin of mass, the properties of the building blocks of matter and their interaction in the formation of our universe — several research groups of the Physics Institutes at Justus Liebig University Giessen (JLU) are dealing with fundamental questions such as these. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is funding their research on these topics with a total of around six million euros as part of several joint research projects.

Atomic and subatomic particles and their interactions are the focus of the BMBF Collaborative Research Program "Physics of the Smallest Particles". The program is embedded in the BMBF framework program ErUM (Erforschung von Universum und Materie). Working groups at the JLU and at other German universities are involved in research on the physics of the smallest particles at the national and international large-scale research institutions (co-financed) by the BMBF.

The working groups from the JLU Physics Institutes are particularly involved in the international research facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) currently under construction near Darmstadt, where in the near future state-of-the-art high-performance particle accelerators, ion storage rings and particle detectors will provide novel, high-precision insights into the structure and behavior of elementary particles and matter under the most extreme conditions. Such very high temperatures or pressures occurred shortly after the Big Bang or during stellar explosions and collisions of neutron stars. The Giessen working groups will receive around 5.3 million euros from the BMBF's Collaborative Research Program "Physics of the Smallest Particles" until the middle of 2021 for setting up and conducting experiments at FAIR and for theoretical investigations.

With a further 0.7 million euros, the BMBF is funding Giessen’s contributions to the Japanese BELLE-II experiment, where exotic elementary particles are produced and studied, and to the ATLAS experiment at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, at the international research center CERN in Geneva.

The FAIR research program

The research program at FAIR consists of the four pillars APPA (Atomic and Plasma Physics and Applications), CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter), NUSTAR (Nuclear Structure, Astrophysics and Reactions) and PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation in Darmstadt). Giessen Physics is active in all four research pillars.

As part of APPA, the Atomic and Molecular Physics Working Group (I. Physikalisches Institut, Prof. Dr. Stefan Schippers) is developing an intensive electron beam for precision measurements of heavy ions in the FAIR ion storage ring CRYRING for the highly accurate verification of quantum theoretical predictions. In addition, they coordinate the network of all German university groups involved in APPA.

The investigation of nuclei far from stability is expedited in NUSTAR, where Giessen Physics is involved with the working group of Prof. Dr. Christoph Scheidenberger (II. Physikalisches Institut) and builds high-precision detectors.

For the PANDA experiment, which will measure exotic hadronic states with worldwide unique precision, Giessen Physics is involved with two working groups in the development and construction of three subdetectors. The group around Prof. Dr. Kai-Thomas Brinkmann (II. Physikalisches Institut) builds the electromagnetic calorimeter and a micro-vertex detector, the group around Prof. Dr. Michael Düren (II. Physikalisches Institut) a special DISC-DIRC detector.

The CBM experiment will investigate high-density matter, similar to matter produced in the collision of neutron stars or black holes. Here, the group of Prof. Dr. Claudia Höhne (II. Physical Institute) develops and builds a RICH detector, for aspects concerning special materials there is a cooperation with Prof. Dr. Michael Dürr (Institute for Applied Physics). Part of this RICH development is already being used in the current HADES detector at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.

Participation in further research facilities worldwide

The strong commitment to the construction of detectors at FAIR is rounded off by Giessen's participation in other research facilities worldwide, such as CERN (ATLAS experiment, Prof. Dr. Michael Düren, AR Dr. Hasko Stenzel) in Switzerland, or KEK (BELLE-II experiment, Prof. Dr. Claudia Höhne, PD Dr. Jens-Sören Lange) in Japan.

Based on the theory of strong interaction, the groups of Prof. Dr. Christian Fischer, PD Dr. Bernd-Jochen Schaefer and Prof. Dr. Lorenz von Smekal at the Institute of Theoretical Physics calculate the properties of hadrons and hadronic matter under extreme conditions using modern numerical methods and complex simulations in order to make theoretical predictions for the PANDA and CBM experiments. (JLU/CP)

Further information:

Press release of the Justus Liebig University Gießen (German)

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news-3453 Mon, 17 Jun 2019 08:44:00 +0200 FAIR delegation visits Indian partner institutions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3453&cHash=93522a8520decc31610cf2fc41e9a0d7 A delegation from FAIR, led by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, visited the Republic of India in May. In addition to talks with representatives of FAIR partner institutions, Giubellino took part in the inauguration ceremony of the mega-science exhibition in Mumbai named "Vigyan Samagam". India is one of the shareholders of the FAIR GmbH and participates in the FAIR project through numerous in-kind contributions. A delegation from FAIR, led by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, visited the Republic of India in May. In addition to talks with representatives of FAIR partner institutions, Giubellino took part in the inauguration ceremony of the mega-science exhibition in Mumbai named "Vigyan Samagam" and visited the FAIR pavilion consisting of posters, videos, multimedia kiosks and exhibits on FAIR. India is one of the shareholders of the FAIR GmbH and participates in the FAIR project through numerous in-kind contributions for the accelerators and several experiments. It is one of the founding members of FAIR and carries a fundamental role in the project.

The Bose Institute in Kolkata, acting as the Indian shareholder of the FAIR GmbH, was an important part of the visit. Giubellino met the new Director of Bose Institute Professor Uday Bandyopadhyay, who took over from Professor Sibaji Raha (chair of the FAIR Joint Scientific Council and representative of the Indian Council delegation), discussing the current status of the FAIR project and informing him about the steady progress in the four experimental pillars of FAIR. The meeting in Kolkata continued in a conversation with Subhasis Chattopadhyay, the program director of the Bose Institute’s Indo-FAIR Coordination Centre, and Professor Sanjay Ghosh of Bose Institute about in-kind contracting issues. Subsequently, Giubellino held a talk about FAIR at the University of Kolkata.

The delegation also visited the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd. (ECIL) located in Secunderabad (near Hyderabad). The company, as one of India’s providers for FAIR, produces around 750 power converters for magnets of the High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT), the SIS100 ring accelerator and the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super-FRS). The delegation inspected the testing laboratory for the power converters and a large number of finalized components on site ready for delivery to FAIR, and discussed the continuation of the successful cooperation.

In addition to the exchange with the FAIR partners, the opening ceremony of the scientific exhibition "Vigyan Samagam" (engl. congression of science) was part of the program. In the framework of the exhibition, Giubellino also met with Indian authorities, including a discussion with Professor Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), and Dr. Kamlesh Nilkanth Vyas, Secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Another highlight of Giubellino's foray in Mumbai was a meeting with Professor Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India. He was very supportive of India's involvement in FAIR and readily accepted to visit FAIR at an early convenient date.

The touring exhibition will be shown in several major Indian cities, providing information about large international science projects in which India is involved. It contains a section about FAIR and the Indian contribution to the project featuring also components of detectors and accelerators. In total, more than 25 Indian science organizations and seven Indian industrial partners are collaborating with FAIR. Vigyan Samagam is planned to continue at Mumbai until 7 July 2019 and then moves through India to several other locations: Bengaluru from 29 July to 28 September 2019, Kolkata from 4 November to 31 December 2019 and finally to Delhi from 21 January 2020 to 20 March 2020. Each location will see a speech at the opening ceremony by one of the FAIR directors. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3455 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 11:20:26 +0200 10 years Helmholtz Institute Mainz: Successful cooperation between the University of Mainz and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3455&cHash=42c5527609203ccfe12bbb146172847b The Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) celebrates its tenth anniversary. With its remarkable research achievements in the fields of physics and chemistry, HIM has become an international research center of scientific excellence. At the heart of the institute's work is the FAIR accelerator complex, currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt. The institute celebrates its anniversary with a ceremony. The Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) celebrates its tenth anniversary. With its remarkable research achievements in the fields of physics and chemistry, HIM has become an international research center of scientific excellence. At the heart of the institute's work is the FAIR accelerator complex, currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt. The institute celebrates its anniversary with a ceremony.

"Our hard work over the institute's first ten years has created a lasting basis that will ensure we continue to make outstanding progress in future. We have succeeded in our aims not only of proposing and establishing the first Helmholtz Institute in Germany as a cooperation between GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz but also of constructing a state-of-the-art research building," said Professor Kurt Aulenbacher, Director of HIM. "It was the appeal of our infrastructure, in particular, that helped to attract a group of leading researchers to come to Mainz. The research program, which was initially both narrowly focused and extremely ambitious, is now being managed by these first researchers and their teams with the fertile results we have seen so far," the HIM Director stated.

The Helmholtz Institute Mainz as a model of success

Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, commented on the tenth anniversary of the Helmholtz-Institut Mainz: "HIM is one of the two Helmholtz institutes in which GSI is participating and which strengthen our user community and lead to unique opportunities. The foundation ten years ago was a decisive step with which we placed our already very good cooperation on a solid institutional basis which allows to optimally combine the competences of the Mainz University and GSI to produce world class scientific results. At the same time, this is also an extremely important building block for the excellent research that we can conduct at the international accelerator center FAIR. Such connections bring researchers from all over the world together and enable extremely fruitful collaborations".

In 2009, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz was the first of today nine Helmholtz Association institutes to be founded on the initiative of the German federal government. The intention was to extend the long-standing partnership between GSI in Darmstadt and Mainz University and to promote the university’s profile in this field of research. As is usual for projects of this kind, the HIM is financed by the federal government (90 percent) and the state of Rhineland-Palatinate (10 percent). In addition, JGU makes available its technical infrastructure, scientific and technical staff as well as operating resources. The HIM has a total annual budget of approximately EUR 11 million.

"Helmholtz institutes are a valuable instrument for establishing long-term strategic partnerships between a Helmholtz Center, a university, and, occasionally, other partners," said Professor Otmar D. Wiestler, President of the Helmholtz Association. "They create an excellent basis for close cooperation in a pioneering field of research in which both partners complement each other. This makes them an attractive destination for top researchers from all over the world. Founded in June 2009, the HIM was the first Helmholtz institute in Germany. Ever since, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum network on the Gutenberg Campus in Mainz was making a name for itself as a pioneer in research into the strong interaction."

The Rhineland-Palatinate Minister of Science, Professor Konrad Wolf, also endorses this new model of cooperation between Helmholtz centers and universities: "Thanks to the achievements it has already attained in the field of fundamental physics, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz has become an internationally recognized and prominent facility in the Rhineland-Palatinate research landscape. It has clearly demonstrated just how profitable cooperation between centers of the Helmholtz Association and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz can be."

"Establishing the Helmholtz Institute on the Gutenberg Campus has provided sustainable enhancement of our groundbreaking research in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry," emphasized Professor Georg Krausch, President of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. "In its role as an influential strategic partner in JGU's Cluster of Excellence on Precision Physics, Fundamental Interactions and Structure of Matter, or PRISMA+, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz is reinforcing our research profile both nationally and internationally."

The Helmholtz Institute Mainz is currently concentrating on the strong interaction, which is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. To shed light on the subject from differing perspectives, the HIM is divided into six research sections. Some of these are dedicated to current and future experiments, chiefly at GSI and FAIR, one of the largest research projects in the world. Other HIM sections are focused on developing new accelerator technologies and working on testing and refining prevailing theories using supercomputers.

The strong force binds quarks and also neutrons and protons, the basic building blocks of the atomic nucleus, together. Researchers at the Helmholtz Institute Mainz are investigating the properties of mesons, i.e., short-lived particles composed of quarks. They are analyzing the structure of the proton and studying the properties of superheavy atomic nuclei. Furthermore, they are hunting for new, hypothetical particles beyond the Standard Model of particle physics and developing new theoretical models and future accelerator technologies.

In 2010, the HIM had a total of 25 personnel, now it counts 135 employees from 16 different nations. These talented individuals and the high-quality infrastructure are the essential resources to generate the anticipated exceptional research results.

Research achievements

Many research projects, often in international alliances, have been successfully completed over the past ten years, while contributions have been made to other projects:

  • In 2017, the HIM research section SHE (SuperHeavy Elements) made a breakthrough in the field of chemistry of superheavy elements. They became the first ever research group to generate a compound formed of a superheavy element and carbon. This will enable researchers to study the relationship between the theory of relativity and chemistry.
  • Within the ACID (ACcelerator and Integrated Detectors) section, an accelerator research group led by Dr. Winfried Barth managed to increase the efficiency of the technique for accelerating heavy ions significantly with the help of a complex multi-cell CH structure. These structures are required, for example, to generate superheavy elements and investigate their properties. "The significance of this development is difficult to overestimate. As a rule every additional percentage of improvement in efficiency involves a great deal of hard work," stressed Dr. Winfried Barth, head of the ACID section.
  • Dr. Miriam Fritsch, a junior HIM scientist, attracted financial support of the Helmholtz Association for the Helmholtz Young Investigators Group PALUMA. She spent six years at HIM in the Precision Spectroscopy of Hadrons with PANDA team.
  • The particular structure of the HIM has enabled the establishment of three new professorships, one of them being that of Professor Dmitry Budker, an eminent US-American nuclear physicist, who came to Mainz from the University of California, Berkeley. Since 2014, Budker has headed up the MAM research group, which focuses on high-precision measurement of the fundamental symmetries of nature, one of the four fundamental forces of physics. In 2016, the European Research Council granted EUR 2.5 million in funding by Budker's new project involving the hunt for dark matter and dark energy.
  • In 2012, the HIM participated in the successful application to establish the PRISMA Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. Today's PRISMA+ now closely cooperates with the HIM, and in 2018 the HIM provided significant support for its successful reapplication.
Modern infrastructure

Researchers in Mainz have a high-tech infrastructure at their disposal. In 2017, for instance, a new Structure, Symmetry, and Stability of Matter and Antimatter institute building of 8,000 square meters was inaugurated, with a state-of-the-art laser and chemistry laboratory and a clean room for assembling and preparing superconducting accelerator modules.

Since 2016, the state government of Rhineland-Palatinate, the federal government, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, and the HIM have invested a total of EUR 10.6 million in the new high-performance supercomputer MogonII/HIMsterII, which allows complex computational simulations.

The supercomputer is located in the new computer center in the HIM research building and is operated jointly by the JGU Center for Data Processing and the HIM. Thanks to its total computing power of two petaflops, researchers at the HIM and JGU now have access to the fastest high-performance computer presently installed at a German university. (JL/HIM)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3451 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 08:19:00 +0200 Kickoff: Series production of the bypass lines for the large FAIR ring accelerator begins https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3451&cHash=c657e6eaf3128dea73c820022014626b Extreme cold in one area, warm room temperature right next to it – the sophisticated cryotechnology for the large SIS100 ring accelerator, the heart of the international accelerator facility FAIR, is a major challenge. An important element in achieving the best possible technical solutions for cooling the 1100-metre-long SIS100 is now going into series production: the so-called bypass lines. Extreme cold in one area, warm room temperature right next to it – the sophisticated cryotechnology for the large SIS100 ring accelerator, the heart of the international accelerator facility FAIR, is a major challenge. An important element in achieving the best possible technical solutions for cooling the 1100-metre-long SIS100 is now going into series production: the so-called bypass lines, a Polish contribution to the FAIR facility currently under construction at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.

Recently, a delegation with Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and representatives of the FAIR project lead as well as the subprojects ring accelerator SIS100/SIS18 and fragment separator Super-FRS visited the Wroclaw University for Science and Technology (WUST) in Poland. The delegation, which also included subproject managers Peter Spiller (SIS100/SIS18) and Haik Simon (Super-FRS) as well as work package managers Thomas Eisel and Felix Wamers, met with representatives of the Polish FAIR shareholder, the University of Wroclaw, to which Majka Zbigniew belonged, as well as the top management of the executing Wroclaw company Kriosystem. The kickoff meeting marked the start of the important phase of series production of bypass lines for the SIS100.

The bypass lines that are arranged around the entire ring ensure the transport of the cryogenic agent (liquid helium, LHe) past warmer accelerator components such as high-frequency systems, injection systems or extraction systems and serve to bypass these room-temperature devices in the straight sections of the SIS100. In this way, they constantly guarantee the cold of -268.6 °C required for the operation of the superconducting magnets in the entire ring system and are thus an essential part of the SIS100 local cryogenics system.

Beside the LHe process lines, the bypass lines contain the most important magnet bus bar system (consisting of three quadrupole- and one dipole circuit). In comparison to standard LHe transfer lines, they create major technical challenges. According to a design of WUST University, which was responsible for the design, Kriosystem has already manufactured and delivered the first of a series (FoS, First of Series) of bypass lines, which was successfully tested and accepted at GSI in Darmstadt after careful SAT tests (Site Acceptance Tests). With the signed manufacturing contract between the provider WUST and the company Kriosystem, the series production of 27 such bypass lines will now be launched.

In addition to these bypass lines, two more major technical systems of the highly specialized SIS100 cryogenics will be designed and manufactured as a Polish inkind contribution: The "lead boxes", chambers with terminals for feeding electricity into the cryogenic system, provide the link between the room-temperature water-cooled copper cables and the superconducting Nuclotron cables of the cryomagnetic system. The inkind contract for these lead boxes has already been signed and the design could meanwhile be completed. For the so-called "feed boxes" the content of the inkind contract has already been agreed and the final signature process has been launched.

Another important Polish FAIR contribution is planned for the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) for the local cryogenics system. In order to be able to sign the corresponding inkind contract on short term, a steering group has been established to finalize the definition of the contractual scope of this contribution and to implement technical simplifications, proposed by the responsible team at WUST and GSI. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3449 Tue, 11 Jun 2019 09:50:00 +0200 Astronaut safety: Research by GSI and FAIR for the best protection from space radiation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3449&cHash=59e115f0a85fc15d39c95e7afbc26621 It’s light, solid and could play an important role in future space missions into the depths of space: lithium hydride, a salt-like chemical compound of lithium and hydrogen. Crucial indications for the possible suitability of lithium hydride as a shielding material against cosmic radiation have now been found by research partners in Germany and Italy. It’s light, solid and could play an important role in future space missions into the depths of space: lithium hydride, a salt-like chemical compound of lithium and hydrogen. Crucial indications for the possible suitability of lithium hydride as a shielding material against cosmic radiation have now been found by research partners in Germany and Italy. The international team including the scientists Marco Durante, Christoph Schuy, Felix Horst and Uli Weber from the Department of Biophysics at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt as well as other partners has published its findings in the “Radiation Research” journal.

Protecting people in space from cosmic radiation is a major challenge for space exploration. Harmful effects of space radiation pose a serious health risk to astronauts, especially in future long-term missions. Such radiation effects must be considered and minimized both in the design phase of spaceships and in mission planning. The weight that can be taken on board a spacecraft is yet another limiting factor. New materials which offer an improved shielding performance and lighter weight are in demand. That’s especially true when it comes to deep-space missions where radiation is even more intense than in the near-Earth orbit.

The international team of scientists has been working together in this area. Aside from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum the researchers are from the Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection at the the Mittelhessen University of Applied Sciences in Giessen, from the Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications (TIFPA) in Povo, the Physics Department at the University of Trento in Povo, the Department of Applied Science and Technology at the Politecnico di Torino in Turin as well as from the Physics and Chemistry Departments and NIS (Center for Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) at the University of Torino in Turin. Thales Alenia Space in Turin is also a part of the team. The company manages for the European Space Agency ESA the ROSSINI project for the optimization of radiation protection for astronauts, a long-term joint research project by ESA and GSI.

The team’s objective: to identify suitable shielding materials which are better than the well-proven standard solution hard polyethylene which is currently used for radiation protection on Earth, for example, or in the sleeping areas of the near-Earth International Space Station ISS . Due to the high hydrogen content of hydrides, lithium hydride was chosen as a promising starting point for further studies.

The investigations were carried out mainly at the accelerator facility on the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt where particle radiation which is prevalent in outer space can be generated and made available for experiments. In its experiments, the research team evaluated the shielding performance of lithium hydride among other things using measurements with high-energy carbon rays. Accurate data could also be provided for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations. Such simulations are used for risk estimation in studies without particle accelerators to obtain a statistical overview of radiation effects.

The recently published studies suggest that lithium hydride might be a good candidate as a shielding material. The Head of the GSI Department of Biophysics, Professor Marco Durante, summarizes: “Initial experimental results suggest that lithium hydride is appropriate in improving radiation protection for people over a long-term space mission.” Lithium hydride could therefore be an effective strategy in protecting people when it comes to long-term exploration of the solar system. “It could be the right material to go to Mars.”

Dr. Christoph Schuy, experiment supervisor, also considers the lithium hydride compounds to be promising. However, the researchers and engineers still have a number of tasks ahead of them, such as the precise determination of neutron production cross sections at high energies or the safe coating of the material.

While it offers a glimpse into the future, additional experiments at higher energies and with heavier ions are needed to fully assess the shielding ability of lithium hydride and other promising lithium compounds. The potential emergence of secondary radiation must also be investigated as well as a possible secondary benefit of shielding material such as in lithium-hydride-based batteries in spacecraft. Professor Durante explains: "We now have to test complex, realistic structures that simulate the real spacecraft walls, including lithium hydride. These tests started in February as part of the FAIR Phase 0 experimental program and are funded by the ESA-ROSSINI3 project".  

ESA and GSI have been working together successfully on several research projects for years. At the future FAIR Accelerator Center which is currently being built at GSI, these possibilities will be considerably expanded upon: FAIR will facilitate experiments with an even wider range of particle energies and intensities and can simulate the composition of cosmic radiation more accurately than any other accelerator facility. ESA and FAIR agreed to work closer together and signed a collaborative agreement on cosmic radiation research just over a year ago. (BP)

More information

Article in Radiation Research

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Aktuelles
news-3447 Thu, 06 Jun 2019 09:46:46 +0200 A successful connection: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Darmstadtium Congress Center publish a periodic table for schools https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3447&cHash=fb97a7bd1ff49be66adc0b7e074de674 At 150 years of age, every chemistry lesson still must have it: the periodic table of the elements. The table organizes all substances in the universe according to their atomic masses and chemical properties. The United Nations has declared 2019 to be the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. For this occasion, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center have published a periodic table as educational material for chemistry lessons. At 150 years of age, every chemistry lesson still must have it: the periodic table of the elements. The table organizes all substances in the universe according to their atomic masses and chemical properties. The United Nations has declared 2019 to be the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. For this occasion, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center have published a periodic table as educational material for chemistry lessons.

The periodic table of elements is an important tool in chemistry lessons where it gives students a well-grounded comprehension of the structure of atoms and the properties of the chemical elements. All known chemical elements are included in this table. Each box represents an element and, in addition to its name, contains its chemical symbol and properties. Since it was drawn up 150 years ago, the periodic table has continued to develop, and today it lists 118 elements. The currently published version of the periodic table incorporates the latest IUPAC data and standards and is intended to be a learning aid for intermediate school levels.

With the discovery of six chemical elements, GSI Helmholtzzentrum has made a significant contribution to expanding the periodic table. The bohrium to copernicium elements were first discovered in experiments at GSI. A new element was created through fusing two atomic nuclei to form a new, much larger and heavier atomic nucleus. To do so, a particle collider was used to bombard the layer of an atomic nuclei of one element with the atomic nuclei of a second element at extremely high speeds. If the atomic nuclei hit one another in the center, they can fuse into a new atomic nucleus. One element discovered this way is darmstadtium, named after the city of Darmstadt, where it was discovered. At the same time, it also gave its name to the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center.

Darmstadtium is a state-of-the-art congress center that focuses on the needs of future generations. It is well-known in Germany and Europe for sustainability and excellent information technology. As a pioneer in the connectivity revolution, it offers first-class in-house Internet access for conferences and congresses at the level of a major provider. 

Darmstadtium and GSI Helmholtzzentrum are closely connected through the element names and their national and international standing. This is why the project partners have jointly published the periodic table as teaching material for chemistry lessons. With a clear and informative design and practical A4 format, the periodic table will be made available to schools. In addition to traditional data such as the atomic number, element symbol, electronegativity and melting and boiling points, it also contains information about both project partners. The surface of the sheet has been given a special coating. It protects the paper from dust, damp and other contamination. Furthermore, the matt surface of the coating absorbs annoying light reflections during the lessons.

GSI and Darmstadtium are giving out the periodic table to schools free of charge (for as long as stocks last). Teachers can order copies for their school classes. (Shipping within Germany.) (JL)

Click here to order.

 

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Presse Aktuelles
news-3445 Tue, 04 Jun 2019 13:16:21 +0200 Pions as a catalyst: Microscopic study of deuteron production in lead collisions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3445&cHash=6f82d017747df284860d11eab955939e It’s an exciting field of research for physics: quark-gluon plasma, the state of matter that existed in the universe until fractions of a second after the big bang, that can be generated and studied by collisions of heavy lead ions. Experimental observations show that these collisions produce light nuclei such as deuterons, tritons and helium. Researchers, however, don’t agree on the theoretical explanation for their production. It’s an exciting field of research for physics: quark-gluon plasma, the state of matter that existed in the universe until fractions of a second after the big bang, that can be generated and studied by collisions of heavy lead ions. Experimental observations show that these collisions produce light nuclei such as deuterons, tritons and helium. Researchers, however, don’t agree on the theoretical explanation for their production. A group of physicists including Professor Hannah Elfner from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and her former PhD candidate Dr. Dmytro Oliinychenko from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California as well as other partners recently published in the “Physical Review C” journal regarding new results on the microscopic understanding of deuteron production.

Deuteron is the atomic nucleus of deuterium (“heavy hydrogen”). Deuterons play a role in nuclear fusion reactions in stars. “Like snowballs in hell” is how some researchers describe the fact that light nuclei like deuterons are recognizable in the quark-gluon plasma. In actuality, the high temperatures of the fireballs emanating from the collisions should melt the nuclei into their subatomic constituents though that’s not exactly what they seem to do. Elfner, Oliinychenko and his colleagues are now proposing a microscopic mechanism that could explain why the nuclei don’t disappear.

They start from an already existing qualitative explanation for the observation of these nuclei. This proposal postulates that the light nuclei created in the fireball are destroyed by high temperatures and are recreated over and over again by flying protons and neutrons as the fireball cools down. The microscopic mechanisms behind this scenario were unclear up until now. This is where Elfner, Oliinychenko and colleagues started and set about finding the mechanism by analyzing a series of reactions that could form deuterons. They identified a possible reaction in which protons and neutrons form deuterons in the presence of pions or quark-antiquark pairs. The pions could serve as a kind of catalyst for reactions between protons and neutrons, thereby enabling the stable production of deuterons in high-energy nuclear collisions.

The team simulated similar conditions to a CERN experiment recently conducted by the ALICE collaboration that accurately characterized collisional light nuclei. Then the comparison followed: the calculated deuteron yield and energy spectra were consistent with ALICE observations. The conclusion: if Elfner, Oliinychenko and the team’s idea is correct, it should also explain the formation of other observed nuclei such as tritons.

The authors now plan to review this possibility in upcoming calculations and to further substantiate their findings. In addition, they’re considering how to conduct further studies at lower radiation energies. Such considerations are also relevant for the HADES experiment at GSI and for the CBM experiment at the future FAIR Accelerator Center currently being developed at GSI. The topic of Elfner, Oliinychenko and the group is also presented in Bari, Italy, at this year's "Strangeness in Quark Matter" conference, one of the largest conferences in this field of research. (BP)

More information

Article in Physical Review C

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Aktuelles
news-3443 Fri, 31 May 2019 09:01:00 +0200 Improved emittance measurement in accelerator systems — Over €360,000 of funding through the LOEWE initiative https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3443&cHash=8e189ad72903579a564b068bf07ea2cf Developed by two GSI researchers, the ROSE system (ROtating Scanner for 4-dimensional Emittance measurement) will receive funding of more than €360,000 from the LOEWE funding initiative of the State of Hesse for a period of three years from May 2019 on. The purpose of the current project is the development and system integration of a software package for ROSE. The applicant is NTG (New Technologies GmbH of Gelnhausen), a company cooperating with GSI. Developed by two GSI researchers, the ROSE system (ROtating Scanner for 4-dimensional Emittance measurement) will receive funding of more than €360,000 from the LOEWE funding initiative of the State of Hesse for a period of three years from May 2019 on. The purpose of the current project is the development and system integration of a software package for ROSE. The applicant is NTG (New Technologies GmbH of Gelnhausen), a company cooperating with GSI, though the greater part of the funding, approx. €200,000, will go to GSI for personnel costs.

ROSE is a novel system for measuring four-dimensional (4D) transversal ion beam emittance. This is the volume occupied by an ion beam in the transversal phase space. Knowledge and manipulation of the ion beam emittance in the accelerator are relevant for improving the beam quality. Previously, only the horizontal and vertical projections of the 4D phase space could be measured for heavy ion beams with energies above 100 kilo-electron volts per nucleon. These measurements lack information on the coupling of the planes, since they represent only a shadow image of the actual volume in the phase space. Researchers Dr. Michael Maier and Dr. Chen Xiao of GSI's accelerator division developed the rotatable emittance measurement system ROSE at GSI to overcome this limitation. As a result, operators of heavy-ion accelerator systems will now have a universal measuring tool available to them for the first time that will enable measurement of the couplings between the planes. This allows a considerably more efficient tuning of the accelerator systems.

Maier describes his invention as follows: “In addition to the capability of a complete 4D measurement of the transversal beam emittance, the rotatability of the system allows one measurement plane to be spared, since all spatial directions can be approached from a single device. Since the rotary drive is significantly cheaper than the electronics required for a complete extra measurement plane, this reduces the costs of the emittance measurement system.”

The software package to be developed in the funded project and integrated into the overall ROSE system is intended to combine the four necessary and hitherto separate sub-functions of planning, controling, measuring and evaluating the 4D emittance measurement for the first time. In the project, this software and the previously developed components, the ROSE detector and the ‘Robomat’ electronic control system (previously also funded by the WIPANO project of the German Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy), will be brought together to form a prototype of the complete 4D ROSE emittance system. Outside the project, the prototype will be tested at GSI in routine operation, optimized jointly with NTG, and finally marketed by NTG as a complete system. The prototype used in routine operation at GSI will also serve as a demonstrator for NTG.

“For users, the clear advantages are a shorter measurement time, less dependence on highly qualified personnel for planning and carrying out the measurement, the possibility of directly correcting the beam at a later stage and the possible minimization of installation and operating costs for the accelerator system,” explains Martina Bauer, who oversees the ROSE project as part of the GSI technology transfer, describing the benefits of the new technology. “Both in functional and economic terms, ROSE is superior to the greater part of the 2D emitter measuring systems currently available. ROSE may generally replace these when they are updated, or may be used directly in new accelerator systems. In Germany at least ten research institutes and a number of companies are now working with systems compatible with ROSE. According to the cooperation partner NTG there are more than 100 interested institutions across Europe in the fields mentioned above, while in particular the Asian market offers a far greater potential.”

Forecasts anticipate a global market share of approximately 20% and a significant increase in sales of 250% in the field of beam diagnostics, with a correspondingly significant positive effect on the employment of dedicated personnel by NTG. In addition, ROSE emittance measurements will enable many new research projects in the field of accelerator physics to be carried out. Especially with regard to the large-scale FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) project and the scientific experiments planned in relation to it, the technical possibilities now opened up by ROSE are a key element for meeting the requirements of the new and world-wide unique accelerator facility currently under construction at GSI in Darmstadt.(cp)

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Aktuelles
news-3441 Tue, 28 May 2019 09:46:03 +0200 Outreach of fundamental research and its applications — IPPOG meets at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3441&cHash=405b1ed498cdd7ed974aa9a062510be8 FAIR and GSI hosted this year’s spring meeting of the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG) in May. During three days, the international participants exchanged views on the possibilities of communicating science to the public and in particular to young people. The meeting also gave the participants an opportunity to learn more about the research program of GSI and the status of the international FAIR project, one of the largest construction projects for fundamental research in the world.

In addition to general IPPOG-related topics, the agenda included information on the ongoing FAIR/GSI research, the public relations activities on site, a panel discussion, working groups and demos of educational kits by CAEN. Furthermore, participants took part in a tour of the facilities and the viewing platform of the FAIR construction site. On the occasion of the meeting, a so-called Masterclass for the children of staff members was held. The young people, under professional supervision of scientists, autonomously analyzed and interpreted recent data of the ALICE experiment located at the European research center CERN. IPPOG offers Masterclasses worldwide in cooperation with 250 research institutions that reach out to about 15,000 school-children in 55 countries. The IPPOG steering group approved and will include in the next year’s program the new Masterclass on particle therapy developed in a cooperation of GSI, CERN and Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg.

IPPOG is a network of scientists, science educators and communication specialists working across the globe in informal science education and outreach for particle physics and fundamental research in general. IPPOG brings new discoveries to young people and conveys to the public that the beauty of nature is indeed becoming understandable from the interactions of its most fundamental parts. Recently, IPPOG has also focused on applications for society, which was reflected by the contributions of FAIR and GSI. The IPPOG collaboration currently comprises 30 members: 24 countries, five experiments and CERN as an international laboratory, as well as several candidates for membership. (cp)

Further information:

International Particle Physics Outreach Group

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3437 Wed, 22 May 2019 08:11:00 +0200 New Masterclass for pupils on particle therapy https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3437&cHash=ec92e4c70aff9efdea0346cb48e835cc In April, a pilot Masterclass on particle therapy took place at GSI and FAIR, as well as at the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg and the European research center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. School children with an age distribution spanning from 12 to 17 years were invited to immerse in the world of scientists for a day. At the end of the event they joined a common video conference to share their experiences. In April, a pilot Masterclass on particle therapy took place at GSI and FAIR, as well as at the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg and the European research center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. School children with an age distribution spanning from 12 to 17 years were invited to immerse in the world of scientists for a day. At the end of the event they joined a common video conference to share their experiences and discuss their results from a hands-on session as international scientific collaborations do.

This new masterclass was proposed towards enriching the program of the well-established International Physics Masterclasses (IMC), an educational outreach activity and flagship project of the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG). The program currently reaches out to approx. 15,000 school children around the world with about 225 institutes from 55 participating countries in 2018. The aim of the pilot Masterclass session was to explore the students’ interest in the subject of particle therapy, as well as to get feedback from participants before presenting the new package to the IMC steering group during the spring IPPOG meeting in May at FAIR and GSI. More specifically, the theme of this new masterclass was chosen with the aim to highlight benefits for society from fundamental research, focusing on medical applications and related questions. The Particle Therapy Masterclass allows participants to get a hands-on experience of the actual techniques employed by researchers for treatment of cancer tumors using x-rays, protons or carbon ions, in a realistic way. The professional research software toolkit matRad developed by the DKFZ has been used in this Masterclass.

The alpha testing phase of the program was done at GSI in February 2019 and comments from the students were implemented in the program’s next version. Subsequently, following the pattern of any typical masterclass day, the involved institutes organized the local details of the event with schools of their area and also worked out a plan for the presentation of results and discussion during the common video conference at the end of the hands-on session. Each institute adapted the exact program of the masterclasses to the local needs, e.g. language or program details, in order to make it as attractive as possible to the participants. Comments from the participants, as well as from observing PhD students and scientists, were recorded and will be taken into consideration as the project moves to its next phase.

During the video-conference discussion of results, the enthusiasm and interest of the students were obvious, as well as their understanding of the presented topics. The local organizers who contributed in preparing and performing the event in all three institutes expressed their satisfaction but also their motivation and commitment to continue. The team work among colleagues of all three institutes contributes in preparing the next generation of scientists, but also in strengthening bonds among the involved institutes developing this project.

The successful pilot session has set the basis, and already several other institutes have declared interest to join. In addition to its impact in the framework of IMC, it has a great potential that can be explored and applied to enhance awareness of public, trigger interest and engage the next generation of scientists, promote education and training in related fields, and make clear the benefits of science and international collaborative spirit for society.

It is not a coincidence that the involved institutes in this pilot project are leading institutes for fundamental research but also renowned for important contributions in the field of medical applications. At GSI, where carbon ion therapy for cancer was pioneered in the 1990s, participants had the chance to visit the medical treatment facility where approx. 450 patients were treated for the first time. At Heidelberg, a visit of the HIT ion therapy center, built following the research results of GSI, had a strong impact particularly since it included a group photo next to the impressive gantry. At CERN, participants were excited about the visit to the Antiproton Decelerator and learning about antimatter and its use in PET scanners. They were also informed that CERN was the home of the open source design study of particle therapy facilities (PIMMS), which became the basis for the construction of two therapy centers in Europe, CNAO in Italy and MedAustron in Austria. It was only natural then to hear their question “What next?”.

Overall, the event was very successful and highly appreciated by the students, their teachers and families. (yf/cp)

Further information:
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news-3433 Mon, 20 May 2019 08:19:00 +0200 BVMW-Wirtschaftssenat visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3433&cHash=dedea9a840afb8ed4a908c821b88d56f In May, the Wirtschaftssenat of the Bundesverband mittelständische Wirtschaft, Unternehmerverband Deutschlands e.V. (BVMW) visited the FAIR/GSI campus to learn about research, the FAIR project and, in particular, the technologies and innovations available at the location. The group was accompanied by former ESA astronaut Dr. h.c. Thomas Reiter, ESA Interagency Coordinator. In May, the Wirtschaftssenat of the Bundesverband mittelständische Wirtschaft, Unternehmerverband Deutschlands e.V. (BVMW) visited the FAIR/GSI campus to learn about research, the FAIR project and, in particular, the technologies and innovations available at the location. The group was accompanied by former ESA astronaut Dr. h.c. Thomas Reiter, ESA Interagency Coordinator and also a member of the Wirtschaftssenat, and Eric Morel de Westgaver, ESA Director for Industry, Procurement and Legal Services.

After a welcoming address by the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Technical Director of FAIR and GSI Jörg Blaurock and Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations, gave an overview of the research highlights to date and the plans for the future at the international FAIR accelerator facility as well as the fields of technology in which work is being carried out both in research and in infrastructure.

During the subsequent tour, the guests visited the FAIR viewing platform to gain an overview of the progress on the construction site. In cryotechnology, they learned more about the superconducting magnets, which must be cooled to minus 269°C for operation at FAIR. They also had the opportunity to inspect the main control room of the facility, the linear accelerator UNILAC and the experimental storage ring ESR. At the medical irradiation facility of the biophysics research department, the participants were informed about tumor therapy with carbon ions. A visit to the large detector HADES and the particularly energy-efficient high-performance computing center Green IT Cube rounded off the tour.

During the following lunch, the guests were able to connect with the technology experts of FAIR and GSI via an in-house exhibition. Representatives from technology transfer, biophysics, materials research, cryotechnology, electronics, IT and laser technology were available for discussions, could establish contacts and sound out cooperation possibilities. During the afternoon, the group also visited ESA's mission control, ESOC in Darmstadt. The day ended with a joint dinner where Professor Marco Durante, Head of GSI Biophysics, informed the participants about the effects of cosmic radiation on the human body and tumor therapy with ion beams in an accompanying lecture.

The event is part of the long-standing and very successful cooperation between GSI/FAIR and ESA. GSI/FAIR support ESA in the investigation of cosmic rays. To learn more about the effects of cosmic rays on humans, electronics and materials is one of the crucial questions of the future in astronautical and robotic spaceflight.

The BVMW represents the interests of medium-sized German industry. Its aim is to strengthen the competitiveness of companies and thus to secure the future viability of German SMEs. The Wirtschaftssenat, to which the BVMW appoints the members, is made up of around 230 business personalities who represent the services provided by small and medium-sized enterprises for our country. (cp)

Further information:
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3435 Fri, 17 May 2019 09:31:19 +0200 GET_INvolved Programme with Poland and Romania established https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3435&cHash=9f23ffa155ed493b30d925c00ae87c54 Four universities in Poland and Romania now agreed to become GET_INvolved partners by listing GSI/FAIR as receiving organization for the Erasmus+ scholarship programme. Students and graduates from these universities may now apply for Erasmus+ scholarships using a simplified procedure to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt. Four universities in Poland and Romania now agreed to become GET_INvolved partners by listing GSI/FAIR as receiving organization for the Erasmus+ scholarship programme. Students and graduates from these universities may now apply for Erasmus+ scholarships using a simplified procedure to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany.

Erasmus+ is the European Union's programme to foster education, training, youth and sport in Europe. Erasmus+ supports, for example, traineeships and internships abroad for students currently enrolled in higher education institutions in programme countries at Bachelor and Master level as well as for doctoral candidates. These opportunities are also open to recent graduates.

The GET_INvolved programme provides international students and early stage researchers with opportunities to perform internships, traineeships and early-stage research experience in order to get involved in the international FAIR acclerator project while receiving scientific and technical training.

So far, three Polish universities and one Romanian university agreed to become GET_INvolved partners and to list GSI/FAIR as receiving organization for their students: in Poland the Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), the Wrocław University of Science and Technology (WUST) and the Białystok University of Technology (BUT), in Romania the University of Bucharest. (mbe)

More information about the partner universities

Warsaw University of Technology

Wrocław University of Science and Technology

Białystok University of Technology

University of Bucharest

More about GET_INvolved

GET_INvolved programme Poland

GET_INvolved programme Romania

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3425 Wed, 15 May 2019 09:09:00 +0200 Longstanding puzzle about beta decay solved https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3425&cHash=955380eae5632572513731b323c17bf8 An international collaboration including contributions from TU Darmstadt and the ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI) at GSI solved a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected based on the beta decay of free neutrons. The findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Physics, fill a long-standing gap in our understanding of beta decay, an important process in nuclear physics applications and in the synthesis of heavy elements in stars. An international collaboration including contributions from TU Darmstadt and the ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI) at GSI solved a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected based on the beta decay of free neutrons. The findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Physics, fill a long-standing gap in our understanding of beta decay, an important process in nuclear physics applications and in the synthesis of heavy elements in stars.

Beta decay is the main decay channel of atomic nuclei: a conversion of a neutron inside the nucleus into a proton (or vice-versa), which produces a different element with proton number plus (or minus) one. In this way beta decay plays a central role in the synthesis of new elements in our universe. As an interplay of the strong force that binds neutrons and protons inside the nucleus and the weak interaction, beta decay also holds important clues for physics beyond the Standard Model and has been the focus of concentrated efforts in physics since the early 1900s.

However, a puzzle has withstood a first-principle understanding: the beta decay of neutrons bound within nuclei are significantly slower than what would be expected on the basis of decay times of free neutrons. In the past, this systematic discrepancy was taken care of by implementing a constant called ‘quenching’. This workaround was able to reconcile observed beta-decay rates of neutrons inside and outside the nucleus and realigned theoretical models with experimental measurements.

“For a long time, we have lacked a fundamental understanding of nuclear beta decay,” said EMMI professor Achim Schwenk from TU Darmstadt, who is part of the collaboration. “In complex microscopic computations we now demonstrated for the first time that strong correlations in the nucleus as well as the strong interaction with another neutron or proton slow down beta decay inside the nucleus. Such interaction effects are predicted in effective field theories of the strong and weak interactions.”

To demonstrate this, the theoretical physicists systematically calculated beta decays for a variety of light and medium-mass nuclei, starting from a nucleus with only three nucleons up to tin-100 with 50 protons and 50 neutrons. The beta decay of tin-100 was first observed at GSI in the year 2012. The results of the collaboration were in very good agreement with experimental data and demonstrate that the quenching factor is not needed when both the strong and weak interaction effects are considered consistently.

The advances in taking the weak interaction with single neutrons and protons to large atomic nuclei have been made possible by theoretical developments of effective field theory, as well as by great progress in many-body theory and powerful supercomputing capabilities.

In addition to a better understanding of beta decays for the synthesis of heavy elements in supernovae and neutron star mergers, the researchers also hope to gain new insights into double-beta decays, in particular neutrino-less double-beta decay, where an analogous quenching puzzle exists. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3431 Mon, 13 May 2019 11:04:32 +0200 “Outstanding Referee”: Honor for Professor Hans Feldmeier https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3431&cHash=bf6145ca01925c72d24a8d6ec7810af2 Professor Hans Feldmeier from the GSI’s Theory research department has been appointed as an “Outstanding Referee” by the American Physical Society (APS). Since 2008 this lifetime award is presented to scientists every year in recognition of their voluntary work as referees who provide peer reviews. The recognition as an Outstanding Referee honors exceptional service in reviewing manuscripts that had been submitted to the journals published by the APS. Professor Hans Feldmeier from the GSI’s Theory research department has been appointed as an “Outstanding Referee” by the American Physical Society (APS). Since 2008 this lifetime award is presented to scientists every year in recognition of their voluntary work as referees who provide peer reviews. The recognition as an Outstanding Referee honors exceptional service in reviewing manuscripts that had been submitted to the journals published by the APS.

Peer reviewers assess manuscripts to ensure they are suitable for publication in APS journals, and thus help to keep the standards of the journals at a high level. This often also helps authors improve the quality and readability of their articles. This year, the APS has selected 143 “Outstanding Referees” from a pool of around 71,000 active reviewers. The honorees come from 29 different countries including the USA, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Germany. The quality, quantity, and timely submission of the reviews are decisive factors in selecting an Outstanding Referee. Professor Hans Feldmeier is now also a member of this outstanding group.

Professor Hans Feldmeier studied physics in Darmstadt and earned his doctorate from the Technical University (TU) in Darmstadt in 1974. Subsequently he went to the Oak Ridge National Lab in the US state of Tennessee as a postdoc and later returned to the TU Darmstadt, where he qualified as a lecturer in theoretical physics in 1981. After spending two years as a Heisenberg Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg he came GSI. Feldmeier took over an extraordinary professorship at the TU Darmstadt and became a leading scientist at GSI. From 2009 until 2013 he was the head of the GSI Theory department, of which he still is a member. The main subjects of his research include theoretical nuclear physics, nuclear structure, and nuclear astrophysics. (BP)

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news-3428 Thu, 09 May 2019 09:00:00 +0200 Members of the Bundestag get informed about GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3428&cHash=7f339c3cb7eb53f1b7da5a6b5fcb323a The visit of René Röspel and Dr. Jens Zimmermann, both SPD Members of the Bundestag, to GSI and FAIR focused on the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. The politicians were received by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy Research Director of GSI and FAIR, and Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations. The visit of René Röspel and Dr. Jens Zimmermann, both SPD Members of the Bundestag, to GSI and FAIR focused on the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. The politicians were received by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy Research Director of GSI and FAIR, and Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations.

René Röspel is delegate from the Hagen - Ennepe-Ruhrkreis I district and member of the parliamentary Committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. He is also member of the Senate of the Helmholtz Association. Dr. Jens Zimmermann comes from the election district of Odenwald and is member of the Finance Committee and the Digital Agenda Committee of the Bundestag. The two politicians were accompanied by Anne Marquardt, SPD Member of the town council of Darmstadt and office manager of Jens Zimmermann.

After an introductory presentation and opportunity for discussion, the visitors were able to take a close view on the great progress on the mega construction site FAIR during a tour of the construction site, from the completed shell construction of the first tunnel segment for the large ring accelerator SIS100 to the excavation pit for the central transfer building. Information was also provided on the FAIR project organization and construction site logistics.

The visit concluded with a guided tour, which provided the politicians with insights into the existing research facilities on the GSI and FAIR campus. The also significant progress made with the components of the FAIR accelerator machine and the experiments was presented here. Among others, the guests visited the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where high-tech components for FAIR are tested and the experimental storage ring ESR. The treatment unit for tumor therapy with heavy ions and the Hades experimental setup were also part of the visit. (BP)

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news-3423 Sun, 05 May 2019 15:01:00 +0200 New session for established international FAIR school: application phase under way https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3423&cHash=5d288483ef98632399442b245bcbd54d The optimal support of top junior scientists is one of the decisive tasks for research institutions such as GSI and FAIR. An important instrument to achieve this goal is the international FAIR School. It is designed for young PhD students to get an overview on the whole FAIR science program. This summer, the established FAIR School will be held in its sixth edition and is currently open for application. The optimal support of top junior scientists is one of the decisive tasks for research institutions such as GSI and FAIR. An important instrument to achieve this goal is the international FAIR School. It is designed for young PhD students to get an overview on the whole FAIR science program. This summer, the established FAIR School will be held in its sixth edition and is currently open for application.

The international FAIR School will take place from September 8-13, 2019 in Castiglione della Pescaia in Italy. It will cover all scientific pillars of FAIR, i.e. APPA, CBM, NUSTAR, PANDA, as well as the accelerator complex and computing. As in previous years, the FAIR School will keep the highly successful format of lectures given by international FAIR experts in the morning and workshop sessions in the afternoon where the students will solve problems and tackle projects. It enables young scientists to participate in the international exchange and interaction with their fellow students from the FAIR partner countries.

The topics discussed at this event will cover the full range of FAIR relevant physics, covering fields from Atomic Physics, Plasma Physics, Heavy Ion Physics, Hadron Physics, Accelerator Physics, Nuclear Structure Physics and High Performance Computing. Here it will be made sure that the students also get the opportunity to see the big (global) picture, thus also projects similar to FAIR i.e. NICA and the RHIC Beam Energy Scan will be outlined.

The school will be organized jointly by the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) – here especially the Frankfurt International Graduate School for Science (FIGSS) – and the FAIR Russia Research Centre (FRRC). Both institutes are renowned within the FAIR community. (BP)

Further information

More about the international FAIR School and the application deadline can be found here

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news-3421 Tue, 30 Apr 2019 16:00:00 +0200 International group of experts presents final report on the FAIR project https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3421&cHash=459fd9797b73feda61f52cdd2da068e0 The shareholders of FAIR GmbH had decided in 2015 to have the project re-evaluated in the spring of 2019. The international committee of experts charged of the evaluation has now presented its final report to the shareholders of FAIR GmbH. In addition to scientific and technical aspects, the experts also analyzed the currently foreseeable increase in the cost of the project as well as time delays and in-kind services provided by international partners and other risks. The shareholders of FAIR GmbH had decided in 2015 to have the project re-evaluated in the spring of 2019. The international committee of experts charged of the evaluation has now presented its final report to the shareholders of FAIR GmbH. In addition to scientific and technical aspects, the experts also analyzed the currently foreseeable increase in the cost of the project as well as time delays and in-kind services provided by international partners and other risks.

The team of high-level external experts was headed by the British physicist Lyndon Evans, who is an expert in the field of particle accelerators and was the project leader for the construction of the large particle accelerator LHC at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The committee, which consisted of particle accelerator experts, scientists, and construction project managers, has been assessing the project since November 2018 by means of accurate detail work, partly in subgroups focusing on specific aspects.

The report of the committee of experts has confirmed that the scientific program of FAIR is outstanding at the global level. The group of experts rated the FAIR project as a top international science project for decades, offering world class opportunities and outstanding potential for groundbreaking discoveries.

The experts’ report attests the effective and efficient organizational structures and processes of the project and the campus which have been established and implemented by the management over the recent years. The committee of experts is convinced of the reliable management and the successful realization of FAIR.

The report also includes an assessment of additional costs which confirm the estimates provided by the Management. According to this, the cost estimates are around € 850 million higher than planned for in 2015. With € 550 million, a large part of the additional costs is attributable to civil construction, with the experts seeing cost drivers in the currently strong civil construction market. For the accelerator components, a working group of the FAIR Council has identified an additional requirement of € 215 million. Another € 85 million will be needed for personnel and administrative costs of FAIR GmbH by 2025. In addition, the experts concluded that it would be wise to foresee a contingency of at least 10% for the total construction cost. The experts also confirm that first cutting-edge experiments can be performed at the novel FAIR facility before the end of 2025.

The shareholders have agreed at their latest meeting that until the next Council meeting they will set in motion a political decision on how to handle the additional requirements necessary to realize FAIR in its scientific uniqueness.

The shareholders expressed the wish to make a political decision. The shareholders in the nine partner countries are now invited to discuss with their governments the further steps of the FAIR project and to decide how FAIR will be implemented. (red)

More information

Report of the international group of experts

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news-3419 Thu, 25 Apr 2019 09:30:00 +0200 Important milestone: Shell construction of the first tunnel segment of the FAIR ring accelerator completed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3419&cHash=e8ef8d6e1da7c6cfe492dfb245d59007 A next milestone has been achieved for the FAIR accelerator center, currently one of the largest construction projects for research. The first tunnel segment of the central ring accelerator SIS100 is completed in its shell construction. On this occasion, the management board of GSI and FAIR together with a team of responsible employees took a joint on-site inspection of the SIS100 construction site area. A next milestone has been achieved for the FAIR accelerator center, currently one of the largest construction projects for research. The first tunnel segment of the central ring accelerator SIS100 is completed in its shell construction. On this occasion, the management board of GSI and FAIR together with a team of responsible employees took a joint on-site inspection of the SIS100 construction site area.

The group which consisted of representatives of the project management team, the scientific and technical council and the works council could descend to the base in 18 meter depth. There they had a close look at the completed, about 25 meter long segment of shell construction for the accelerator and the supply tunnel which run next to each other. With the finalization of the load-bearing parts, the walls and the ceiling structure, the shell construction completion of the first tunnel segment marks an important milestone within the timeline of the entire FAIR project.

At the on-site inspection, the management board with the Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock emphasized the significance of the constructive interaction of all participants. “Today, thanks to the commitment and the effort of our employees we stand here in the first tunnel segment of the FAIR accelerator SIS100”, says Jörg Blaurock. “Our major common goal is the realization of FAIR. Without the everyday dedication as a team it would not be possible to organize and implement such a mega project.”

At numerous locations at the large construction site the continuous progress in realizing the FAIR project is visible: The advancements are for example continuing in the next tunnel segments of the 1100 meter accelerator ring. The concrete pouring work for ground slabs, the walls and the ceiling structure are under way, while in further sections the casings and reinforcements are installed. Also, the construction works for the transfer building are significantly advanced. The transfer building is another crucial building for FAIR that will house the central hub for guiding the facility’s beam. For the experiment sites of FAIR the structural course is set, too, for example the excavation pit of the CBM experiment takes distinct shape. (LW / BP)

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news-3415 Wed, 24 Apr 2019 10:09:00 +0200 STRONG-2020: the new European project at the forefront of strong interaction studies https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3415&cHash=c5b27d85ad36e4d9d4312a7014231f4e The EU project STRONG-2020 with participation of GSI and FAIR has been approved by the EU commission and is planned to start in summer 2019. One aim of STRONG-2020 is to promote the access to the important large research infrastructures in Europe to study the properties of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions and to transfer the resulting technical progress of the experiments into new applications. Open questions of the strong interaction will be addressed on theoretical and... The EU project STRONG-2020 with participation of GSI and FAIR has been approved by the EU commission and is planned to start in summer 2019. One aim of STRONG-2020 is to promote the access to the important large research infrastructures in Europe to study the properties of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions and to transfer the resulting technical progress of the experiments into new applications. Open questions of the strong interaction will be addressed on theoretical and experimental level. In total 10 Million Euro will finance the project involving 44 participating institutions. GSI will use a part of the raised funds to enable more external scientists to do experiments at GSI in the context of FAIR Phase 0.

The theoretical and experimental studies of the strong interaction, a cornerstone of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, is the aim of the research of an active community of about 2500 researchers in Europe.  The list of open questions at the frontier of our present knowledge in this field is rich, and include a full understanding of: the tridimensional structure of the proton; the spectroscopy of hadrons and their exotic states; the properties of the hot and dense quark-gluon plasma; precision studies of the SM. These research topics are experimentally studied mostly by particle collisions at low (GeV range) and high (up to 14 TeV) energies, which require continuous developments in state-of-the-art detectors, data acquisition systems, beams and targets, as well as in the underlying theory.

The STRONG-2020 project, a European Integrating Activity for Advanced Community, recently approved by the European Community within the Horizon-2020 – Research and Innovation Framework Programme, is a structured enterprise to address the open questions in the strong interaction studies in theory and experiment, building upon and going beyond the previous Hadron Physics HP, HP2 and HP3 projects in the framework programmes of FP6 and FP7.

STRONG-2020, strongly supported by NuPECC (the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee), brings together many of the European leading research groups and infrastructures presently involved in the forefront research in strong interaction. It provides transnational access to six world-class research infrastructures in Europe, which complement each other in particle beams characteristics (COSY, MAMI, LNF-INFN, ELSA, GSI, CERN) and virtual access to open-source codes and automated/simulation tools. STRONG-2020 fosters the synergy between theoreticians and experimentalists, supporting the activities of the European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT*, Trento).

The STRONG-2020 Consortium includes 44 participant institutions, among which are GSI and FAIR, embracing 14 EU Member States, one International EU Interest Organization (CERN) and one EU candidate country (Montenegro). Together with host institutions of other 21 countries, participating in the activities without EU benefits, STRONG-2020 involves research in 36 countries. The project  is structured in 32 Work Packages (WP):  Project Management and Coordination, Dissemination and Communication, 7 Transnational Access Activities, 2 Virtual Access Activities, 7 Netwoking Activities and 14 Joint Research Activities.

The STRONG-2020 results will have a significant impact in the study of the strong interaction and the SM. The project will also contribute to fundamental research for physics beyond SM, impacting in other scientific sectors, such as astrophysics and theories of strongly coupled complex systems in condensed matter. The tools and methodologies for the new-cutting-edge experiments within STRONG-2020 will provide upgrades to the European Research Infrastructures, enhancing their competitiveness. The developed technologies will also impact in medicine (diagnostic tools, cancer treatment) and industry (line-scan cameras, 3D-magnets technology) and may also lead to advances in computing/machine learning.

STRONG-2020 will promote training and education activities, including students and postdocs, which will bring qualified personnel to the job market, as well as dissemination activities at current state of the art in science communication. (LW)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3417 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 09:19:04 +0200 Rector of Heidelberg University visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3417&cHash=db49103d498926404aa187657b98b934 The head of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Rector Professor Bernhard Eitel, used a visit to FAIR and GSI to gain an insight into the ongoing construction work of FAIR and the existing accelerator facility and experiments of GSI. He was accompanied by Professor Hans-Christian Schultz-Coulon, Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy. The head of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Rector Professor Bernhard Eitel, used a visit to FAIR and GSI to gain an insight into the ongoing construction work of FAIR and the existing accelerator facility and experiments of GSI. He was accompanied by Professor Hans-Christian Schultz-Coulon, Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy.

After the welcome, Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, accompanied the two guests on a tour of the FAIR construction site, focusing in particular on the progress of the tunnel construction work for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 and for the experiment on compressed nuclear matter CBM.

In a subsequent tour of the existing facility, Professor Norbert Herrmann, who teaches at the Heidelberg University and is spokesperson of the CBM collaboration, explained the large-scale detector HADES and the preparatory setup of miniCBM at GSI. Professor Silvia Masciocchi, also from Heidelberg University and head of the research department ALICE at GSI, gave an insight into the current tasks of the measurement setup located at the European research center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, in which GSI plays an important role. Professors Yury Litvinov, Heidelberg University, and Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy Research Director of FAIR/GSI, presented the storage rings ESR and CRYRING as well as the experiments in atomic physics. Professor Christina Trautmann, head of the Materials Research department, and Dr. Ulrich Weber and Dr. Walter Tinganelli, group leaders within the Biophysics research department, informed the guests about the efforts of the two disciplines.

After the tour, the rector and dean met with the management and the research representatives for a joint discussion in order to explore further opportunities for cooperation. GSI/FAIR and the of University have been linked in their research work since the foundation of GSI 50 years ago and work closely together through various projects and joint professorships/department heads. (cp)

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news-3413 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 10:13:11 +0200 Prestigious Stern-Gerlach Medal goes to Peter Braun-Munzinger and Johanna Stachel https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3413&cHash=52a1c3d6ee4df393019b387c76c4b314 Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, the Scientific Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, and Professor Johanna Stachel from Heidelberg University have been jointly awarded the prestigious Stern-Gerlach Medal by the German Physical Society (DPG). Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, the Scientific Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, and Professor Johanna Stachel from Heidelberg University have been jointly awarded the prestigious Stern-Gerlach Medal by the German Physical Society (DPG). The award comes in recognition of their outstanding role in the construction and operation of the central detectors for the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and of their outstanding contribution to the interpretation of heavy-ion collisions and the understanding of the phase structure of matter under extreme conditions. The award was presented at the DPG annual conference, in Rostock.

The nuclear physicist Peter Braun-Munzinger is 72 years old. His work focuses primarily on ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and the resulting quark-gluon plasma. In the period from 1996 to 2011, he was head of the ALICE department at GSI and also held a chair at TU Darmstadt.  From the very earliest days of the project, GSI has played a leading role in the construction of ALICE — one of the largest experiments at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research — and in shaping the associated scientific program of research. The prime purpose of ALICE is to investigate the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that existed in the first few fractions of a second after the Big Bang.

Professor Braun-Munzinger studied physics at Heidelberg University, where he was awarded a doctorate summa cum laude. As a doctoral candidate, he held a scholarship of the Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes, following which he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. In 1976, Braun-Munzinger joined the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where he became a full professor in 1982. After his return to Germany, he served as project manager for the time projection chamber of the ALICE experiment at CERN from 1998 until 2010. He was also chair of the collaboration board of ALICE from 2011 to 2016 and Helmholtz professor at GSI from 2011 to 2014. He has held an honorary chair at Heidelberg University since 2014.

In the periods from 1984 to 1987 and 2000 to 2002, Braun-Munzinger was an editor of Physical Review Letters. Published by the American Physical Society, this is one of the world’s oldest and most renowned academic journals in the field of physics. Braun-Munzinger’s scientific work has attracted numerous awards. In 1994, for example, he was made a fellow of the American Physical Society, and in 2011 a member of the Academia Europaea. In 2014, he was awarded the Lise Meitner Prize and has now, most recently, been awarded the Stern Gerlach Medal for 2019.

Professor Johanna Stachel is likewise linked to GSI via the ALICE experiment. The 64-year-old nuclear and particle physicist is the first woman to receive the Stern Gerlach Medal. Stachel studied chemistry and physics at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, where she was awarded a doctorate summa cum laude. Her work focuses on understanding collisions of atomic nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies.  She teaches at Heidelberg University. At CERN in Geneva, she is involved in experiments with the Large Hadron Collider to investigate the quark-gluon plasma and heads the transition radiation detector project at ALICE. She is also spokesperson for the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research’s ALICE research program. From 2012 to 2014, she was President of the DPG. Her work has likewise attracted numerous honors and awards. For example, she is a member of the Leopoldina German National Academy of Sciences and has been awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany and also the Lise Meitner Prize.

Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, expressed his delight at the latest honor for Braun-Munzinger and Stachel. “They both have made outstanding contributions to the physics of Heavy Ion collisions,” said Giubellino, who until 2016 was spokesperson for the ALICE experiment. “And I’m very happy that GSI is able to benefit from the great expertise of Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, as Scientific Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI. His work makes a fundamental contribution to the discovery and understanding of new aspects of extreme matter. Furthermore, his scientific work is of enormous importance for the scientific program of the future FAIR facility.”

The Stern Gerlach Medal is the DPG’s highest award for outstanding achievements in the field of experimental physics. It is awarded annually and consists of a handwritten parchment certificate and a gold medal with engravings of the two physicists Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, who also gave their name to the Stern-Gerlach experiment, a fundamental experiment in physics. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3411 Fri, 12 Apr 2019 11:08:23 +0200 High-tech for FAIR: GSI and CERN jointly test components https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3411&cHash=9e1782c49bb5663a1592984fdcc1ebd3 With the focus on producing the highest quality equipment, the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Switzerland and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt work closely together on testing accelerator magnets. To this purpose, they have convenated a cooperation agreement, under which the test operation has started. The first magnet has been delivered to CERN and will be subjected to detailed quality tests. With the focus on producing the highest quality equipment, the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Switzerland and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt work closely together on testing accelerator magnets. To this purpose, they have convenated a cooperation agreement, under which the test operation has started. The first magnet has been delivered to CERN and will be subjected to detailed quality tests both for the operational parameters and the magnetic field quality. The magnet is the first-of-series for the future accelerator center FAIR currently under construction at GSI.

The cooperation between CERN and GSI provides for the testing of magnets weighing more than 50 tons and to qualify them for operation in the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS), which is an important part of the FAIR facility. Precise production of the high-tech components for FAIR isn’t the only decisive step; the testing and quality assurance of the individual parts and magnets is also crucial.

As part of the cooperation, the partners have created a test facility containing three magnet test benches at CERN, where the first tests are starting now. First, the facility will allow for intense endurance tests of the so-called multiplets, which are superconducting magnet units with corrective lenses. Moreover, it will be examined if the magnets behave flawlessly in accordance with high quality standards during operation. The multiplets, each up to seven meters long, will later be used in FAIR's Super-FRS for beam focusing in order to achieve a high-precision particle beam.

The Super-FRS of the future FAIR accelerator center is an important component of the entire facility with great potential for scientific discovery: This part of the accelerator complex will be used for experiments on the fundamental structure of extremely rare exotic nuclei. For these experiments, ions of the heaviest elements will be shot at a target, where they will shatter upon impact. The resulting fragments will include exotic nuclei that the Super-FRS can separate and supply for further experiments. With the new separator, nuclei up to uranium can be produced at relativistic energies and can be separated into pure isotopes. Because this entire process lasts for only a few hundred nanoseconds, the Super-FRS provides researchers access to very short-lived nuclei.

The multiplets, which were manufactured in La Spezia, Italy, as well as the subsequent testing procedure are an important in-kind contribution from GSI to the FAIR project. GSI is the German shareholder of the international FAIR GmbH. All of the superconducting magnets required for the Super-FRS will be tested in alternating sequence in the new test facility at CERN. This includes both the total of 32 multiplet units and 24 superconducting dipole magnets that will be needed for deflecting the particle beam. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3409 Thu, 11 Apr 2019 09:36:38 +0200 Masterclass 2019 — High-school students on a hunt for particles https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3409&cHash=c3fcd3c3217f0b8ddf8c82e57b7f4af3 In April 2019 the 9th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 17 high-school students were invited to become scientists for a day and to analyze data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific program of ALICE from the beginning. In April 2019 the 9th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 17 high-school students were invited to become scientists for a day and to analyze data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific program of ALICE from the beginning.

The young people were asked to analyze and interpret data of the ALICE experiment. Under professional supervision of scientists they autonomously analyzed recent data recorded in proton-proton and lead collisions. In the lead collisions a so-called quark-gluon plasma is generated — a state of matter which existed in the universe shortly after the big bang. This plasma undergoes a phase transition back to normal matter in fractions of seconds. The particles produced in the process can give insight into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

Two introductory lectures on the quark gluon plasma, held by Masterclass organizer Dr. Ralf Averbeck, and the investigation of heavy ion collisions at the ALICE experiment, held by Michael Habib, put the students in the mood for the analysis. Subsequently, they visited the large-scale experiment HADES, one of the current experiments at the GSI accelerator facility that will also become a part of the future FAIR accelerator. Afterwards they started the data analysis.

The basic idea of the program is to allow the students to work in the same fashion as the scientists. This includes having a videoconference at the end of the day. In a conference connection with groups from the universities in Frankfurt and Münster, as well as CERN they presented and discussed their results.

This year 225 universities and research institutes from 55 countries participate in the International Masterclasses. They are organized by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG). All events in Germany are held in cooperation with the "Netzwerk Teilchenwelt", of which GSI is a member. The nationwide network committed to the communication of particle physics to youngsters and teachers aims to make particle physics accessible to a broader public.

ALICE is one of the four large international experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is the experiment specifically designed to investigate collisions of heavy nuclei at high energies. Scientists of GSI and of German universities were involved in the development of new detectors and in the scientific program of ALICE from the beginning. The GSI computing center is an inherent part of the computing grid for data analysis of ALICE. (cp)

Further information:
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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3405 Thu, 04 Apr 2019 14:00:00 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Norbert Altenkamp visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3405&cHash=c102298122b54c07d5fe561756256735 Norbert Altenkamp, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The CDU politician from the Main-Taunus district is a member of the Committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. Important topics during his visit on Thursday 28 March 2019 were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. Norbert Altenkamp, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The CDU politician from the Main-Taunus district is a member of the Committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. Important topics during his visit on Thursday 28 March 2019 were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. He was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock, as well as Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations Department.

The politician and former mayor of the town of Bad Soden am Taunus was able to take a close view on the progress of the mega construction site FAIR during a tour of the construction site, from the continuously progressing shell construction for the SIS100 central ring accelerator to the excavation pit for the CBM experiment, one of the future large-scale experimental caves. Afterwards, Norbert Altenkamp was able to gain insights into the existing research facilities during a guided tour on the GSI and FAIR campus. For example he visited the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets and the Hades experimental setup. (BP)

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3401 Tue, 02 Apr 2019 10:00:00 +0200 Czech Republic joins FAIR as “Aspirant Partner” https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3401&cHash=8fe47bb190b92cb6bfb3295daf6e082c It is a significant moment for the FAIR-Project: A new partner comes aboard. The FAIR international laboratory welcomes the Czech Republic as new partner state. The Czech Republic joins FAIR as an “Aspirant Partner”, a new type of participation which the FAIR Council, the shareholders' meeting of FAIR GmbH, has created in 2017 to offer new countries interested in being part of FAIR a progressive path to membership. It is a significant moment for the FAIR-Project: A new partner comes aboard. The FAIR international laboratory welcomes the Czech Republic as new partner state. The Czech Republic joins FAIR as an “Aspirant Partner”, a new type of participation which the FAIR Council, the shareholders' meeting of FAIR GmbH, has created in 2017 to offer new countries interested in being part of FAIR a progressive path to membership.  The FAIR Council decided in December 2018 to recognise the Czech Republic as the first FAIR “Aspirant Partner”. A corresponding agreement has now been concluded between FAIR GmbH and the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the Czech Academy of Sciences and was honoured with a ceremony at the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt.

The contract has been signed by the managing directors of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, Ursula Weyrich and Jörg Blaurock, as well as by Dr. Petr Lukáš, Director of the NPI. The NPI has been delegated by the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport to represent the Czech Republic in FAIR and to coordinate the work of the Czech scientific community contributing to FAIR. The partnership is a first step towards a full membership.

"I am extremely pleased that we can warmly welcome the Czech Republic as our new partner state. The partnership can build on a long-standing, very good working collaboration between Czech research institutions and GSI/FAIR. Researchers from the Czech Republic are already making excellent contributions in a variety of scientific and technical fields at GSI and FAIR“, said Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director at GSI and FAIR.

Czech scientists are involved, for example, in the large detector HADES and in nuclear astrophysics as well in as developments and research for the CBM and PANDA experiments. They are active in all four FAIR research pillars, and intend to also contribute to the construction of components for the FAIR accelerators. The commitment of the Czech scientific community to FAIR is growing rapidly: In 2016, 37 scientists from four scientific institutions in the Czech Republic worked on topics related to the FAIR project, this year it will be more than 60 from six different institutions.

„It is a great pleasure for us to become partner of FAIR with its worldwide unique research opportunities. The new agreement paves the way to a strong long-term collaboration between the Czech research community and FAIR. The membership will further intensify relationships of our scientists with GSI and FAIR and create opportunities for an even more fruitful cooperation in areas such as research, education and innovation“, said NPI director Dr. Petr Lukáš.

When signing the agreement, the partners underlined their wish to strengthen sharing of scientific knowledge between the Czech and other European research communities and emphasized the breakthrough value of science to be performed at FAIR.

In addition, the new cooperation once again shows the attractiveness of the FAIR experimental program and the trust of the international research community in the FAIR project. The current signing of the contract has great appeal for encouraging other countries to join the FAIR project with its great scientific and technical significance. (BP)

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3403 Fri, 29 Mar 2019 10:38:00 +0100 Girls’Day 2019 record: More than 50 girls explore research and technology at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3403&cHash=bcacdfc6e133097991c55653f362cdca A total of 57 girls from grades 5 through 9 had the opportunity to find out about the work at FAIR and GSI on Thursday, 28 March 2019. They took advantage of the nation-wide Girls’Day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far. With this number, the organizers broke the previous record of participants. A total of 57 girls from grades 5 through 9 had the opportunity to find out about the work at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the accelerator facility FAIR, currently under construction, in Darmstadt on Thursday, 28 March 2019. They took advantage of the nation-wide Girls’Day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far. With this number, the organizers broke the previous record of participants.

At the beginning of Girls' Day, the participants were welcomed by Dorothee Sommer, Head of Human Resources. "We strive for equality in all areas of our work," explained Sommer. "Equality begins in childhood, where stereotypes can and should be broken early. We strive to inspire the girls to be enthusiastic about research and technology and motivate them to consider a career choice in this area. We would like to see some of them return to us as employees after training or studies."

Following a tour of the particle accelerator and experiment facilities on the research campus, the girls could gain practical experiences in various technical and scientific working areas at workshops, technical laboratories, and research departments. Many departments had prepared for the girls’ visit by creating a special program, and they provided plenty of support for their young visitors. For example, the girls could try metal work in the mechanical workshops, soldered electronics and or produce material samples, so-called targets, for the irradiation at the accelerator. One of the groups was also given a tour of the construction site of the future FAIR particle accelerator, which will be unequaled anywhere else in the world.

At the end of the day, the girls could look back on an exciting experience during which they had achieved many practical results. All groups presented their results in a large plenum discussion. “We built an instrument to measure temperature. It measures in degree Celsius and in Kelvin,” explained one of the participants. “In this room we have 25 degrees Celsius, that equals 298 Kelvin.” Other teams had produced metallic discs, made a magnet float with liquid nitrogen, controlled bikes for their safety equipment or soldered electronic components. One group analyzed LEDs for their properties, another produced samples made of plaster and x-rayed them.

“We can rely on our enthusiastic employees who live and love their research work. They also pass this enthusiasm on to the girls on Girls' Day,” said organizer Carola Pomplun from the PR department, who is also a physicist. “The demand for participation in our institute is very high. Thanks to the great support of my colleagues, we were able to welcome more girls this year than ever before. Our goal is to inspire them to a career in technology and science."

Girls’Day is a day of action all over Germany. On this day, businesses, universities, and other institutions all over Germany open their doors to schoolgirls from grade 5 and above. The girls learn about courses of study and trained professions in the areas of IT, the skilled trades, the natural sciences, and technology — areas in which women have rarely been employed in the past. (cp)

Further information
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Presse Aktuelles
news-3407 Fri, 29 Mar 2019 10:00:00 +0100 GET_INvolved Agreement with indian university signed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3407&cHash=999cfb4101e8f37536f3ae8e56066a89 Female students and young researchers from Mody University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Lakshmangarh, Rajasthan, India, may soon apply for a scholarship to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. The respective bi-lateral agreement between GSI and MUST - a university exclusively for women – was now signed by GSI and MUST representatives. Female students and young researchers from Mody University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Lakshmangarh, Rajasthan, India, may soon apply for a scholarship to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. The respective bi-lateral agreement between GSI and MUST – a university exclusively for women – was now signed by GSI and MUST representatives.

Since 2011, several MUST students have already benefited from educational training and research experience at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) in Darmstadt.

The new GET_INvolved agreement now marks the beginning of a dedicated training programme focused on students and researchers from MUST. The programme will support up to four female students and young researchers per year. They will work within research projects, mostly connected with the new nuclear and particle physics research facility FAIR, which is being constructed in Darmstadt.

MUST is committed to excellence. Founded in 2004, the university seeks to impart knowledge and develop skills in women to become professionals, well versed in modern technology and management practices while imbibing social sensitivity and environmental consciousness for the betterment of self and society. MUST was the first institution which sent students to GSI and FAIR in the frame of a pilot project for the by then new GET_INvolved programme.

Prof. Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, said: ”FAIR will offer exciting research opportunities to the next generation of scientists in the whole world and in particular to India, which is the third largest shareholder of FAIR. We are extremely happy that by inviting MUST, we could gain a collaboration partner who specifically educates and promotes talented women and thus contributes to the development of equality between women and men in our scientific field.

Prof. R. K. Shivpuri, Fellow of the National Academy of Science and Director International Relations at MUST, stated: “MUST is very proud to be part of GET_INvolved Programme. We look forward to benefit from dedicated training and research activates together with GSI and FAIR. Engineering students from MUST will now have more opportunities to be trained at world-class facilities, with forefront technologies in an international environment, and gain a project-oriented mind-set early in their career. We hope this will further advance our efforts to promote young women into research and applied sciences." (mbe)

Further information:

More about GET_INvolved

More about MUST

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3399 Mon, 25 Mar 2019 11:00:00 +0100 Researching cosmic radiation: ESA and FAIR establish joint Summer School https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3399&cHash=48c2f075ae5fb42c5416459006a1047a It is a new high-quality offer for international young scientists and at the same time a further important step for cosmic radiation research: The European Space Agency (ESA) and the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, will establish a joint Summer School for Radiation Research. It is a new high-quality offer for international young scientists and at the same time a further important step for cosmic radiation research: The European Space Agency (ESA) and the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, will establish a joint Summer School for Radiation Research. The "ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School" has now been initiated by decision of both institutions.

One of the key questions that need to be addressed regarding the future of human spaceflight is how high-energy radiation affects human beings. The detailed investigation of this topic is one of the central tasks to be accomplished in order to provide astronauts with effective protection, but it also contributes to more detailed knowledge about the risks of radiation exposure on earth. Just over a year ago, ESA and FAIR decided to cooperate closely and signed a cooperation agreement on cosmic radiation research. Young researchers can now particularly benefit from this international cooperation: The new Summer School is a direct result of the joint activities of the two partners agreed at the time.

Up to now, the opportunities for students in space radiation research to gain experience and study are limited. This is now going to change. The "ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School" wants to attract the best international young scientists with an attractive offer and thus also sharpen Darmstadt's profile as a space research location. The Summer School will be held at ESA´s European Space Operations Centre ESOC as well as at the GSI/FAIR campus in order to train students in basic heavy ion biophysics for both terrestrial applications (e.g. medical therapies) and space applications (e.g. space radiation detection, monitoring and protection).

Every year in late summer, 15 Ph.D. students and postdocs from various radiation-related disciplines — such as physics, medicine or biology — can come to Darmstadt. The application phase starts each spring. The offer is aimed primarily to young scientists from ESA Member States, but also beyond. The Summer School's top-class scientific program includes lectures from experts in the field, site visits to facilities in Darmstadt and practical training and research opportunities at GSI/FAIR. The participants can commute between the two locations ESOC and GSI/FAIR Campus. During practical training, the students also have the possibility to continue developing on their own experiment ideas, using available beamtime at GSI accelerators in the framework of the „FAIR Phase 0“ user program.

The existing GSI accelerator facility already is the only one in Europe that can generate all of the ion beams that occur in our solar system, which range from the lightest one, hydrogen, to the heaviest, uranium. The research opportunities will be expanded even further by the future FAIR accelerator center. FAIR will enable researchers to conduct experiments with an even wider spectrum of particle energies and intensities, and to simulate the composition of cosmic radiation with a precision that no other accelerator facility will be able to match.

Professor Marco Durante, Director of the GSI Biophysics Department, is looking forward to the new school: “Radiation is the main hurdle toward the human colonisation of the Solar System. We need to train the young students to tackle this problem. The Biophysics Department is working with ESA since many years to simulate cosmic rays on Earth using our accelerator and to study the effects and the possible countermeasures, such as shielding. The students will gain a tremendous expertise in particle radiation physics and biology. They will be the future leaders in the field, hopefully finding strategies to allow a safe space exploration”.

ESA Interagency Coordinator Thomas Reiter also expects that research on cosmic radiation will benefit from the Summer School and emphasizes: "The Summer School will highlight ESA’s commitment to stimulate the pursuit of education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines as well as to generate expertise relevant to human spaceflight activities. The ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School will be unique in the world and is expected to attract large attention from the international research community”. (BP)

More information

Website about ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School

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Presse Aktuelles FAIR
news-3397 Tue, 19 Mar 2019 10:54:06 +0100 Scholarship Programme: GET_INvolved Agreement with SUT Thailand concluded https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3397&cHash=10f54295bbf63ef6dcd335ea87701045 Students and young researchers from SUT Thailand may soon profit from a new GET_INvolved programme, which will award scholarships to perform internships, traineeships and research experience at GSI and FAIR. Representatives of GSI and Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) in Thailand signed the respective bilateral agreement. Students and young researchers from SUT Thailand may soon profit from a new GET_INvolved programme, which will award scholarships to perform internships, traineeships and research experience at GSI and FAIR. Representatives of GSI and Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) in Thailand signed the respective bilateral agreement.

The programme aims in creating synergies between the partner institutes GSI and SUT by allowing mobility opportunities for students and young researchers and contribute to the FAIR project in research and development. Moreover, the programme will help building capacities for the research groups that are already collaborating within the framework of the FAIR project.

Within the framework of the GET_INvolved Programme, host laboratory GSI will provide an opportunity to these students with an internship and training programme and research experience opportunities for early-stage researchers to work in all areas of the laboratory on technical or scientific projects related to research at GSI and FAIR. Joint technical and research projects amidst common interests will be identified and proffered to the students and researchers of SUT Thailand.

Applications will be open to students/researchers enrolled in university’s higher education programme or in a Ph.D. programme. For an internship, students usually will stay up to six months, whereas a sandwich Ph.D.-stay for research experience may last one year.

The partner institute SUT was founded in 1990 as the first public, autonomous university in Thailand. It is empowered to govern its own overall administration, receiving regular budget allocations from the government. Over 15,000 students attend now the university, which is organized around seven academic institutes specializing in science, engineering, medicine, nursing, agricultural technology, social technology and dentistry. Thanks to its glowing reputation for education and research, SUT was granted National Research University status by the Thai Government in 2010. The Thailand Research Fund has evaluated the School of Physics, SUT as Excellent since 2008. (mbe)

Further Information:

More about GET_INvolved

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Aktuelles FAIR
news-3393 Tue, 12 Mar 2019 09:30:00 +0100 Investigating the formation of elements in the universe ― Slow ion beams at the GSI experimental storage ring https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=3393&cHash=b15ee56ed058ebcf3e30813a059d10e0 Chemical elements are produced in the cosmos, e.g. in stellar explosions or on the surface of neutron stars. A key process in the formation of elements is the capture of hydrogen nuclei (protons), which transforms one element of the periodic table into another element. This process takes place at extreme temperatures – albeit at relatively low energies of the particles involved. An international research team has now succeeded in studying proton capture at the GSI experimental storage ring. Chemical elements are produced in the cosmos, e.g. in stellar explosions or on the surface of neutron stars. A key process in the formation of elements is the capture of hydrogen nuclei (protons), which transforms one element of the periodic table into another element. This process takes place at extreme temperatures – albeit at relatively low energies of the particles involved. An international research team has now succeeded in studying proton capture at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The aim was to more precisely determine the probability of proton capture occuring in astrophysical scenarios. The results were published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

In the experiment, the researchers first brought the noble gas xenon to high speeds using the GSI accelerator in order to strip off all the electrons of the atomic shell. The leftover atomic nuclei were then fed into the experimental storage ring ESR and slowed down. The xenon nuclei were then induced to interact with hydrogen nuclei at a material sample known as the gas target, which is built into the ring. This resulted in reactions, in which xenon nuclei captured a proton and were transformed into the heavier element caesium – a process that is also expected in astrophysical scenarios.

In the investigation of these phenomena, the researchers are faced by two challenges, as Dr. Jan Glorius from the GSI Atomic Physics research department explains: "The energy interval, in which the reactions are most likely to occur under astrophysical conditions, is known as the Gamow window. Within the Gamow window, the atomic nuclei possess relatively low energies of the order of several megaelectronvolts or less. In other words: they are rather slow and thus