GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH https://www.gsi.de/ GSI RSS-Feed de-de TYPO3 News Thu, 18 Jul 2019 04:22:14 +0200 Thu, 18 Jul 2019 04:22:14 +0200 TYPO3 EXT:news news-3481 Mon, 15 Jul 2019 11:28:37 +0200 Radiation protection: Federal Ministry appoints GSI researcher to UN committee https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////bundesministerium_beruft_gsi_forscherin0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=2cbc6a2069d67f8a494721331a729076 The broad expertise of the scientists at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and at the accelerator center FAIR, currently under construction, is in demand. Latest occasion: The radiation biologist Professor Claudia Fournier from the Biophysics Department of GSI was appointed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) as an expert to a United Nations scientific committee meeting. The broad expertise of the scientists at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and at the accelerator center FAIR, currently under construction, is in demand. Latest occasion: The radiation biologist Professor Claudia Fournier from the Biophysics Department of GSI was appointed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) as an expert to a United Nations scientific committee meeting.

Claudia Fournier, who leads the research field "Immune system and tissue radiobiology” at GSI, was member of the German delegation for the annual meeting of UNSCEAR. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), set up by resolution of the United Nations, publishes reports, which provide a scientific basis for the recommendations of the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) on radiological protection concerning ionizing radiation. (BP)

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news-3472 Fri, 12 Jul 2019 07:58:00 +0200 Yuri Oganessian, after whom a chemical element is named, visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////oganesjan_besuch0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8916c957e3ad809989673df169a91ec7 Professor Yuri Tsolakovich Oganessian, Russian researcher of Armenian descend and currently scientific leader of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, visited FAIR and GSI. The 86-year-old Oganessian has led many experiments on the synthesis of artificially produced chemical elements, including the heaviest currently existing element of the periodic table, element 118, which was named Oganesson in his honor. Professor Yuri Tsolakovich Oganessian, Russian researcher of Armenian descend and currently scientific leader of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, visited FAIR and GSI. The 86-year-old Oganessian has led many experiments on the synthesis of artificially produced chemical elements, including the heaviest currently existing element of the periodic table, element 118, which was named Oganesson in his honor. He is thus the only living human being after whom a chemical element is named.

In addition to talks with the scientists from FAIR and GSI, Oganessian also held the traditional Tuesday Colloquium. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Periodic Table of the Elements, he spoke in front of a full auditorium about its development and in particular about the efforts to expand it by producing superheavy elements. Numerous questions showed the great interest of the audience in the topic. Oganessian has been in friendly scientific contact with FAIR and GSI since the establishment of GSI in the 1970s. Especially in the efforts to generate new chemical elements, there has been and still is a lively exchange between the researchers at FAIR/GSI and at JINR.

In addition to the synthesis and description of the heavy elements, Oganessian's work focuses on the development of ion accelerators and methods for investigating nuclear reactions. He developed new ideas for the production of the elements 102 to 118 and successfully implemented them in the discovery of many new elements. The element with the atomic number 118 was last detected by his research group in October 2006. Ten years later, in 2016 the name Oganesson (chemical symbol Og) was proposed by the participating research groups for this element and, subsequently, officially awarded. Following Glenn T. Seaborg, Oganessian is thus only the second human after whom an element was named during his lifetime. (CP)

More information

Production and detection of new elements

Original publication on the discovery of element 118

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news-3470 Thu, 11 Jul 2019 08:50:00 +0200 Michael Boddenberg visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////michael_boddenberg_zu_besuch_bei_fair_und_gsi0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=0adc085d34f483f34621bd079af4ca42 Recently, Michael Boddenberg visited the FAIR and GSI facilities. Boddenberg is a member of the Hessian state parliament and chairman of its CDU parliamentary group. He was accompanied by Dr. Tobias Kleiter, head of the parliamentary group chairman's office. The guests were welcomed by the joint management of FAIR and GSI. Recently, Michael Boddenberg visited the FAIR and GSI facilities. Boddenberg is a member of the Hessian state parliament and chairman of its CDU parliamentary group. He was accompanied by Dr. Tobias Kleiter, head of the parliamentary group chairman's office. The guests were welcomed by the joint management of FAIR and GSI.

In an introductory lecture followed by a discussion, Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, and Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, provided information on the research at the existing GSI facilities as well as on the objectives and status of the FAIR project. During a tour of the FAIR construction site, the guests were afterwards able to see the progress of construction and, in particular, take a look at the work on the transfer building and the tunnel segments.

Subsequently, they visited the test stand for the superconducting magnets of the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 on the FAIR/GSI campus, which are cooled down to minus 269°C during operation. At the large-scale detector HADES, they were informed about the detector technology and the research carried out on the measuring setup. Special attention was paid to the complex data acquisition, storage and analysis of large amounts of measurement data. (cp)

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news-3479 Mon, 08 Jul 2019 10:14:38 +0200 50 years, 50 pictures — Vote for your favorite photos https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////50_jahre_50_bilder_lieblingsfotos_waehlen0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=50f4cc23e703edbd683f5176f70845f2 50 years of GSI are also 50 years full of impressive images of our accelerators, experiments and facilities. We have selected 50 of the best photos and now ask you to select your three favorite pictures. We will give away ten of our coffee mugs "Das Universum im Labor" in a prize draw among all entries. 50 years of GSI are also 50 years full of impressive images of our accelerators, experiments and facilities. We have selected 50 of the best photos and now ask you to select your three favorite pictures. You are also welcome to invite your friends and acquaintances, everyone can take part.

We will give away ten of our coffee mugs "Das Universum im Labor" in a prize draw among all entries (shipping only to Germany). The photos with the most votes will be presented in an internal photo exhibition in the KBW foyer at the end of the year, as well as published via our website and our social media channels.

The campaign runs until August 31, 2019. Find all information, the conditions of participation and the entry form at www.gsi.de/en/lieblingsbild.

We are looking forward to your selection. (cp)

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news-3475 Thu, 04 Jul 2019 09:37:00 +0200 State Secretary of the Hessen State Ministry of Science Ayse Asar visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////ayse_asar_besucht_gsi_und_fair0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b6b57131f6ac96267259512604d54253 Ayse Asar, State Secretary at the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Science and the Arts, recently visited FAIR and GSI. She was informed about the current research and the progress of FAIR, one of the largest projects for cutting-edge research worldwide. She was received by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director. Ayse Asar, State Secretary at the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Science and the Arts, recently visited FAIR and GSI. She was informed about the current research and the progress of FAIR, one of the largest projects for cutting-edge research worldwide. The former Chancellor of the RheinMain University of Applied Sciences was received by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director, and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations.

Following a presentation on GSI and the future FAIR accelerator center, they, among other topics, exchanged views on the strategic goals for FAIR and GSI. Afterwards, a tour of the existing research facilities and the FAIR construction site was part of the program.

During the bus tour of the FAIR construction site, Ayse Asar was able to personally inspect the work on the 20-hectare site, for example the first tunnel sections for the main ring accelerator SIS100, the ongoing work for the transfer building, the central node for the beamlines, and the excavation pit for the future large-scale experiment CBM. During the subsequent tour of the test facility for the superconducting magnets of the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100, it was visible that the high-tech developments for the mega-project FAIR are already in full swing. (LW)

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news-3477 Wed, 03 Jul 2019 09:30:42 +0200 New International Biophysics Collaboration Meets at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////neue_internationale_biophysik_kollaboration_trifft_sich_bei_gsi_und_fair0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8d593c6e671e76f7a016838bbb2027f9 The first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration took place at GSI and FAIR. More than 200 researchers, scientists and students from all over the world attended the three-day conference. The Collaboration exploits the opportunities offered by FAIR and other new accelerator facilities in biomedical applications of ion beams. Astronaut Reinhold Ewald was among the top-class speakers. The first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration took place at GSI and FAIR. More than 200 researchers, scientists and students from all over the world attended the three-day conference. The Collaboration exploits the opportunities offered by FAIR and other new accelerator facilities in biomedical applications of ion beams. Astronaut Reinhold Ewald was among the top-class speakers.

In order to network, coordinate and strengthen future biophysical research at FAIR and other large accelerator facilities, the first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration took place at GSI and FAIR. The participants were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of GSI and FAIR, and Professor Marco Durante, Head of the Biophysics Department.

“We are proud of the success of this first meeting of the new international biophysics collaboration,” said Giubellino. “FAIR will open up new opportunities for experimentation for the international biophysics community with particularly high energies and intensities. The numerous and active participation in the meeting shows how important the FAIR Phase 0 Research Program, which has already begun, is in view of the later unique research opportunities in FAIR which is currently under construction. As a user facility, our mission is to offer scientists the opportunity for excellent research, and the response of the international scientific community is the most direct measure of the quality of our work.”

“We are thrilled of the community's great interest in the first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration,” says Durante. “Participants have arrived from 27 countries in all 5 continents. The beginning of the FAIR experiments with FAIR Phase 0 is the occasion for us to establish a solid collaboration from the already existing cooperation of the user groups. FAIR offers completely new opportunities for biology, medicine and space research. The other new facilities that are currently being built in Europe, Asia and the USA also want to develop research programs in biomedical applications, and therefore they knit together in the FAIR Collaboration. We jointly want to develop new cooperative research programs and tools for the future.”

One of the first speakers was astronaut Reinhold Ewald: “For a mission to Mars, research is still needed in many areas. How, for example, do the vitamins in astronaut food change when exposed to space radiation for a long time? As an astronaut, I would only get into the rocket if all the biological and physiochemical systems had been tested under conditions that were as real as possible on earth. It seems that this will be possible with FAIR,” said Ewald, who is also a professor at the Institute of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart.

The speakers included Professor Gerhard Kraft, who introduced carbon ion therapy in Europe and founded the Biophysics Department at GSI; Professor Thomas Haberer, scientific and technical director at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT); and Professor Jürgen Debus, medical director of the Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy and Scientific-medical manager at HIT. “We want to continue the long-term cooperation with GSI also in regards of FAIR research,” said Debus. “Both biophysics and accelerator physics offer new technologies that are of interest for clinical application. The large and international response to the first meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration demonstrates the potential of biomedical applications of ion beams and speaks in favor of the new collaboration.”

The international guests saw the meeting as a chance for new ideas and cooperation. Prof. Vincenzo Patera from the University of Rome, elected spokesperson of the Collaboration,  said: “In the field of biophysics we need a comprehensive network to facilitate the exchange of information, the joint application for funding and to offer more flexibility for students. In that regard the International Biophysics Collaboration could play an important role and could improve the coordination of the various smaller research groups.”

The collaboration is supposed to support the cooperation beyond FAIR and to include experiments at other new accelerator facilities (NICA, RAON, FRIB, SPIRAL2, SPES, SEEIIST, ELI). Dr. Sanja Damjanovic, Minister of Science of Montenegro, presented one of the newly planned facilities during the conference, the South East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies (SEEIIST): „SEEIIST is a facility for tumor therapy and biomedical research which is supposed to be equally used for patient treatment and for research. Our aim is offering a regional possibility for excellent research to students and scientists of all countries from Slovenia to Greece.”  

The meeting of the International Biophysics Collaboration is planned to take place regularly in the future. (LW)

More information:

Link to the paper on Physics Reports: Durante M., Golubev A., Park W.-Y., Trautmann C., Applied nuclear physics at the new high-energy particle accelerator facilities. Phys. Rep. 800 (2919) 1-38

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news-3468 Thu, 27 Jun 2019 11:01:30 +0200 Klaus Blaum is member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////klaus_blaum_ist_mitglied_der_koeniglich_schwedischen_akademie_der_wissenschaften0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=34f37d77fb7375d9a1a8e2a4b8835d4f Klaus Blaum, Director of the division “Stored and cooled ions” at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg is foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 2019. Blaum is a member of the GSI Supervisory Board, Vice Chair of the FAIR-GSI Joint Scientific Council and Professor and faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg. Klaus Blaum, Director of the division “Stored and cooled ions” at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg is foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 2019. Blaum is a member of the GSI Supervisory Board, Vice Chair of the FAIR-GSI Joint Scientific Council and Professor and faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg.

“I feel very honored and pleased to be a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences”, says Blaum. He got nominated for the physics class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences because of his excellent scientific achievements and his international reputation. "This is a personal award, but it can be considered as award for the performance of my entire department at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics," says Blaum. "It is only due to the outstanding achievements of my team, which does excellent scientific work, that we are among the world leaders in our field of research. This was the basis for my award. I therefore accept it on behalf of my entire research group."

The election took place at the General Meeting of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm in February 2019. In the FAIR-GSI Joint Scientific Council there are now two members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences: Eva Lindroth, Professor at the Stockholm University, also is a member.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded in 1739 and is an independent non-governmental organization, whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. It enhances the status of science in society by drawing attention to key social issues, examining them in scientific terms and communicating the results, and joins in cooperation on global issues, with the aim of being an international  scientific proponent of sustainable development. The Academy consists of approximately 460 Swedish and 175 foreign members, who together represent the country’s foremost expertise in the sciences.

Klaus Blaum studied physics at the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz (Germany). After receiving his PhD, he worked as PostDoc for the “GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung” (Darmstadt, Germany) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. From 2004 to 2007, he was leader of a Helmholtz Research Group in Mainz (Germany), where he habilitated in 2006. At the age of only 35 years, he was appointed as Director of the division “Stored and cooled ions” at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and as Professor and faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg. For his groundbreaking research, he was awarded numerous prestigious prizes, among others the Mattauch-Herzog-Price 2005 of the German Society for Mass Spectrometry, the G.N. Flerov-Prize in 2013 and the 2016 Lise-Meitner-Award of the Gothenburg Physics Centre. In 2008, he was nominated Fellow of the American Physical Society. (LW)

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news-3466 Tue, 25 Jun 2019 08:57:00 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Christoph Meyer visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////bundestagsabgeordneter_christoph_meyer_besucht_fair_und_gsi0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=89d68ec6fac1f65c48d4121fe0d08bc4 Christoph Meyer, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The FDP politician from Berlin is a member of the parliamentary Committee on Budget and in this context concerned with education and research, amongst others also with the FAIR project. Important topics during his visit on Monday, 17 June 2019, were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. He was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director ... Christoph Meyer, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The FDP politician from Berlin is a member of the parliamentary Committee on Budget and in this context concerned with education and research, amongst others also with the FAIR project. Important topics during his visit on Monday, 17 June 2019, were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. He was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock, as well as Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations Department.

Christoph Meyer used the visit to Darmstadt to inform himself personally about the progress of the mega project FAIR and to visit the construction site. The tour included a look at the first completed shell construction sections for the large SIS100 ring accelerator, the construction activities for the central transfer building and the excavation pit for the future large-scale experiment CBM. Information was also provided on the FAIR project organization and construction site logistics.

Afterwards, Christoph Meyer, who was accompanied by his team member Marcel Schwemmlein, was able to gain insights into the existing research facilities during a guided tour on the GSI and FAIR campus. For example he visited the test facility for superconducting magnets for the accelerator ring SIS100 as well as the experimental storage ring ESR and the large detector HADES. The treatment unit for tumor therapy with carbon ions was also part of the visit. (LW)

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news-3460 Mon, 24 Jun 2019 08:31:00 +0200 As hot as the Sun’s interior — Physicists create plasma for the first time using nanowires and long-wavelength ultrashort pulse laser https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////so_heiss_wie_im_inneren_der_sonne0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c985c283f86dc323ff0f0f2bb741c769 Physicists at the University of Jena have developed a new method for producing plasma, enabling them to deal with some of the problems that stand in the way of this extremely difficult process. The three classic physical states – solid, liquid and gaseous – can be observed in any normal kitchen, for example when you bring an ice cube to the boil. But if you heat material even further, so that the atoms of a substance collide and the electrons separate from them, then another state is reached: plasma. The news is based on a press release of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena

Physicists at the University of Jena have developed a new method for producing plasma, enabling them to deal with some of the problems that stand in the way of this extremely difficult process. The three classic physical states – solid, liquid and gaseous – can be observed in any normal kitchen, for example when you bring an ice cube to the boil. But if you heat material even further, so that the atoms of a substance collide and the electrons separate from them, then another state is reached: plasma. More than 99 per cent of material in space is present in this form, inside stars for instance. It is therefore no wonder that physicists are keen to study such material. Unfortunately, creating and studying plasmas on Earth using the high temperature and pressure that exist inside stars is extremely challenging for various reasons. A team of physicists under participations of GSI and the Helmholtz Institute Jena, once o GSI's branches, has now managed to solve some of these problems at Friedrich Schiller University Jena, and they have reported on their results in the renowned research journal ‘Physical Review X’.

Nanowires let light through

“To heat material in such a way that plasma is formed, we need correspondingly high energy. We generally use light in the form of a large laser to do this,” explains Christian Spielmann of the University of Jena. “However, this light has to be very short-pulsed, so that the material does not immediately expand when it has reached the appropriate temperature, but holds together as dense plasma for a brief period.” There is a problem with this experimental setup, though: “When the laser beam hits the sample, plasma is created. However, it almost immediately starts to act like a mirror and reflects a large part of the incoming energy, which therefore fails to penetrate the matter fully. The longer the wavelength of the laser pulse, the more critical the problem,” says Zhanna Samsonova, who played a leading role in the project. 

To avoid this mirror effect, the researchers in Jena used samples made of silicon wires. The diameter of such wires – a few hundred nanometres – is smaller than the wavelength of around four micrometres of the incoming light. “We were the first to use a laser with such a long wavelength for the creation of plasma,” says Spielmann. “The light penetrates between the wires in the sample and heats them from all sides, so that for a few picoseconds, a significantly larger volume of plasma is created than if the laser is reflected. Around 70 per cent of the energy manages to penetrate the sample.” Furthermore, thanks to the short laser pulses, the heated material exists slightly longer before it expands. Finally, using X-ray spectroscopy, researchers can retrieve valuable information about the state of the material.

Maximum values for temperature and density

“With our method, it is possible to achieve new maximum values for temperature and density in a laboratory,” says Spielmann. With a temperature of around 10 million Kelvin, the plasma is far hotter than material on the surface of the Sun, for example. Spielmann also mentions the cooperation partners in the project. For the laser experiments, the Jena scientists used a facility at the Vienna University of Technology; the samples come from the National Metrology Institute of Germany in Braunschweig; and computer simulations for confirming the findings come from colleagues in Darmstadt and Düsseldorf.

The Jena team’s results are a ground-breaking success, offering a completely new approach to plasma research. Theories on the state of plasma can be verified through experiments and subsequent computer simulations. This will enable researchers to understand cosmological processes better. In addition, the scientists are carrying out valuable preparatory work for the installation of large-scale apparatus. For example, the international particle accelerator, ‘Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research’ (FAIR), is currently being set up in Darmstadt and should become operational around 2025. Thanks to the new information, it will be possible to select specific areas that merit closer examination look. (FSU/CP)

Further information:
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news-3458 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 08:14:00 +0200 Marco Durante is member of the ICRP https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////durante_icrp0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5404450dae8fb8b223baa8b85b9e11aa Professor Marco Durante, the head of the GSI Biophysics Department, has been appointed member of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International organisation providing recommendations and guidance on radiological protection from ionising radiation. The appointment follows a long-standing commitment of Durante and the GSI Biophysics to the investigation of and protection from ionizing radiation in space, in particular in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA. Professor Marco Durante, the head of the GSI Biophysics Department, has been appointed member of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International organisation providing recommendations and guidance on radiological protection from ionising radiation. The appointment follows a long-standing commitment of Durante and the GSI Biophysics to the investigation of and protection from ionizing radiation in space, in particular in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA. With the GSI accelerator facilites, particle radiation as it is prevalent in outer space can be generated and used for experiments.

Durante will join the Task Group 115 on Risk and Dose Assessment for Radiological Protection of Astronauts. The goal is to provide recommendations for the space agencies (including NASA, ESA, JAXA, Canadian, Russian and Chinese space agencies) on dose limits for astronauts in exploratory-class missions. At the moment different space agencies apply different career or mission-specifc limits, making an international mission to moon and Mars almost impossible. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3456 Wed, 19 Jun 2019 08:42:00 +0200 Six million euros for "Smallest Particles" https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////sechs_millionen_euro_fuer_kleinste_teilchen0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=385093ed2ae343e9b5891b026ab53ac5 The origin of mass, the properties of the building blocks of matter and their interaction in the formation of our universe — several research groups of the Physics Institutes at Justus Liebig University Giessen (JLU) are dealing with fundamental questions such as these. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is funding their research on these topics with a total of around six million euros as part of several joint research projects. Press release of the Justus Liebig University Gießen

The origin of mass, the properties of the building blocks of matter and their interaction in the formation of our universe — several research groups of the Physics Institutes at Justus Liebig University Giessen (JLU) are dealing with fundamental questions such as these. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is funding their research on these topics with a total of around six million euros as part of several joint research projects.

Atomic and subatomic particles and their interactions are the focus of the BMBF Collaborative Research Program "Physics of the Smallest Particles". The program is embedded in the BMBF framework program ErUM (Erforschung von Universum und Materie). Working groups at the JLU and at other German universities are involved in research on the physics of the smallest particles at the national and international large-scale research institutions (co-financed) by the BMBF.

The working groups from the JLU Physics Institutes are particularly involved in the international research facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) currently under construction near Darmstadt, where in the near future state-of-the-art high-performance particle accelerators, ion storage rings and particle detectors will provide novel, high-precision insights into the structure and behavior of elementary particles and matter under the most extreme conditions. Such very high temperatures or pressures occurred shortly after the Big Bang or during stellar explosions and collisions of neutron stars. The Giessen working groups will receive around 5.3 million euros from the BMBF's Collaborative Research Program "Physics of the Smallest Particles" until the middle of 2021 for setting up and conducting experiments at FAIR and for theoretical investigations.

With a further 0.7 million euros, the BMBF is funding Giessen’s contributions to the Japanese BELLE-II experiment, where exotic elementary particles are produced and studied, and to the ATLAS experiment at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, at the international research center CERN in Geneva.

The FAIR research program

The research program at FAIR consists of the four pillars APPA (Atomic and Plasma Physics and Applications), CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter), NUSTAR (Nuclear Structure, Astrophysics and Reactions) and PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation in Darmstadt). Giessen Physics is active in all four research pillars.

As part of APPA, the Atomic and Molecular Physics Working Group (I. Physikalisches Institut, Prof. Dr. Stefan Schippers) is developing an intensive electron beam for precision measurements of heavy ions in the FAIR ion storage ring CRYRING for the highly accurate verification of quantum theoretical predictions. In addition, they coordinate the network of all German university groups involved in APPA.

The investigation of nuclei far from stability is expedited in NUSTAR, where Giessen Physics is involved with the working group of Prof. Dr. Christoph Scheidenberger (II. Physikalisches Institut) and builds high-precision detectors.

For the PANDA experiment, which will measure exotic hadronic states with worldwide unique precision, Giessen Physics is involved with two working groups in the development and construction of three subdetectors. The group around Prof. Dr. Kai-Thomas Brinkmann (II. Physikalisches Institut) builds the electromagnetic calorimeter and a micro-vertex detector, the group around Prof. Dr. Michael Düren (II. Physikalisches Institut) a special DISC-DIRC detector.

The CBM experiment will investigate high-density matter, similar to matter produced in the collision of neutron stars or black holes. Here, the group of Prof. Dr. Claudia Höhne (II. Physical Institute) develops and builds a RICH detector, for aspects concerning special materials there is a cooperation with Prof. Dr. Michael Dürr (Institute for Applied Physics). Part of this RICH development is already being used in the current HADES detector at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.

Participation in further research facilities worldwide

The strong commitment to the construction of detectors at FAIR is rounded off by Giessen's participation in other research facilities worldwide, such as CERN (ATLAS experiment, Prof. Dr. Michael Düren, AR Dr. Hasko Stenzel) in Switzerland, or KEK (BELLE-II experiment, Prof. Dr. Claudia Höhne, PD Dr. Jens-Sören Lange) in Japan.

Based on the theory of strong interaction, the groups of Prof. Dr. Christian Fischer, PD Dr. Bernd-Jochen Schaefer and Prof. Dr. Lorenz von Smekal at the Institute of Theoretical Physics calculate the properties of hadrons and hadronic matter under extreme conditions using modern numerical methods and complex simulations in order to make theoretical predictions for the PANDA and CBM experiments. (JLU/CP)

Further information:

Press release of the Justus Liebig University Gießen (German)

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news-3453 Mon, 17 Jun 2019 08:44:00 +0200 FAIR delegation visits Indian partner institutions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////indien_besuch0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=93522a8520decc31610cf2fc41e9a0d7 A delegation from FAIR, led by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, visited the Republic of India in May. In addition to talks with representatives of FAIR partner institutions, Giubellino took part in the inauguration ceremony of the mega-science exhibition in Mumbai named "Vigyan Samagam". India is one of the shareholders of the FAIR GmbH and participates in the FAIR project through numerous in-kind contributions. A delegation from FAIR, led by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, visited the Republic of India in May. In addition to talks with representatives of FAIR partner institutions, Giubellino took part in the inauguration ceremony of the mega-science exhibition in Mumbai named "Vigyan Samagam" and visited the FAIR pavilion consisting of posters, videos, multimedia kiosks and exhibits on FAIR. India is one of the shareholders of the FAIR GmbH and participates in the FAIR project through numerous in-kind contributions for the accelerators and several experiments. It is one of the founding members of FAIR and carries a fundamental role in the project.

The Bose Institute in Kolkata, acting as the Indian shareholder of the FAIR GmbH, was an important part of the visit. Giubellino met the new Director of Bose Institute Professor Uday Bandyopadhyay, who took over from Professor Sibaji Raha (chair of the FAIR Joint Scientific Council and representative of the Indian Council delegation), discussing the current status of the FAIR project and informing him about the steady progress in the four experimental pillars of FAIR. The meeting in Kolkata continued in a conversation with Subhasis Chattopadhyay, the program director of the Bose Institute’s Indo-FAIR Coordination Centre, and Professor Sanjay Ghosh of Bose Institute about in-kind contracting issues. Subsequently, Giubellino held a talk about FAIR at the University of Kolkata.

The delegation also visited the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd. (ECIL) located in Secunderabad (near Hyderabad). The company, as one of India’s providers for FAIR, produces around 750 power converters for magnets of the High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT), the SIS100 ring accelerator and the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super-FRS). The delegation inspected the testing laboratory for the power converters and a large number of finalized components on site ready for delivery to FAIR, and discussed the continuation of the successful cooperation.

In addition to the exchange with the FAIR partners, the opening ceremony of the scientific exhibition "Vigyan Samagam" (engl. congression of science) was part of the program. In the framework of the exhibition, Giubellino also met with Indian authorities, including a discussion with Professor Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), and Dr. Kamlesh Nilkanth Vyas, Secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Another highlight of Giubellino's foray in Mumbai was a meeting with Professor Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India. He was very supportive of India's involvement in FAIR and readily accepted to visit FAIR at an early convenient date.

The touring exhibition will be shown in several major Indian cities, providing information about large international science projects in which India is involved. It contains a section about FAIR and the Indian contribution to the project featuring also components of detectors and accelerators. In total, more than 25 Indian science organizations and seven Indian industrial partners are collaborating with FAIR. Vigyan Samagam is planned to continue at Mumbai until 7 July 2019 and then moves through India to several other locations: Bengaluru from 29 July to 28 September 2019, Kolkata from 4 November to 31 December 2019 and finally to Delhi from 21 January 2020 to 20 March 2020. Each location will see a speech at the opening ceremony by one of the FAIR directors. (cp)

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news-3455 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 11:20:26 +0200 10 years Helmholtz Institute Mainz: Successful cooperation between the University of Mainz and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////10_jahre_him0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=42c5527609203ccfe12bbb146172847b The Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) celebrates its tenth anniversary. With its remarkable research achievements in the fields of physics and chemistry, HIM has become an international research center of scientific excellence. At the heart of the institute's work is the FAIR accelerator complex, currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt. The institute celebrates its anniversary with a ceremony. The Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) celebrates its tenth anniversary. With its remarkable research achievements in the fields of physics and chemistry, HIM has become an international research center of scientific excellence. At the heart of the institute's work is the FAIR accelerator complex, currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt. The institute celebrates its anniversary with a ceremony.

"Our hard work over the institute's first ten years has created a lasting basis that will ensure we continue to make outstanding progress in future. We have succeeded in our aims not only of proposing and establishing the first Helmholtz Institute in Germany as a cooperation between GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz but also of constructing a state-of-the-art research building," said Professor Kurt Aulenbacher, Director of HIM. "It was the appeal of our infrastructure, in particular, that helped to attract a group of leading researchers to come to Mainz. The research program, which was initially both narrowly focused and extremely ambitious, is now being managed by these first researchers and their teams with the fertile results we have seen so far," the HIM Director stated.

The Helmholtz Institute Mainz as a model of success

Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, commented on the tenth anniversary of the Helmholtz-Institut Mainz: "HIM is one of the two Helmholtz institutes in which GSI is participating and which strengthen our user community and lead to unique opportunities. The foundation ten years ago was a decisive step with which we placed our already very good cooperation on a solid institutional basis which allows to optimally combine the competences of the Mainz University and GSI to produce world class scientific results. At the same time, this is also an extremely important building block for the excellent research that we can conduct at the international accelerator center FAIR. Such connections bring researchers from all over the world together and enable extremely fruitful collaborations".

In 2009, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz was the first of today nine Helmholtz Association institutes to be founded on the initiative of the German federal government. The intention was to extend the long-standing partnership between GSI in Darmstadt and Mainz University and to promote the university’s profile in this field of research. As is usual for projects of this kind, the HIM is financed by the federal government (90 percent) and the state of Rhineland-Palatinate (10 percent). In addition, JGU makes available its technical infrastructure, scientific and technical staff as well as operating resources. The HIM has a total annual budget of approximately EUR 11 million.

"Helmholtz institutes are a valuable instrument for establishing long-term strategic partnerships between a Helmholtz Center, a university, and, occasionally, other partners," said Professor Otmar D. Wiestler, President of the Helmholtz Association. "They create an excellent basis for close cooperation in a pioneering field of research in which both partners complement each other. This makes them an attractive destination for top researchers from all over the world. Founded in June 2009, the HIM was the first Helmholtz institute in Germany. Ever since, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum network on the Gutenberg Campus in Mainz was making a name for itself as a pioneer in research into the strong interaction."

The Rhineland-Palatinate Minister of Science, Professor Konrad Wolf, also endorses this new model of cooperation between Helmholtz centers and universities: "Thanks to the achievements it has already attained in the field of fundamental physics, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz has become an internationally recognized and prominent facility in the Rhineland-Palatinate research landscape. It has clearly demonstrated just how profitable cooperation between centers of the Helmholtz Association and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz can be."

"Establishing the Helmholtz Institute on the Gutenberg Campus has provided sustainable enhancement of our groundbreaking research in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry," emphasized Professor Georg Krausch, President of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. "In its role as an influential strategic partner in JGU's Cluster of Excellence on Precision Physics, Fundamental Interactions and Structure of Matter, or PRISMA+, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz is reinforcing our research profile both nationally and internationally."

The Helmholtz Institute Mainz is currently concentrating on the strong interaction, which is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. To shed light on the subject from differing perspectives, the HIM is divided into six research sections. Some of these are dedicated to current and future experiments, chiefly at GSI and FAIR, one of the largest research projects in the world. Other HIM sections are focused on developing new accelerator technologies and working on testing and refining prevailing theories using supercomputers.

The strong force binds quarks and also neutrons and protons, the basic building blocks of the atomic nucleus, together. Researchers at the Helmholtz Institute Mainz are investigating the properties of mesons, i.e., short-lived particles composed of quarks. They are analyzing the structure of the proton and studying the properties of superheavy atomic nuclei. Furthermore, they are hunting for new, hypothetical particles beyond the Standard Model of particle physics and developing new theoretical models and future accelerator technologies.

In 2010, the HIM had a total of 25 personnel, now it counts 135 employees from 16 different nations. These talented individuals and the high-quality infrastructure are the essential resources to generate the anticipated exceptional research results.

Research achievements

Many research projects, often in international alliances, have been successfully completed over the past ten years, while contributions have been made to other projects:

  • In 2017, the HIM research section SHE (SuperHeavy Elements) made a breakthrough in the field of chemistry of superheavy elements. They became the first ever research group to generate a compound formed of a superheavy element and carbon. This will enable researchers to study the relationship between the theory of relativity and chemistry.
  • Within the ACID (ACcelerator and Integrated Detectors) section, an accelerator research group led by Dr. Winfried Barth managed to increase the efficiency of the technique for accelerating heavy ions significantly with the help of a complex multi-cell CH structure. These structures are required, for example, to generate superheavy elements and investigate their properties. "The significance of this development is difficult to overestimate. As a rule every additional percentage of improvement in efficiency involves a great deal of hard work," stressed Dr. Winfried Barth, head of the ACID section.
  • Dr. Miriam Fritsch, a junior HIM scientist, attracted financial support of the Helmholtz Association for the Helmholtz Young Investigators Group PALUMA. She spent six years at HIM in the Precision Spectroscopy of Hadrons with PANDA team.
  • The particular structure of the HIM has enabled the establishment of three new professorships, one of them being that of Professor Dmitry Budker, an eminent US-American nuclear physicist, who came to Mainz from the University of California, Berkeley. Since 2014, Budker has headed up the MAM research group, which focuses on high-precision measurement of the fundamental symmetries of nature, one of the four fundamental forces of physics. In 2016, the European Research Council granted EUR 2.5 million in funding by Budker's new project involving the hunt for dark matter and dark energy.
  • In 2012, the HIM participated in the successful application to establish the PRISMA Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. Today's PRISMA+ now closely cooperates with the HIM, and in 2018 the HIM provided significant support for its successful reapplication.
Modern infrastructure

Researchers in Mainz have a high-tech infrastructure at their disposal. In 2017, for instance, a new Structure, Symmetry, and Stability of Matter and Antimatter institute building of 8,000 square meters was inaugurated, with a state-of-the-art laser and chemistry laboratory and a clean room for assembling and preparing superconducting accelerator modules.

Since 2016, the state government of Rhineland-Palatinate, the federal government, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, and the HIM have invested a total of EUR 10.6 million in the new high-performance supercomputer MogonII/HIMsterII, which allows complex computational simulations.

The supercomputer is located in the new computer center in the HIM research building and is operated jointly by the JGU Center for Data Processing and the HIM. Thanks to its total computing power of two petaflops, researchers at the HIM and JGU now have access to the fastest high-performance computer presently installed at a German university. (JL/HIM)

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news-3451 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 08:19:00 +0200 Kickoff: Series production of the bypass lines for the large FAIR ring accelerator begins https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////serienproduktion_bypass0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c657e6eaf3128dea73c820022014626b Extreme cold in one area, warm room temperature right next to it – the sophisticated cryotechnology for the large SIS100 ring accelerator, the heart of the international accelerator facility FAIR, is a major challenge. An important element in achieving the best possible technical solutions for cooling the 1100-metre-long SIS100 is now going into series production: the so-called bypass lines. Extreme cold in one area, warm room temperature right next to it – the sophisticated cryotechnology for the large SIS100 ring accelerator, the heart of the international accelerator facility FAIR, is a major challenge. An important element in achieving the best possible technical solutions for cooling the 1100-metre-long SIS100 is now going into series production: the so-called bypass lines, a Polish contribution to the FAIR facility currently under construction at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.

Recently, a delegation with Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and representatives of the FAIR project lead as well as the subprojects ring accelerator SIS100/SIS18 and fragment separator Super-FRS visited the Wroclaw University for Science and Technology (WUST) in Poland. The delegation, which also included subproject managers Peter Spiller (SIS100/SIS18) and Haik Simon (Super-FRS) as well as work package managers Thomas Eisel and Felix Wamers, met with representatives of the Polish FAIR shareholder, the University of Wroclaw, to which Majka Zbigniew belonged, as well as the top management of the executing Wroclaw company Kriosystem. The kickoff meeting marked the start of the important phase of series production of bypass lines for the SIS100.

The bypass lines that are arranged around the entire ring ensure the transport of the cryogenic agent (liquid helium, LHe) past warmer accelerator components such as high-frequency systems, injection systems or extraction systems and serve to bypass these room-temperature devices in the straight sections of the SIS100. In this way, they constantly guarantee the cold of -268.6 °C required for the operation of the superconducting magnets in the entire ring system and are thus an essential part of the SIS100 local cryogenics system.

Beside the LHe process lines, the bypass lines contain the most important magnet bus bar system (consisting of three quadrupole- and one dipole circuit). In comparison to standard LHe transfer lines, they create major technical challenges. According to a design of WUST University, which was responsible for the design, Kriosystem has already manufactured and delivered the first of a series (FoS, First of Series) of bypass lines, which was successfully tested and accepted at GSI in Darmstadt after careful SAT tests (Site Acceptance Tests). With the signed manufacturing contract between the provider WUST and the company Kriosystem, the series production of 27 such bypass lines will now be launched.

In addition to these bypass lines, two more major technical systems of the highly specialized SIS100 cryogenics will be designed and manufactured as a Polish inkind contribution: The "lead boxes", chambers with terminals for feeding electricity into the cryogenic system, provide the link between the room-temperature water-cooled copper cables and the superconducting Nuclotron cables of the cryomagnetic system. The inkind contract for these lead boxes has already been signed and the design could meanwhile be completed. For the so-called "feed boxes" the content of the inkind contract has already been agreed and the final signature process has been launched.

Another important Polish FAIR contribution is planned for the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) for the local cryogenics system. In order to be able to sign the corresponding inkind contract on short term, a steering group has been established to finalize the definition of the contractual scope of this contribution and to implement technical simplifications, proposed by the responsible team at WUST and GSI. (BP)

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news-3449 Tue, 11 Jun 2019 09:50:00 +0200 Astronaut safety: Research by GSI and FAIR for the best protection from space radiation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////weltraumstrahlung0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=59e115f0a85fc15d39c95e7afbc26621 It’s light, solid and could play an important role in future space missions into the depths of space: lithium hydride, a salt-like chemical compound of lithium and hydrogen. Crucial indications for the possible suitability of lithium hydride as a shielding material against cosmic radiation have now been found by research partners in Germany and Italy. It’s light, solid and could play an important role in future space missions into the depths of space: lithium hydride, a salt-like chemical compound of lithium and hydrogen. Crucial indications for the possible suitability of lithium hydride as a shielding material against cosmic radiation have now been found by research partners in Germany and Italy. The international team including the scientists Marco Durante, Christoph Schuy, Felix Horst and Uli Weber from the Department of Biophysics at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt as well as other partners has published its findings in the “Radiation Research” journal.

Protecting people in space from cosmic radiation is a major challenge for space exploration. Harmful effects of space radiation pose a serious health risk to astronauts, especially in future long-term missions. Such radiation effects must be considered and minimized both in the design phase of spaceships and in mission planning. The weight that can be taken on board a spacecraft is yet another limiting factor. New materials which offer an improved shielding performance and lighter weight are in demand. That’s especially true when it comes to deep-space missions where radiation is even more intense than in the near-Earth orbit.

The international team of scientists has been working together in this area. Aside from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum the researchers are from the Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection at the the Mittelhessen University of Applied Sciences in Giessen, from the Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications (TIFPA) in Povo, the Physics Department at the University of Trento in Povo, the Department of Applied Science and Technology at the Politecnico di Torino in Turin as well as from the Physics and Chemistry Departments and NIS (Center for Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) at the University of Torino in Turin. Thales Alenia Space in Turin is also a part of the team. The company manages for the European Space Agency ESA the ROSSINI project for the optimization of radiation protection for astronauts, a long-term joint research project by ESA and GSI.

The team’s objective: to identify suitable shielding materials which are better than the well-proven standard solution hard polyethylene which is currently used for radiation protection on Earth, for example, or in the sleeping areas of the near-Earth International Space Station ISS . Due to the high hydrogen content of hydrides, lithium hydride was chosen as a promising starting point for further studies.

The investigations were carried out mainly at the accelerator facility on the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt where particle radiation which is prevalent in outer space can be generated and made available for experiments. In its experiments, the research team evaluated the shielding performance of lithium hydride among other things using measurements with high-energy carbon rays. Accurate data could also be provided for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations. Such simulations are used for risk estimation in studies without particle accelerators to obtain a statistical overview of radiation effects.

The recently published studies suggest that lithium hydride might be a good candidate as a shielding material. The Head of the GSI Department of Biophysics, Professor Marco Durante, summarizes: “Initial experimental results suggest that lithium hydride is appropriate in improving radiation protection for people over a long-term space mission.” Lithium hydride could therefore be an effective strategy in protecting people when it comes to long-term exploration of the solar system. “It could be the right material to go to Mars.”

Dr. Christoph Schuy, experiment supervisor, also considers the lithium hydride compounds to be promising. However, the researchers and engineers still have a number of tasks ahead of them, such as the precise determination of neutron production cross sections at high energies or the safe coating of the material.

While it offers a glimpse into the future, additional experiments at higher energies and with heavier ions are needed to fully assess the shielding ability of lithium hydride and other promising lithium compounds. The potential emergence of secondary radiation must also be investigated as well as a possible secondary benefit of shielding material such as in lithium-hydride-based batteries in spacecraft. Professor Durante explains: "We now have to test complex, realistic structures that simulate the real spacecraft walls, including lithium hydride. These tests started in February as part of the FAIR Phase 0 experimental program and are funded by the ESA-ROSSINI3 project".  

ESA and GSI have been working together successfully on several research projects for years. At the future FAIR Accelerator Center which is currently being built at GSI, these possibilities will be considerably expanded upon: FAIR will facilitate experiments with an even wider range of particle energies and intensities and can simulate the composition of cosmic radiation more accurately than any other accelerator facility. ESA and FAIR agreed to work closer together and signed a collaborative agreement on cosmic radiation research just over a year ago. (BP)

More information

Article in Radiation Research

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news-3447 Thu, 06 Jun 2019 09:46:46 +0200 A successful connection: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Darmstadtium Congress Center publish a periodic table for schools https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////eine_gelungene_verbindung_gsi_helmholtzzentrum_fuer_schwerionenforschung_und_kongresszentrum_darmsta.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fb97a7bd1ff49be66adc0b7e074de674 At 150 years of age, every chemistry lesson still must have it: the periodic table of the elements. The table organizes all substances in the universe according to their atomic masses and chemical properties. The United Nations has declared 2019 to be the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. For this occasion, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center have published a periodic table as educational material for chemistry lessons. At 150 years of age, every chemistry lesson still must have it: the periodic table of the elements. The table organizes all substances in the universe according to their atomic masses and chemical properties. The United Nations has declared 2019 to be the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. For this occasion, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center have published a periodic table as educational material for chemistry lessons.

The periodic table of elements is an important tool in chemistry lessons where it gives students a well-grounded comprehension of the structure of atoms and the properties of the chemical elements. All known chemical elements are included in this table. Each box represents an element and, in addition to its name, contains its chemical symbol and properties. Since it was drawn up 150 years ago, the periodic table has continued to develop, and today it lists 118 elements. The currently published version of the periodic table incorporates the latest IUPAC data and standards and is intended to be a learning aid for intermediate school levels.

With the discovery of six chemical elements, GSI Helmholtzzentrum has made a significant contribution to expanding the periodic table. The bohrium to copernicium elements were first discovered in experiments at GSI. A new element was created through fusing two atomic nuclei to form a new, much larger and heavier atomic nucleus. To do so, a particle collider was used to bombard the layer of an atomic nuclei of one element with the atomic nuclei of a second element at extremely high speeds. If the atomic nuclei hit one another in the center, they can fuse into a new atomic nucleus. One element discovered this way is darmstadtium, named after the city of Darmstadt, where it was discovered. At the same time, it also gave its name to the Darmstadtium Science and Congress Center.

Darmstadtium is a state-of-the-art congress center that focuses on the needs of future generations. It is well-known in Germany and Europe for sustainability and excellent information technology. As a pioneer in the connectivity revolution, it offers first-class in-house Internet access for conferences and congresses at the level of a major provider. 

Darmstadtium and GSI Helmholtzzentrum are closely connected through the element names and their national and international standing. This is why the project partners have jointly published the periodic table as teaching material for chemistry lessons. With a clear and informative design and practical A4 format, the periodic table will be made available to schools. In addition to traditional data such as the atomic number, element symbol, electronegativity and melting and boiling points, it also contains information about both project partners. The surface of the sheet has been given a special coating. It protects the paper from dust, damp and other contamination. Furthermore, the matt surface of the coating absorbs annoying light reflections during the lessons.

GSI and Darmstadtium are giving out the periodic table to schools free of charge (for as long as stocks last). Teachers can order copies for their school classes. (Shipping within Germany.) (JL)

Click here to order.

 

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news-3445 Tue, 04 Jun 2019 13:16:21 +0200 Pions as a catalyst: Microscopic study of deuteron production in lead collisions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////studie_zur_deuteron_produktion_in_blei_kollisionen0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6f82d017747df284860d11eab955939e It’s an exciting field of research for physics: quark-gluon plasma, the state of matter that existed in the universe until fractions of a second after the big bang, that can be generated and studied by collisions of heavy lead ions. Experimental observations show that these collisions produce light nuclei such as deuterons, tritons and helium. Researchers, however, don’t agree on the theoretical explanation for their production. It’s an exciting field of research for physics: quark-gluon plasma, the state of matter that existed in the universe until fractions of a second after the big bang, that can be generated and studied by collisions of heavy lead ions. Experimental observations show that these collisions produce light nuclei such as deuterons, tritons and helium. Researchers, however, don’t agree on the theoretical explanation for their production. A group of physicists including Professor Hannah Elfner from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and her former PhD candidate Dr. Dmytro Oliinychenko from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California as well as other partners recently published in the “Physical Review C” journal regarding new results on the microscopic understanding of deuteron production.

Deuteron is the atomic nucleus of deuterium (“heavy hydrogen”). Deuterons play a role in nuclear fusion reactions in stars. “Like snowballs in hell” is how some researchers describe the fact that light nuclei like deuterons are recognizable in the quark-gluon plasma. In actuality, the high temperatures of the fireballs emanating from the collisions should melt the nuclei into their subatomic constituents though that’s not exactly what they seem to do. Elfner, Oliinychenko and his colleagues are now proposing a microscopic mechanism that could explain why the nuclei don’t disappear.

They start from an already existing qualitative explanation for the observation of these nuclei. This proposal postulates that the light nuclei created in the fireball are destroyed by high temperatures and are recreated over and over again by flying protons and neutrons as the fireball cools down. The microscopic mechanisms behind this scenario were unclear up until now. This is where Elfner, Oliinychenko and colleagues started and set about finding the mechanism by analyzing a series of reactions that could form deuterons. They identified a possible reaction in which protons and neutrons form deuterons in the presence of pions or quark-antiquark pairs. The pions could serve as a kind of catalyst for reactions between protons and neutrons, thereby enabling the stable production of deuterons in high-energy nuclear collisions.

The team simulated similar conditions to a CERN experiment recently conducted by the ALICE collaboration that accurately characterized collisional light nuclei. Then the comparison followed: the calculated deuteron yield and energy spectra were consistent with ALICE observations. The conclusion: if Elfner, Oliinychenko and the team’s idea is correct, it should also explain the formation of other observed nuclei such as tritons.

The authors now plan to review this possibility in upcoming calculations and to further substantiate their findings. In addition, they’re considering how to conduct further studies at lower radiation energies. Such considerations are also relevant for the HADES experiment at GSI and for the CBM experiment at the future FAIR Accelerator Center currently being developed at GSI. The topic of Elfner, Oliinychenko and the group is also presented in Bari, Italy, at this year's "Strangeness in Quark Matter" conference, one of the largest conferences in this field of research. (BP)

More information

Article in Physical Review C

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news-3443 Fri, 31 May 2019 09:01:00 +0200 Improved emittance measurement in accelerator systems — Over €360,000 of funding through the LOEWE initiative https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////loewe_foerderung_fuer_rose0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8e189ad72903579a564b068bf07ea2cf Developed by two GSI researchers, the ROSE system (ROtating Scanner for 4-dimensional Emittance measurement) will receive funding of more than €360,000 from the LOEWE funding initiative of the State of Hesse for a period of three years from May 2019 on. The purpose of the current project is the development and system integration of a software package for ROSE. The applicant is NTG (New Technologies GmbH of Gelnhausen), a company cooperating with GSI. Developed by two GSI researchers, the ROSE system (ROtating Scanner for 4-dimensional Emittance measurement) will receive funding of more than €360,000 from the LOEWE funding initiative of the State of Hesse for a period of three years from May 2019 on. The purpose of the current project is the development and system integration of a software package for ROSE. The applicant is NTG (New Technologies GmbH of Gelnhausen), a company cooperating with GSI, though the greater part of the funding, approx. €200,000, will go to GSI for personnel costs.

ROSE is a novel system for measuring four-dimensional (4D) transversal ion beam emittance. This is the volume occupied by an ion beam in the transversal phase space. Knowledge and manipulation of the ion beam emittance in the accelerator are relevant for improving the beam quality. Previously, only the horizontal and vertical projections of the 4D phase space could be measured for heavy ion beams with energies above 100 kilo-electron volts per nucleon. These measurements lack information on the coupling of the planes, since they represent only a shadow image of the actual volume in the phase space. Researchers Dr. Michael Maier and Dr. Chen Xiao of GSI's accelerator division developed the rotatable emittance measurement system ROSE at GSI to overcome this limitation. As a result, operators of heavy-ion accelerator systems will now have a universal measuring tool available to them for the first time that will enable measurement of the couplings between the planes. This allows a considerably more efficient tuning of the accelerator systems.

Maier describes his invention as follows: “In addition to the capability of a complete 4D measurement of the transversal beam emittance, the rotatability of the system allows one measurement plane to be spared, since all spatial directions can be approached from a single device. Since the rotary drive is significantly cheaper than the electronics required for a complete extra measurement plane, this reduces the costs of the emittance measurement system.”

The software package to be developed in the funded project and integrated into the overall ROSE system is intended to combine the four necessary and hitherto separate sub-functions of planning, controling, measuring and evaluating the 4D emittance measurement for the first time. In the project, this software and the previously developed components, the ROSE detector and the ‘Robomat’ electronic control system (previously also funded by the WIPANO project of the German Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy), will be brought together to form a prototype of the complete 4D ROSE emittance system. Outside the project, the prototype will be tested at GSI in routine operation, optimized jointly with NTG, and finally marketed by NTG as a complete system. The prototype used in routine operation at GSI will also serve as a demonstrator for NTG.

“For users, the clear advantages are a shorter measurement time, less dependence on highly qualified personnel for planning and carrying out the measurement, the possibility of directly correcting the beam at a later stage and the possible minimization of installation and operating costs for the accelerator system,” explains Martina Bauer, who oversees the ROSE project as part of the GSI technology transfer, describing the benefits of the new technology. “Both in functional and economic terms, ROSE is superior to the greater part of the 2D emitter measuring systems currently available. ROSE may generally replace these when they are updated, or may be used directly in new accelerator systems. In Germany at least ten research institutes and a number of companies are now working with systems compatible with ROSE. According to the cooperation partner NTG there are more than 100 interested institutions across Europe in the fields mentioned above, while in particular the Asian market offers a far greater potential.”

Forecasts anticipate a global market share of approximately 20% and a significant increase in sales of 250% in the field of beam diagnostics, with a correspondingly significant positive effect on the employment of dedicated personnel by NTG. In addition, ROSE emittance measurements will enable many new research projects in the field of accelerator physics to be carried out. Especially with regard to the large-scale FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) project and the scientific experiments planned in relation to it, the technical possibilities now opened up by ROSE are a key element for meeting the requirements of the new and world-wide unique accelerator facility currently under construction at GSI in Darmstadt.(cp)

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news-3441 Tue, 28 May 2019 09:46:03 +0200 Outreach of fundamental research and its applications — IPPOG meets at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////vermittlung_von_grundlagenforschung_und_ihren_anwendungen_ippog_tagt_bei_fair_und_gsi0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=405b1ed498cdd7ed974aa9a062510be8 FAIR and GSI hosted this year’s spring meeting of the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG) in May. During three days, the international participants exchanged views on the possibilities of communicating science to the public and in particular to young people. The meeting also gave the participants an opportunity to learn more about the research program of GSI and the status of the international FAIR project, one of the largest construction projects for fundamental research in the world.

In addition to general IPPOG-related topics, the agenda included information on the ongoing FAIR/GSI research, the public relations activities on site, a panel discussion, working groups and demos of educational kits by CAEN. Furthermore, participants took part in a tour of the facilities and the viewing platform of the FAIR construction site. On the occasion of the meeting, a so-called Masterclass for the children of staff members was held. The young people, under professional supervision of scientists, autonomously analyzed and interpreted recent data of the ALICE experiment located at the European research center CERN. IPPOG offers Masterclasses worldwide in cooperation with 250 research institutions that reach out to about 15,000 school-children in 55 countries. The IPPOG steering group approved and will include in the next year’s program the new Masterclass on particle therapy developed in a cooperation of GSI, CERN and Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg.

IPPOG is a network of scientists, science educators and communication specialists working across the globe in informal science education and outreach for particle physics and fundamental research in general. IPPOG brings new discoveries to young people and conveys to the public that the beauty of nature is indeed becoming understandable from the interactions of its most fundamental parts. Recently, IPPOG has also focused on applications for society, which was reflected by the contributions of FAIR and GSI. The IPPOG collaboration currently comprises 30 members: 24 countries, five experiments and CERN as an international laboratory, as well as several candidates for membership. (cp)

Further information:

International Particle Physics Outreach Group

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news-3437 Wed, 22 May 2019 08:11:00 +0200 New Masterclass for pupils on particle therapy https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////masterclass_partikeltherapie0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ec92e4c70aff9efdea0346cb48e835cc In April, a pilot Masterclass on particle therapy took place at GSI and FAIR, as well as at the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg and the European research center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. School children with an age distribution spanning from 12 to 17 years were invited to immerse in the world of scientists for a day. At the end of the event they joined a common video conference to share their experiences. In April, a pilot Masterclass on particle therapy took place at GSI and FAIR, as well as at the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg and the European research center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. School children with an age distribution spanning from 12 to 17 years were invited to immerse in the world of scientists for a day. At the end of the event they joined a common video conference to share their experiences and discuss their results from a hands-on session as international scientific collaborations do.

This new masterclass was proposed towards enriching the program of the well-established International Physics Masterclasses (IMC), an educational outreach activity and flagship project of the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG). The program currently reaches out to approx. 15,000 school children around the world with about 225 institutes from 55 participating countries in 2018. The aim of the pilot Masterclass session was to explore the students’ interest in the subject of particle therapy, as well as to get feedback from participants before presenting the new package to the IMC steering group during the spring IPPOG meeting in May at FAIR and GSI. More specifically, the theme of this new masterclass was chosen with the aim to highlight benefits for society from fundamental research, focusing on medical applications and related questions. The Particle Therapy Masterclass allows participants to get a hands-on experience of the actual techniques employed by researchers for treatment of cancer tumors using x-rays, protons or carbon ions, in a realistic way. The professional research software toolkit matRad developed by the DKFZ has been used in this Masterclass.

The alpha testing phase of the program was done at GSI in February 2019 and comments from the students were implemented in the program’s next version. Subsequently, following the pattern of any typical masterclass day, the involved institutes organized the local details of the event with schools of their area and also worked out a plan for the presentation of results and discussion during the common video conference at the end of the hands-on session. Each institute adapted the exact program of the masterclasses to the local needs, e.g. language or program details, in order to make it as attractive as possible to the participants. Comments from the participants, as well as from observing PhD students and scientists, were recorded and will be taken into consideration as the project moves to its next phase.

During the video-conference discussion of results, the enthusiasm and interest of the students were obvious, as well as their understanding of the presented topics. The local organizers who contributed in preparing and performing the event in all three institutes expressed their satisfaction but also their motivation and commitment to continue. The team work among colleagues of all three institutes contributes in preparing the next generation of scientists, but also in strengthening bonds among the involved institutes developing this project.

The successful pilot session has set the basis, and already several other institutes have declared interest to join. In addition to its impact in the framework of IMC, it has a great potential that can be explored and applied to enhance awareness of public, trigger interest and engage the next generation of scientists, promote education and training in related fields, and make clear the benefits of science and international collaborative spirit for society.

It is not a coincidence that the involved institutes in this pilot project are leading institutes for fundamental research but also renowned for important contributions in the field of medical applications. At GSI, where carbon ion therapy for cancer was pioneered in the 1990s, participants had the chance to visit the medical treatment facility where approx. 450 patients were treated for the first time. At Heidelberg, a visit of the HIT ion therapy center, built following the research results of GSI, had a strong impact particularly since it included a group photo next to the impressive gantry. At CERN, participants were excited about the visit to the Antiproton Decelerator and learning about antimatter and its use in PET scanners. They were also informed that CERN was the home of the open source design study of particle therapy facilities (PIMMS), which became the basis for the construction of two therapy centers in Europe, CNAO in Italy and MedAustron in Austria. It was only natural then to hear their question “What next?”.

Overall, the event was very successful and highly appreciated by the students, their teachers and families. (yf/cp)

Further information:
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news-3433 Mon, 20 May 2019 08:19:00 +0200 BVMW-Wirtschaftssenat visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////bvmw_wirtschaftssenat_besucht_gsi_und_fair0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=dedea9a840afb8ed4a908c821b88d56f In May, the Wirtschaftssenat of the Bundesverband mittelständische Wirtschaft, Unternehmerverband Deutschlands e.V. (BVMW) visited the FAIR/GSI campus to learn about research, the FAIR project and, in particular, the technologies and innovations available at the location. The group was accompanied by former ESA astronaut Dr. h.c. Thomas Reiter, ESA Interagency Coordinator. In May, the Wirtschaftssenat of the Bundesverband mittelständische Wirtschaft, Unternehmerverband Deutschlands e.V. (BVMW) visited the FAIR/GSI campus to learn about research, the FAIR project and, in particular, the technologies and innovations available at the location. The group was accompanied by former ESA astronaut Dr. h.c. Thomas Reiter, ESA Interagency Coordinator and also a member of the Wirtschaftssenat, and Eric Morel de Westgaver, ESA Director for Industry, Procurement and Legal Services.

After a welcoming address by the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Technical Director of FAIR and GSI Jörg Blaurock and Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations, gave an overview of the research highlights to date and the plans for the future at the international FAIR accelerator facility as well as the fields of technology in which work is being carried out both in research and in infrastructure.

During the subsequent tour, the guests visited the FAIR viewing platform to gain an overview of the progress on the construction site. In cryotechnology, they learned more about the superconducting magnets, which must be cooled to minus 269°C for operation at FAIR. They also had the opportunity to inspect the main control room of the facility, the linear accelerator UNILAC and the experimental storage ring ESR. At the medical irradiation facility of the biophysics research department, the participants were informed about tumor therapy with carbon ions. A visit to the large detector HADES and the particularly energy-efficient high-performance computing center Green IT Cube rounded off the tour.

During the following lunch, the guests were able to connect with the technology experts of FAIR and GSI via an in-house exhibition. Representatives from technology transfer, biophysics, materials research, cryotechnology, electronics, IT and laser technology were available for discussions, could establish contacts and sound out cooperation possibilities. During the afternoon, the group also visited ESA's mission control, ESOC in Darmstadt. The day ended with a joint dinner where Professor Marco Durante, Head of GSI Biophysics, informed the participants about the effects of cosmic radiation on the human body and tumor therapy with ion beams in an accompanying lecture.

The event is part of the long-standing and very successful cooperation between GSI/FAIR and ESA. GSI/FAIR support ESA in the investigation of cosmic rays. To learn more about the effects of cosmic rays on humans, electronics and materials is one of the crucial questions of the future in astronautical and robotic spaceflight.

The BVMW represents the interests of medium-sized German industry. Its aim is to strengthen the competitiveness of companies and thus to secure the future viability of German SMEs. The Wirtschaftssenat, to which the BVMW appoints the members, is made up of around 230 business personalities who represent the services provided by small and medium-sized enterprises for our country. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3435 Fri, 17 May 2019 09:31:19 +0200 GET_INvolved Programme with Poland and Romania established https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////get_involved_stipendienprogramm_polen_rumaenien0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=9f23ffa155ed493b30d925c00ae87c54 Four universities in Poland and Romania now agreed to become GET_INvolved partners by listing GSI/FAIR as receiving organization for the Erasmus+ scholarship programme. Students and graduates from these universities may now apply for Erasmus+ scholarships using a simplified procedure to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt. Four universities in Poland and Romania now agreed to become GET_INvolved partners by listing GSI/FAIR as receiving organization for the Erasmus+ scholarship programme. Students and graduates from these universities may now apply for Erasmus+ scholarships using a simplified procedure to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany.

Erasmus+ is the European Union's programme to foster education, training, youth and sport in Europe. Erasmus+ supports, for example, traineeships and internships abroad for students currently enrolled in higher education institutions in programme countries at Bachelor and Master level as well as for doctoral candidates. These opportunities are also open to recent graduates.

The GET_INvolved programme provides international students and early stage researchers with opportunities to perform internships, traineeships and early-stage research experience in order to get involved in the international FAIR acclerator project while receiving scientific and technical training.

So far, three Polish universities and one Romanian university agreed to become GET_INvolved partners and to list GSI/FAIR as receiving organization for their students: in Poland the Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), the Wrocław University of Science and Technology (WUST) and the Białystok University of Technology (BUT), in Romania the University of Bucharest. (mbe)

More information about the partner universities

Warsaw University of Technology

Wrocław University of Science and Technology

Białystok University of Technology

University of Bucharest

More about GET_INvolved

GET_INvolved programme Poland

GET_INvolved programme Romania

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news-3425 Wed, 15 May 2019 09:09:00 +0200 Longstanding puzzle about beta decay solved https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////beta_decay0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=955380eae5632572513731b323c17bf8 An international collaboration including contributions from TU Darmstadt and the ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI) at GSI solved a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected based on the beta decay of free neutrons. The findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Physics, fill a long-standing gap in our understanding of beta decay, an important process in nuclear physics applications and in the synthesis of heavy elements in stars. An international collaboration including contributions from TU Darmstadt and the ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI) at GSI solved a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected based on the beta decay of free neutrons. The findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Physics, fill a long-standing gap in our understanding of beta decay, an important process in nuclear physics applications and in the synthesis of heavy elements in stars.

Beta decay is the main decay channel of atomic nuclei: a conversion of a neutron inside the nucleus into a proton (or vice-versa), which produces a different element with proton number plus (or minus) one. In this way beta decay plays a central role in the synthesis of new elements in our universe. As an interplay of the strong force that binds neutrons and protons inside the nucleus and the weak interaction, beta decay also holds important clues for physics beyond the Standard Model and has been the focus of concentrated efforts in physics since the early 1900s.

However, a puzzle has withstood a first-principle understanding: the beta decay of neutrons bound within nuclei are significantly slower than what would be expected on the basis of decay times of free neutrons. In the past, this systematic discrepancy was taken care of by implementing a constant called ‘quenching’. This workaround was able to reconcile observed beta-decay rates of neutrons inside and outside the nucleus and realigned theoretical models with experimental measurements.

“For a long time, we have lacked a fundamental understanding of nuclear beta decay,” said EMMI professor Achim Schwenk from TU Darmstadt, who is part of the collaboration. “In complex microscopic computations we now demonstrated for the first time that strong correlations in the nucleus as well as the strong interaction with another neutron or proton slow down beta decay inside the nucleus. Such interaction effects are predicted in effective field theories of the strong and weak interactions.”

To demonstrate this, the theoretical physicists systematically calculated beta decays for a variety of light and medium-mass nuclei, starting from a nucleus with only three nucleons up to tin-100 with 50 protons and 50 neutrons. The beta decay of tin-100 was first observed at GSI in the year 2012. The results of the collaboration were in very good agreement with experimental data and demonstrate that the quenching factor is not needed when both the strong and weak interaction effects are considered consistently.

The advances in taking the weak interaction with single neutrons and protons to large atomic nuclei have been made possible by theoretical developments of effective field theory, as well as by great progress in many-body theory and powerful supercomputing capabilities.

In addition to a better understanding of beta decays for the synthesis of heavy elements in supernovae and neutron star mergers, the researchers also hope to gain new insights into double-beta decays, in particular neutrino-less double-beta decay, where an analogous quenching puzzle exists. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3431 Mon, 13 May 2019 11:04:32 +0200 “Outstanding Referee”: Honor for Professor Hans Feldmeier https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////outstanding_referee_hans_feldmeier0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=bf6145ca01925c72d24a8d6ec7810af2 Professor Hans Feldmeier from the GSI’s Theory research department has been appointed as an “Outstanding Referee” by the American Physical Society (APS). Since 2008 this lifetime award is presented to scientists every year in recognition of their voluntary work as referees who provide peer reviews. The recognition as an Outstanding Referee honors exceptional service in reviewing manuscripts that had been submitted to the journals published by the APS. Professor Hans Feldmeier from the GSI’s Theory research department has been appointed as an “Outstanding Referee” by the American Physical Society (APS). Since 2008 this lifetime award is presented to scientists every year in recognition of their voluntary work as referees who provide peer reviews. The recognition as an Outstanding Referee honors exceptional service in reviewing manuscripts that had been submitted to the journals published by the APS.

Peer reviewers assess manuscripts to ensure they are suitable for publication in APS journals, and thus help to keep the standards of the journals at a high level. This often also helps authors improve the quality and readability of their articles. This year, the APS has selected 143 “Outstanding Referees” from a pool of around 71,000 active reviewers. The honorees come from 29 different countries including the USA, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Germany. The quality, quantity, and timely submission of the reviews are decisive factors in selecting an Outstanding Referee. Professor Hans Feldmeier is now also a member of this outstanding group.

Professor Hans Feldmeier studied physics in Darmstadt and earned his doctorate from the Technical University (TU) in Darmstadt in 1974. Subsequently he went to the Oak Ridge National Lab in the US state of Tennessee as a postdoc and later returned to the TU Darmstadt, where he qualified as a lecturer in theoretical physics in 1981. After spending two years as a Heisenberg Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg he came GSI. Feldmeier took over an extraordinary professorship at the TU Darmstadt and became a leading scientist at GSI. From 2009 until 2013 he was the head of the GSI Theory department, of which he still is a member. The main subjects of his research include theoretical nuclear physics, nuclear structure, and nuclear astrophysics. (BP)

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news-3428 Thu, 09 May 2019 09:00:00 +0200 Members of the Bundestag get informed about GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////bundestagsabgeordnete_informieren_sich_ueber_gsi_und_fair0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=7f339c3cb7eb53f1b7da5a6b5fcb323a The visit of René Röspel and Dr. Jens Zimmermann, both SPD Members of the Bundestag, to GSI and FAIR focused on the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. The politicians were received by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy Research Director of GSI and FAIR, and Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations. The visit of René Röspel and Dr. Jens Zimmermann, both SPD Members of the Bundestag, to GSI and FAIR focused on the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. The politicians were received by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy Research Director of GSI and FAIR, and Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations.

René Röspel is delegate from the Hagen - Ennepe-Ruhrkreis I district and member of the parliamentary Committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. He is also member of the Senate of the Helmholtz Association. Dr. Jens Zimmermann comes from the election district of Odenwald and is member of the Finance Committee and the Digital Agenda Committee of the Bundestag. The two politicians were accompanied by Anne Marquardt, SPD Member of the town council of Darmstadt and office manager of Jens Zimmermann.

After an introductory presentation and opportunity for discussion, the visitors were able to take a close view on the great progress on the mega construction site FAIR during a tour of the construction site, from the completed shell construction of the first tunnel segment for the large ring accelerator SIS100 to the excavation pit for the central transfer building. Information was also provided on the FAIR project organization and construction site logistics.

The visit concluded with a guided tour, which provided the politicians with insights into the existing research facilities on the GSI and FAIR campus. The also significant progress made with the components of the FAIR accelerator machine and the experiments was presented here. Among others, the guests visited the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets, where high-tech components for FAIR are tested and the experimental storage ring ESR. The treatment unit for tumor therapy with heavy ions and the Hades experimental setup were also part of the visit. (BP)

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news-3423 Sun, 05 May 2019 15:01:00 +0200 New session for established international FAIR school: application phase under way https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_schule_bewerbungsphase_laeuft0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5d288483ef98632399442b245bcbd54d The optimal support of top junior scientists is one of the decisive tasks for research institutions such as GSI and FAIR. An important instrument to achieve this goal is the international FAIR School. It is designed for young PhD students to get an overview on the whole FAIR science program. This summer, the established FAIR School will be held in its sixth edition and is currently open for application. The optimal support of top junior scientists is one of the decisive tasks for research institutions such as GSI and FAIR. An important instrument to achieve this goal is the international FAIR School. It is designed for young PhD students to get an overview on the whole FAIR science program. This summer, the established FAIR School will be held in its sixth edition and is currently open for application.

The international FAIR School will take place from September 8-13, 2019 in Castiglione della Pescaia in Italy. It will cover all scientific pillars of FAIR, i.e. APPA, CBM, NUSTAR, PANDA, as well as the accelerator complex and computing. As in previous years, the FAIR School will keep the highly successful format of lectures given by international FAIR experts in the morning and workshop sessions in the afternoon where the students will solve problems and tackle projects. It enables young scientists to participate in the international exchange and interaction with their fellow students from the FAIR partner countries.

The topics discussed at this event will cover the full range of FAIR relevant physics, covering fields from Atomic Physics, Plasma Physics, Heavy Ion Physics, Hadron Physics, Accelerator Physics, Nuclear Structure Physics and High Performance Computing. Here it will be made sure that the students also get the opportunity to see the big (global) picture, thus also projects similar to FAIR i.e. NICA and the RHIC Beam Energy Scan will be outlined.

The school will be organized jointly by the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) – here especially the Frankfurt International Graduate School for Science (FIGSS) – and the FAIR Russia Research Centre (FRRC). Both institutes are renowned within the FAIR community. (BP)

Further information

More about the international FAIR School and the application deadline can be found here

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news-3421 Tue, 30 Apr 2019 16:00:00 +0200 International group of experts presents final report on the FAIR project https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////expertengruppe_abschlussbericht_zum_fair_projekt0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=459fd9797b73feda61f52cdd2da068e0 The shareholders of FAIR GmbH had decided in 2015 to have the project re-evaluated in the spring of 2019. The international committee of experts charged of the evaluation has now presented its final report to the shareholders of FAIR GmbH. In addition to scientific and technical aspects, the experts also analyzed the currently foreseeable increase in the cost of the project as well as time delays and in-kind services provided by international partners and other risks. The shareholders of FAIR GmbH had decided in 2015 to have the project re-evaluated in the spring of 2019. The international committee of experts charged of the evaluation has now presented its final report to the shareholders of FAIR GmbH. In addition to scientific and technical aspects, the experts also analyzed the currently foreseeable increase in the cost of the project as well as time delays and in-kind services provided by international partners and other risks.

The team of high-level external experts was headed by the British physicist Lyndon Evans, who is an expert in the field of particle accelerators and was the project leader for the construction of the large particle accelerator LHC at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The committee, which consisted of particle accelerator experts, scientists, and construction project managers, has been assessing the project since November 2018 by means of accurate detail work, partly in subgroups focusing on specific aspects.

The report of the committee of experts has confirmed that the scientific program of FAIR is outstanding at the global level. The group of experts rated the FAIR project as a top international science project for decades, offering world class opportunities and outstanding potential for groundbreaking discoveries.

The experts’ report attests the effective and efficient organizational structures and processes of the project and the campus which have been established and implemented by the management over the recent years. The committee of experts is convinced of the reliable management and the successful realization of FAIR.

The report also includes an assessment of additional costs which confirm the estimates provided by the Management. According to this, the cost estimates are around € 850 million (equivalent to € 530 million based on price level of 2005) higher than planned for in 2015 if the project is to be fully realized. With € 550 million, a large part of the additional costs is attributable to civil construction, with the experts seeing cost drivers in the currently strong civil construction market. For the accelerator components, a working group of the FAIR Council has identified an additional requirement of € 215 million. Another € 85 million will be needed for personnel and administrative costs of FAIR GmbH by 2025. In addition, the experts concluded that it would be wise to foresee a contingency of at least 10% for the total construction cost.

The experts also confirm that first cutting-edge experiments can be performed at the novel FAIR facility before the end of 2025.

The shareholders have agreed at their latest meeting that until the next Council meeting in July they will set in motion a political decision on how to handle the additional requirements necessary to realize FAIR in its scientific uniqueness.

At their recent meeting, the shareholders expressed the wish to make a political decision at the next Council meeting (General Assembly) in July. The shareholders in the nine partner countries are now invited to discuss with their governments the further steps of the FAIR project and to decide how FAIR will be implemented. (FAIR news kindly hosted by GSI)

More information

Report of the international group of experts

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news-3419 Thu, 25 Apr 2019 09:30:00 +0200 Important milestone: Shell construction of the first tunnel segment of the FAIR ring accelerator completed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////rohbau_fuer_den_ersten_tunnelabschnitt_des_fair_ringbeschleunigers0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e8ef8d6e1da7c6cfe492dfb245d59007 A next milestone has been achieved for the FAIR accelerator center, currently one of the largest construction projects for research. The first tunnel segment of the central ring accelerator SIS100 is completed in its shell construction. On this occasion, the management board of GSI and FAIR together with a team of responsible employees took a joint on-site inspection of the SIS100 construction site area. A next milestone has been achieved for the FAIR accelerator center, currently one of the largest construction projects for research. The first tunnel segment of the central ring accelerator SIS100 is completed in its shell construction. On this occasion, the management board of GSI and FAIR together with a team of responsible employees took a joint on-site inspection of the SIS100 construction site area.

The group which consisted of representatives of the project management team, the scientific and technical council and the works council could descend to the base in 18 meter depth. There they had a close look at the completed, about 25 meter long segment of shell construction for the accelerator and the supply tunnel which run next to each other. With the finalization of the load-bearing parts, the walls and the ceiling structure, the shell construction completion of the first tunnel segment marks an important milestone within the timeline of the entire FAIR project.

At the on-site inspection, the management board with the Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock emphasized the significance of the constructive interaction of all participants. “Today, thanks to the commitment and the effort of our employees we stand here in the first tunnel segment of the FAIR accelerator SIS100”, says Jörg Blaurock. “Our major common goal is the realization of FAIR. Without the everyday dedication as a team it would not be possible to organize and implement such a mega project.”

At numerous locations at the large construction site the continuous progress in realizing the FAIR project is visible: The advancements are for example continuing in the next tunnel segments of the 1100 meter accelerator ring. The concrete pouring work for ground slabs, the walls and the ceiling structure are under way, while in further sections the casings and reinforcements are installed. Also, the construction works for the transfer building are significantly advanced. The transfer building is another crucial building for FAIR that will house the central hub for guiding the facility’s beam. For the experiment sites of FAIR the structural course is set, too, for example the excavation pit of the CBM experiment takes distinct shape. (LW / BP)

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news-3415 Wed, 24 Apr 2019 10:09:00 +0200 STRONG-2020: the new European project at the forefront of strong interaction studies https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////strong_2020_neues_eu_projekt_fuer_die_untersuchung_der_starken_wechselwirkung0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c5b27d85ad36e4d9d4312a7014231f4e The EU project STRONG-2020 with participation of GSI and FAIR has been approved by the EU commission and is planned to start in summer 2019. One aim of STRONG-2020 is to promote the access to the important large research infrastructures in Europe to study the properties of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions and to transfer the resulting technical progress of the experiments into new applications. Open questions of the strong interaction will be addressed on theoretical and... The EU project STRONG-2020 with participation of GSI and FAIR has been approved by the EU commission and is planned to start in summer 2019. One aim of STRONG-2020 is to promote the access to the important large research infrastructures in Europe to study the properties of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions and to transfer the resulting technical progress of the experiments into new applications. Open questions of the strong interaction will be addressed on theoretical and experimental level. In total 10 Million Euro will finance the project involving 44 participating institutions. GSI will use a part of the raised funds to enable more external scientists to do experiments at GSI in the context of FAIR Phase 0.

The theoretical and experimental studies of the strong interaction, a cornerstone of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, is the aim of the research of an active community of about 2500 researchers in Europe.  The list of open questions at the frontier of our present knowledge in this field is rich, and include a full understanding of: the tridimensional structure of the proton; the spectroscopy of hadrons and their exotic states; the properties of the hot and dense quark-gluon plasma; precision studies of the SM. These research topics are experimentally studied mostly by particle collisions at low (GeV range) and high (up to 14 TeV) energies, which require continuous developments in state-of-the-art detectors, data acquisition systems, beams and targets, as well as in the underlying theory.

The STRONG-2020 project, a European Integrating Activity for Advanced Community, recently approved by the European Community within the Horizon-2020 – Research and Innovation Framework Programme, is a structured enterprise to address the open questions in the strong interaction studies in theory and experiment, building upon and going beyond the previous Hadron Physics HP, HP2 and HP3 projects in the framework programmes of FP6 and FP7.

STRONG-2020, strongly supported by NuPECC (the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee), brings together many of the European leading research groups and infrastructures presently involved in the forefront research in strong interaction. It provides transnational access to six world-class research infrastructures in Europe, which complement each other in particle beams characteristics (COSY, MAMI, LNF-INFN, ELSA, GSI, CERN) and virtual access to open-source codes and automated/simulation tools. STRONG-2020 fosters the synergy between theoreticians and experimentalists, supporting the activities of the European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT*, Trento).

The STRONG-2020 Consortium includes 44 participant institutions, among which are GSI and FAIR, embracing 14 EU Member States, one International EU Interest Organization (CERN) and one EU candidate country (Montenegro). Together with host institutions of other 21 countries, participating in the activities without EU benefits, STRONG-2020 involves research in 36 countries. The project  is structured in 32 Work Packages (WP):  Project Management and Coordination, Dissemination and Communication, 7 Transnational Access Activities, 2 Virtual Access Activities, 7 Netwoking Activities and 14 Joint Research Activities.

The STRONG-2020 results will have a significant impact in the study of the strong interaction and the SM. The project will also contribute to fundamental research for physics beyond SM, impacting in other scientific sectors, such as astrophysics and theories of strongly coupled complex systems in condensed matter. The tools and methodologies for the new-cutting-edge experiments within STRONG-2020 will provide upgrades to the European Research Infrastructures, enhancing their competitiveness. The developed technologies will also impact in medicine (diagnostic tools, cancer treatment) and industry (line-scan cameras, 3D-magnets technology) and may also lead to advances in computing/machine learning.

STRONG-2020 will promote training and education activities, including students and postdocs, which will bring qualified personnel to the job market, as well as dissemination activities at current state of the art in science communication. (LW)

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news-3417 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 09:19:04 +0200 Rector of Heidelberg University visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////besuch_rektor_eitel0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=db49103d498926404aa187657b98b934 The head of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Rector Professor Bernhard Eitel, used a visit to FAIR and GSI to gain an insight into the ongoing construction work of FAIR and the existing accelerator facility and experiments of GSI. He was accompanied by Professor Hans-Christian Schultz-Coulon, Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy. The head of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Rector Professor Bernhard Eitel, used a visit to FAIR and GSI to gain an insight into the ongoing construction work of FAIR and the existing accelerator facility and experiments of GSI. He was accompanied by Professor Hans-Christian Schultz-Coulon, Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy.

After the welcome, Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, accompanied the two guests on a tour of the FAIR construction site, focusing in particular on the progress of the tunnel construction work for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 and for the experiment on compressed nuclear matter CBM.

In a subsequent tour of the existing facility, Professor Norbert Herrmann, who teaches at the Heidelberg University and is spokesperson of the CBM collaboration, explained the large-scale detector HADES and the preparatory setup of miniCBM at GSI. Professor Silvia Masciocchi, also from Heidelberg University and head of the research department ALICE at GSI, gave an insight into the current tasks of the measurement setup located at the European research center CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, in which GSI plays an important role. Professors Yury Litvinov, Heidelberg University, and Thomas Stöhlker, Deputy Research Director of FAIR/GSI, presented the storage rings ESR and CRYRING as well as the experiments in atomic physics. Professor Christina Trautmann, head of the Materials Research department, and Dr. Ulrich Weber and Dr. Walter Tinganelli, group leaders within the Biophysics research department, informed the guests about the efforts of the two disciplines.

After the tour, the rector and dean met with the management and the research representatives for a joint discussion in order to explore further opportunities for cooperation. GSI/FAIR and the of University have been linked in their research work since the foundation of GSI 50 years ago and work closely together through various projects and joint professorships/department heads. (cp)

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news-3413 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 10:13:11 +0200 Prestigious Stern-Gerlach Medal goes to Peter Braun-Munzinger and Johanna Stachel https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////stern_gerlach_medaille0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=52a1c3d6ee4df393019b387c76c4b314 Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, the Scientific Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, and Professor Johanna Stachel from Heidelberg University have been jointly awarded the prestigious Stern-Gerlach Medal by the German Physical Society (DPG). Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, the Scientific Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, and Professor Johanna Stachel from Heidelberg University have been jointly awarded the prestigious Stern-Gerlach Medal by the German Physical Society (DPG). The award comes in recognition of their outstanding role in the construction and operation of the central detectors for the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and of their outstanding contribution to the interpretation of heavy-ion collisions and the understanding of the phase structure of matter under extreme conditions. The award was presented at the DPG annual conference, in Rostock.

The nuclear physicist Peter Braun-Munzinger is 72 years old. His work focuses primarily on ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and the resulting quark-gluon plasma. In the period from 1996 to 2011, he was head of the ALICE department at GSI and also held a chair at TU Darmstadt.  From the very earliest days of the project, GSI has played a leading role in the construction of ALICE — one of the largest experiments at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research — and in shaping the associated scientific program of research. The prime purpose of ALICE is to investigate the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that existed in the first few fractions of a second after the Big Bang.

Professor Braun-Munzinger studied physics at Heidelberg University, where he was awarded a doctorate summa cum laude. As a doctoral candidate, he held a scholarship of the Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes, following which he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. In 1976, Braun-Munzinger joined the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where he became a full professor in 1982. After his return to Germany, he served as project manager for the time projection chamber of the ALICE experiment at CERN from 1998 until 2010. He was also chair of the collaboration board of ALICE from 2011 to 2016 and Helmholtz professor at GSI from 2011 to 2014. He has held an honorary chair at Heidelberg University since 2014.

In the periods from 1984 to 1987 and 2000 to 2002, Braun-Munzinger was an editor of Physical Review Letters. Published by the American Physical Society, this is one of the world’s oldest and most renowned academic journals in the field of physics. Braun-Munzinger’s scientific work has attracted numerous awards. In 1994, for example, he was made a fellow of the American Physical Society, and in 2011 a member of the Academia Europaea. In 2014, he was awarded the Lise Meitner Prize and has now, most recently, been awarded the Stern Gerlach Medal for 2019.

Professor Johanna Stachel is likewise linked to GSI via the ALICE experiment. The 64-year-old nuclear and particle physicist is the first woman to receive the Stern Gerlach Medal. Stachel studied chemistry and physics at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, where she was awarded a doctorate summa cum laude. Her work focuses on understanding collisions of atomic nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies.  She teaches at Heidelberg University. At CERN in Geneva, she is involved in experiments with the Large Hadron Collider to investigate the quark-gluon plasma and heads the transition radiation detector project at ALICE. She is also spokesperson for the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research’s ALICE research program. From 2012 to 2014, she was President of the DPG. Her work has likewise attracted numerous honors and awards. For example, she is a member of the Leopoldina German National Academy of Sciences and has been awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany and also the Lise Meitner Prize.

Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, expressed his delight at the latest honor for Braun-Munzinger and Stachel. “They both have made outstanding contributions to the physics of Heavy Ion collisions,” said Giubellino, who until 2016 was spokesperson for the ALICE experiment. “And I’m very happy that GSI is able to benefit from the great expertise of Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, as Scientific Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI. His work makes a fundamental contribution to the discovery and understanding of new aspects of extreme matter. Furthermore, his scientific work is of enormous importance for the scientific program of the future FAIR facility.”

The Stern Gerlach Medal is the DPG’s highest award for outstanding achievements in the field of experimental physics. It is awarded annually and consists of a handwritten parchment certificate and a gold medal with engravings of the two physicists Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, who also gave their name to the Stern-Gerlach experiment, a fundamental experiment in physics. (BP)

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news-3411 Fri, 12 Apr 2019 11:08:23 +0200 High-tech for FAIR: GSI and CERN jointly test components https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////hightech_fuer_fair_gsi_und_cern_testen_gemeinsam_komponenten0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=9e1782c49bb5663a1592984fdcc1ebd3 With the focus on producing the highest quality equipment, the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Switzerland and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt work closely together on testing accelerator magnets. To this purpose, they have convenated a cooperation agreement, under which the test operation has started. The first magnet has been delivered to CERN and will be subjected to detailed quality tests. With the focus on producing the highest quality equipment, the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Switzerland and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt work closely together on testing accelerator magnets. To this purpose, they have convenated a cooperation agreement, under which the test operation has started. The first magnet has been delivered to CERN and will be subjected to detailed quality tests both for the operational parameters and the magnetic field quality. The magnet is the first-of-series for the future accelerator center FAIR currently under construction at GSI.

The cooperation between CERN and GSI provides for the testing of magnets weighing more than 50 tons and to qualify them for operation in the superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS), which is an important part of the FAIR facility. Precise production of the high-tech components for FAIR isn’t the only decisive step; the testing and quality assurance of the individual parts and magnets is also crucial.

As part of the cooperation, the partners have created a test facility containing three magnet test benches at CERN, where the first tests are starting now. First, the facility will allow for intense endurance tests of the so-called multiplets, which are superconducting magnet units with corrective lenses. Moreover, it will be examined if the magnets behave flawlessly in accordance with high quality standards during operation. The multiplets, each up to seven meters long, will later be used in FAIR's Super-FRS for beam focusing in order to achieve a high-precision particle beam.

The Super-FRS of the future FAIR accelerator center is an important component of the entire facility with great potential for scientific discovery: This part of the accelerator complex will be used for experiments on the fundamental structure of extremely rare exotic nuclei. For these experiments, ions of the heaviest elements will be shot at a target, where they will shatter upon impact. The resulting fragments will include exotic nuclei that the Super-FRS can separate and supply for further experiments. With the new separator, nuclei up to uranium can be produced at relativistic energies and can be separated into pure isotopes. Because this entire process lasts for only a few hundred nanoseconds, the Super-FRS provides researchers access to very short-lived nuclei.

The multiplets, which were manufactured in La Spezia, Italy, as well as the subsequent testing procedure are an important in-kind contribution from GSI to the FAIR project. GSI is the German shareholder of the international FAIR GmbH. All of the superconducting magnets required for the Super-FRS will be tested in alternating sequence in the new test facility at CERN. This includes both the total of 32 multiplet units and 24 superconducting dipole magnets that will be needed for deflecting the particle beam. (BP)

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news-3409 Thu, 11 Apr 2019 09:36:38 +0200 Masterclass 2019 — High-school students on a hunt for particles https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////masterclass_20190.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c3fcd3c3217f0b8ddf8c82e57b7f4af3 In April 2019 the 9th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 17 high-school students were invited to become scientists for a day and to analyze data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific program of ALICE from the beginning. In April 2019 the 9th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 17 high-school students were invited to become scientists for a day and to analyze data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific program of ALICE from the beginning.

The young people were asked to analyze and interpret data of the ALICE experiment. Under professional supervision of scientists they autonomously analyzed recent data recorded in proton-proton and lead collisions. In the lead collisions a so-called quark-gluon plasma is generated — a state of matter which existed in the universe shortly after the big bang. This plasma undergoes a phase transition back to normal matter in fractions of seconds. The particles produced in the process can give insight into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

Two introductory lectures on the quark gluon plasma, held by Masterclass organizer Dr. Ralf Averbeck, and the investigation of heavy ion collisions at the ALICE experiment, held by Michael Habib, put the students in the mood for the analysis. Subsequently, they visited the large-scale experiment HADES, one of the current experiments at the GSI accelerator facility that will also become a part of the future FAIR accelerator. Afterwards they started the data analysis.

The basic idea of the program is to allow the students to work in the same fashion as the scientists. This includes having a videoconference at the end of the day. In a conference connection with groups from the universities in Frankfurt and Münster, as well as CERN they presented and discussed their results.

This year 225 universities and research institutes from 55 countries participate in the International Masterclasses. They are organized by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG). All events in Germany are held in cooperation with the "Netzwerk Teilchenwelt", of which GSI is a member. The nationwide network committed to the communication of particle physics to youngsters and teachers aims to make particle physics accessible to a broader public.

ALICE is one of the four large international experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is the experiment specifically designed to investigate collisions of heavy nuclei at high energies. Scientists of GSI and of German universities were involved in the development of new detectors and in the scientific program of ALICE from the beginning. The GSI computing center is an inherent part of the computing grid for data analysis of ALICE. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3405 Thu, 04 Apr 2019 14:00:00 +0200 Member of the Bundestag Norbert Altenkamp visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////bundestagsabgeordneter_norbert_altenkamp_zu_besuch_bei_fair_und_gsi0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c102298122b54c07d5fe561756256735 Norbert Altenkamp, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The CDU politician from the Main-Taunus district is a member of the Committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. Important topics during his visit on Thursday 28 March 2019 were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. Norbert Altenkamp, member of the Bundestag, visited GSI and FAIR. The CDU politician from the Main-Taunus district is a member of the Committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. Important topics during his visit on Thursday 28 March 2019 were the progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on campus. He was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock, as well as Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations Department.

The politician and former mayor of the town of Bad Soden am Taunus was able to take a close view on the progress of the mega construction site FAIR during a tour of the construction site, from the continuously progressing shell construction for the SIS100 central ring accelerator to the excavation pit for the CBM experiment, one of the future large-scale experimental caves. Afterwards, Norbert Altenkamp was able to gain insights into the existing research facilities during a guided tour on the GSI and FAIR campus. For example he visited the test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets and the Hades experimental setup. (BP)

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news-3401 Tue, 02 Apr 2019 10:00:00 +0200 Czech Republic joins FAIR as “Aspirant Partner” https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////tschechische_republik_tritt_fair_als_aspirant_partner_bei0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8fe47bb190b92cb6bfb3295daf6e082c It is a significant moment for the FAIR-Project: A new partner comes aboard. The FAIR international laboratory welcomes the Czech Republic as new partner state. The Czech Republic joins FAIR as an “Aspirant Partner”, a new type of participation which the FAIR Council, the shareholders' meeting of FAIR GmbH, has created in 2017 to offer new countries interested in being part of FAIR a progressive path to membership. It is a significant moment for the FAIR-Project: A new partner comes aboard. The FAIR international laboratory welcomes the Czech Republic as new partner state. The Czech Republic joins FAIR as an “Aspirant Partner”, a new type of participation which the FAIR Council, the shareholders' meeting of FAIR GmbH, has created in 2017 to offer new countries interested in being part of FAIR a progressive path to membership.  The FAIR Council decided in December 2018 to recognise the Czech Republic as the first FAIR “Aspirant Partner”. A corresponding agreement has now been concluded between FAIR GmbH and the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the Czech Academy of Sciences and was honoured with a ceremony at the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt.

The contract has been signed by the managing directors of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, Ursula Weyrich and Jörg Blaurock, as well as by Dr. Petr Lukáš, Director of the NPI. The NPI has been delegated by the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport to represent the Czech Republic in FAIR and to coordinate the work of the Czech scientific community contributing to FAIR. The partnership is a first step towards a full membership.

"I am extremely pleased that we can warmly welcome the Czech Republic as our new partner state. The partnership can build on a long-standing, very good working collaboration between Czech research institutions and GSI/FAIR. Researchers from the Czech Republic are already making excellent contributions in a variety of scientific and technical fields at GSI and FAIR“, said Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director at GSI and FAIR.

Czech scientists are involved, for example, in the large detector HADES and in nuclear astrophysics as well in as developments and research for the CBM and PANDA experiments. They are active in all four FAIR research pillars, and intend to also contribute to the construction of components for the FAIR accelerators. The commitment of the Czech scientific community to FAIR is growing rapidly: In 2016, 37 scientists from four scientific institutions in the Czech Republic worked on topics related to the FAIR project, this year it will be more than 60 from six different institutions.

„It is a great pleasure for us to become partner of FAIR with its worldwide unique research opportunities. The new agreement paves the way to a strong long-term collaboration between the Czech research community and FAIR. The membership will further intensify relationships of our scientists with GSI and FAIR and create opportunities for an even more fruitful cooperation in areas such as research, education and innovation“, said NPI director Dr. Petr Lukáš.

When signing the agreement, the partners underlined their wish to strengthen sharing of scientific knowledge between the Czech and other European research communities and emphasized the breakthrough value of science to be performed at FAIR.

In addition, the new cooperation once again shows the attractiveness of the FAIR experimental program and the trust of the international research community in the FAIR project. The current signing of the contract has great appeal for encouraging other countries to join the FAIR project with its great scientific and technical significance. (BP)

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news-3403 Fri, 29 Mar 2019 10:38:00 +0100 Girls’Day 2019 record: More than 50 girls explore research and technology at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////girls_day_20190.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=bcacdfc6e133097991c55653f362cdca A total of 57 girls from grades 5 through 9 had the opportunity to find out about the work at FAIR and GSI on Thursday, 28 March 2019. They took advantage of the nation-wide Girls’Day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far. With this number, the organizers broke the previous record of participants. A total of 57 girls from grades 5 through 9 had the opportunity to find out about the work at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the accelerator facility FAIR, currently under construction, in Darmstadt on Thursday, 28 March 2019. They took advantage of the nation-wide Girls’Day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far. With this number, the organizers broke the previous record of participants.

At the beginning of Girls' Day, the participants were welcomed by Dorothee Sommer, Head of Human Resources. "We strive for equality in all areas of our work," explained Sommer. "Equality begins in childhood, where stereotypes can and should be broken early. We strive to inspire the girls to be enthusiastic about research and technology and motivate them to consider a career choice in this area. We would like to see some of them return to us as employees after training or studies."

Following a tour of the particle accelerator and experiment facilities on the research campus, the girls could gain practical experiences in various technical and scientific working areas at workshops, technical laboratories, and research departments. Many departments had prepared for the girls’ visit by creating a special program, and they provided plenty of support for their young visitors. For example, the girls could try metal work in the mechanical workshops, soldered electronics and or produce material samples, so-called targets, for the irradiation at the accelerator. One of the groups was also given a tour of the construction site of the future FAIR particle accelerator, which will be unequaled anywhere else in the world.

At the end of the day, the girls could look back on an exciting experience during which they had achieved many practical results. All groups presented their results in a large plenum discussion. “We built an instrument to measure temperature. It measures in degree Celsius and in Kelvin,” explained one of the participants. “In this room we have 25 degrees Celsius, that equals 298 Kelvin.” Other teams had produced metallic discs, made a magnet float with liquid nitrogen, controlled bikes for their safety equipment or soldered electronic components. One group analyzed LEDs for their properties, another produced samples made of plaster and x-rayed them.

“We can rely on our enthusiastic employees who live and love their research work. They also pass this enthusiasm on to the girls on Girls' Day,” said organizer Carola Pomplun from the PR department, who is also a physicist. “The demand for participation in our institute is very high. Thanks to the great support of my colleagues, we were able to welcome more girls this year than ever before. Our goal is to inspire them to a career in technology and science."

Girls’Day is a day of action all over Germany. On this day, businesses, universities, and other institutions all over Germany open their doors to schoolgirls from grade 5 and above. The girls learn about courses of study and trained professions in the areas of IT, the skilled trades, the natural sciences, and technology — areas in which women have rarely been employed in the past. (cp)

Further information
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news-3407 Fri, 29 Mar 2019 10:00:00 +0100 GET_INvolved Agreement with indian university signed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////get_involved_abkommen_mit_indischer_universitaet_unterzeichnet0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=999cfb4101e8f37536f3ae8e56066a89 Female students and young researchers from Mody University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Lakshmangarh, Rajasthan, India, may soon apply for a scholarship to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. The respective bi-lateral agreement between GSI and MUST - a university exclusively for women – was now signed by GSI and MUST representatives. Female students and young researchers from Mody University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Lakshmangarh, Rajasthan, India, may soon apply for a scholarship to enable them an internship, traineeship or research stay at GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. The respective bi-lateral agreement between GSI and MUST – a university exclusively for women – was now signed by GSI and MUST representatives.

Since 2011, several MUST students have already benefited from educational training and research experience at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) in Darmstadt.

The new GET_INvolved agreement now marks the beginning of a dedicated training programme focused on students and researchers from MUST. The programme will support up to four female students and young researchers per year. They will work within research projects, mostly connected with the new nuclear and particle physics research facility FAIR, which is being constructed in Darmstadt.

MUST is committed to excellence. Founded in 2004, the university seeks to impart knowledge and develop skills in women to become professionals, well versed in modern technology and management practices while imbibing social sensitivity and environmental consciousness for the betterment of self and society. MUST was the first institution which sent students to GSI and FAIR in the frame of a pilot project for the by then new GET_INvolved programme.

Prof. Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, said: ”FAIR will offer exciting research opportunities to the next generation of scientists in the whole world and in particular to India, which is the third largest shareholder of FAIR. We are extremely happy that by inviting MUST, we could gain a collaboration partner who specifically educates and promotes talented women and thus contributes to the development of equality between women and men in our scientific field.

Prof. R. K. Shivpuri, Fellow of the National Academy of Science and Director International Relations at MUST, stated: “MUST is very proud to be part of GET_INvolved Programme. We look forward to benefit from dedicated training and research activates together with GSI and FAIR. Engineering students from MUST will now have more opportunities to be trained at world-class facilities, with forefront technologies in an international environment, and gain a project-oriented mind-set early in their career. We hope this will further advance our efforts to promote young women into research and applied sciences." (mbe)

Further information:

More about GET_INvolved

More about MUST

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news-3399 Mon, 25 Mar 2019 11:00:00 +0100 Researching cosmic radiation: ESA and FAIR establish joint Summer School https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////erforschung_kosmischer_strahlung_esa_und_fair_richten_gemeinsame_summer_school_ein0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=48c2f075ae5fb42c5416459006a1047a It is a new high-quality offer for international young scientists and at the same time a further important step for cosmic radiation research: The European Space Agency (ESA) and the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, will establish a joint Summer School for Radiation Research. It is a new high-quality offer for international young scientists and at the same time a further important step for cosmic radiation research: The European Space Agency (ESA) and the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, will establish a joint Summer School for Radiation Research. The "ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School" has now been initiated by decision of both institutions.

One of the key questions that need to be addressed regarding the future of human spaceflight is how high-energy radiation affects human beings. The detailed investigation of this topic is one of the central tasks to be accomplished in order to provide astronauts with effective protection, but it also contributes to more detailed knowledge about the risks of radiation exposure on earth. Just over a year ago, ESA and FAIR decided to cooperate closely and signed a cooperation agreement on cosmic radiation research. Young researchers can now particularly benefit from this international cooperation: The new Summer School is a direct result of the joint activities of the two partners agreed at the time.

Up to now, the opportunities for students in space radiation research to gain experience and study are limited. This is now going to change. The "ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School" wants to attract the best international young scientists with an attractive offer and thus also sharpen Darmstadt's profile as a space research location. The Summer School will be held at ESA´s European Space Operations Centre ESOC as well as at the GSI/FAIR campus in order to train students in basic heavy ion biophysics for both terrestrial applications (e.g. medical therapies) and space applications (e.g. space radiation detection, monitoring and protection).

Every year in late summer, 15 Ph.D. students and postdocs from various radiation-related disciplines — such as physics, medicine or biology — can come to Darmstadt. The application phase starts each spring. The offer is aimed primarily to young scientists from ESA Member States, but also beyond. The Summer School's top-class scientific program includes lectures from experts in the field, site visits to facilities in Darmstadt and practical training and research opportunities at GSI/FAIR. The participants can commute between the two locations ESOC and GSI/FAIR Campus. During practical training, the students also have the possibility to continue developing on their own experiment ideas, using available beamtime at GSI accelerators in the framework of the „FAIR Phase 0“ user program.

The existing GSI accelerator facility already is the only one in Europe that can generate all of the ion beams that occur in our solar system, which range from the lightest one, hydrogen, to the heaviest, uranium. The research opportunities will be expanded even further by the future FAIR accelerator center. FAIR will enable researchers to conduct experiments with an even wider spectrum of particle energies and intensities, and to simulate the composition of cosmic radiation with a precision that no other accelerator facility will be able to match.

Professor Marco Durante, Director of the GSI Biophysics Department, is looking forward to the new school: “Radiation is the main hurdle toward the human colonisation of the Solar System. We need to train the young students to tackle this problem. The Biophysics Department is working with ESA since many years to simulate cosmic rays on Earth using our accelerator and to study the effects and the possible countermeasures, such as shielding. The students will gain a tremendous expertise in particle radiation physics and biology. They will be the future leaders in the field, hopefully finding strategies to allow a safe space exploration”.

ESA Interagency Coordinator Thomas Reiter also expects that research on cosmic radiation will benefit from the Summer School and emphasizes: "The Summer School will highlight ESA’s commitment to stimulate the pursuit of education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines as well as to generate expertise relevant to human spaceflight activities. The ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School will be unique in the world and is expected to attract large attention from the international research community”. (BP)

More information

Website about ESA-FAIR Radiation Summer School

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news-3397 Tue, 19 Mar 2019 10:54:06 +0100 Scholarship Programme: GET_INvolved Agreement with SUT Thailand concluded https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////stipendienprogramm_get_involved_abkommen_mit_technischer_universitaet_suranari_unterzeichnet0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=10f54295bbf63ef6dcd335ea87701045 Students and young researchers from SUT Thailand may soon profit from a new GET_INvolved programme, which will award scholarships to perform internships, traineeships and research experience at GSI and FAIR. Representatives of GSI and Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) in Thailand signed the respective bilateral agreement. Students and young researchers from SUT Thailand may soon profit from a new GET_INvolved programme, which will award scholarships to perform internships, traineeships and research experience at GSI and FAIR. Representatives of GSI and Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) in Thailand signed the respective bilateral agreement.

The programme aims in creating synergies between the partner institutes GSI and SUT by allowing mobility opportunities for students and young researchers and contribute to the FAIR project in research and development. Moreover, the programme will help building capacities for the research groups that are already collaborating within the framework of the FAIR project.

Within the framework of the GET_INvolved Programme, host laboratory GSI will provide an opportunity to these students with an internship and training programme and research experience opportunities for early-stage researchers to work in all areas of the laboratory on technical or scientific projects related to research at GSI and FAIR. Joint technical and research projects amidst common interests will be identified and proffered to the students and researchers of SUT Thailand.

Applications will be open to students/researchers enrolled in university’s higher education programme or in a Ph.D. programme. For an internship, students usually will stay up to six months, whereas a sandwich Ph.D.-stay for research experience may last one year.

The partner institute SUT was founded in 1990 as the first public, autonomous university in Thailand. It is empowered to govern its own overall administration, receiving regular budget allocations from the government. Over 15,000 students attend now the university, which is organized around seven academic institutes specializing in science, engineering, medicine, nursing, agricultural technology, social technology and dentistry. Thanks to its glowing reputation for education and research, SUT was granted National Research University status by the Thai Government in 2010. The Thailand Research Fund has evaluated the School of Physics, SUT as Excellent since 2008. (mbe)

Further Information:

More about GET_INvolved

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news-3393 Tue, 12 Mar 2019 09:30:00 +0100 Investigating the formation of elements in the universe ― Slow ion beams at the GSI experimental storage ring https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////protoneneinfang0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b15ee56ed058ebcf3e30813a059d10e0 Chemical elements are produced in the cosmos, e.g. in stellar explosions or on the surface of neutron stars. A key process in the formation of elements is the capture of hydrogen nuclei (protons), which transforms one element of the periodic table into another element. This process takes place at extreme temperatures – albeit at relatively low energies of the particles involved. An international research team has now succeeded in studying proton capture at the GSI experimental storage ring. Chemical elements are produced in the cosmos, e.g. in stellar explosions or on the surface of neutron stars. A key process in the formation of elements is the capture of hydrogen nuclei (protons), which transforms one element of the periodic table into another element. This process takes place at extreme temperatures – albeit at relatively low energies of the particles involved. An international research team has now succeeded in studying proton capture at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The aim was to more precisely determine the probability of proton capture occuring in astrophysical scenarios. The results were published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

In the experiment, the researchers first brought the noble gas xenon to high speeds using the GSI accelerator in order to strip off all the electrons of the atomic shell. The leftover atomic nuclei were then fed into the experimental storage ring ESR and slowed down. The xenon nuclei were then induced to interact with hydrogen nuclei at a material sample known as the gas target, which is built into the ring. This resulted in reactions, in which xenon nuclei captured a proton and were transformed into the heavier element caesium – a process that is also expected in astrophysical scenarios.

In the investigation of these phenomena, the researchers are faced by two challenges, as Dr. Jan Glorius from the GSI Atomic Physics research department explains: "The energy interval, in which the reactions are most likely to occur under astrophysical conditions, is known as the Gamow window. Within the Gamow window, the atomic nuclei possess relatively low energies of the order of several megaelectronvolts or less. In other words: they are rather slow and thus difficult to handle in the intensity required. Furthermore, the cross-section, i.e. the probability of an interaction of both partners involved, dramatically decreases with the energy. Until now, it has been hardly possible to create suitable conditions for such reactions in the laboratory. These are the two main reasons for the fact that experimental data in this area – particularly involving heavy nuclei – has been extremely rare."

"For such an experiment a powerful accelerator system, as the chain of linear accelerator UNILAC and ring accelerator SIS at GSI, is required just to provide the heavy reaction partner as a particle beam. Subsequently, a suitable storage ring has to be available to slow down the beam to the energies of the Gamow window, to permanently store it and to facilitate the reaction with the light partner", states Professor Yuri Litvinov, head of the substantially involved ASTRUm research project at GSI, which is funded by the European Union. "In the case of the experiment conducted, we succeeded in demonstrating that the ESR storage ring — although in fact designed for higher energies — can be used for this purpose." In particular, an extremely good vacuum is necessary in the system. Otherwise, the low energy ions would capture electrons from the residual gas in the storage ring at a high rate and thereby would be lost for the experiment.

The scientists have even gone a step further and make use of this actually undesired effect. Interactions also occur between the xenon nuclei and electrons of the hydrogen gas in the target, and these can be identified from the ensuing X-ray radiation. As this atomic process is not only very dominant but also extremely well understood, it is possible to derive from it the number of potential xenon reaction partners that were available for proton capture. Their different, mass-dependent deflection in the magnetic field of the storage ring enables the newly created caesium nuclei behind the target to be separated from the remaining xenon nuclei and to be measured. From the ratio of potential reaction partners and actual reactions, it is possible to determine the probability of proton capture.

"In addition to improving the experimental technique to attain the lower energies of the heavy collision partner, the experiment also provides important restrictions of the hitherto only theoretically predicted reaction rates used to model the formation of elements", states René Reifarth, Professor of Experimental Astrophysics at the Goethe University in Frankfurt and spokesperson of the experiment. "This experiment makes a decisive contribution to furthering our understanding of nucleosynthesis in the cosmos."

As a result of the success of the experiment, further studies of similar reactions are planned in the coming experiment periods at the ESR. In order to better reproduce the conditions existing in astrophysical scenarios, even unstable elements could be created, then sorted out using the GSI fragment separator and fed into the storage ring. A further sign of progress in this research program is the imminent commissioning of the dedicated low-energy storage ring CRYRING, part of the future international particle accelerator FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently under construction at GSI. It is particularly suitable for making ion beams available at low energies.

The experiments were conducted within the framework of the SPARC research collaboration (Stored Particles Atomic Physics Research Collaboration), which is part of the FAIR research programme. Equipment used in this project was funded by the Collaborative Research Network of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3395 Mon, 11 Mar 2019 09:06:00 +0100 The FAIR construction site in time lapse https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////die_fair_baustelle_im_zeitraffer0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c65cfd137b3b2374baef9a4740c3c795 Since the groundbreaking in July 2017 a lot has been going on at the FAIR construction site. With a new filming technique a drone time lapse video has been produced that shows the progress. Since the groundbreaking in July 2017 a lot has been going on at the FAIR construction site. With a new filming technique a drone time lapse video has been produced that shows the progress.

With a new technique an aerial time-lapse video was shot which shows the development of a complete year: For this so-called Longterm Dronelapse the same routes across the construction site were flown with a drone in regular intervals. The recorded motion time lapse videos have now been combined to one single video.

Several videos that were taken within one year could be super-imposed thanks to GPS support so that the progress of the construction activities is clearly visible. (LW)

Video auf YouTube

FAIR Construction Site Time Lapse - Lonterm Dronelapse

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news-3391 Fri, 08 Mar 2019 08:30:00 +0100 GET_INvolved Agreement with South Africa signed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////get_involved_abkommen_mit_suedafrika_unterzeichnet0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=dd0e1485471438e6ac036d0d314ff65a South African students may now profit from the new GET_INvolved programme which will award scholarships to perform internships and research experience at GSI and FAIR. The respective tri-lateral agreement was now signed by GSI, FAIR and iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS, Cape Town) representatives. South African students may now profit from the new GET_INvolved programme which will award scholarships to perform internships and research experience at GSI and FAIR. The respective tri-lateral agreement was now signed by GSI, FAIR and iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS, Cape Town) representatives.

Early-stage researchers from South Africa may soon apply for a scholarship to enable them a research stay of three to six months at GSI/FAIR Campus. The students will work within research projects, mostly connected with the new accelerator facility FAIR, which is being constructed in Darmstadt. In addition, the students will have the opportunity to participate into lectures, symposia and scientific activities on the common campus of GSI and FAIR.

Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, was very pleased about the agreement: “This year, we will celebrate 50 years of our GSI laboratory, which is proud to work in connection with the scientific community all over the world. With our emerging Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, we are building the foundation for the scientific future in our field, and we seek to inspire young, talented students and scientists from all countries to form the next generation of scientists that will use the exceptional research opportunities FAIR will offer.“

The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) in South Africa is a multidisciplinary research facility that is based on the development, operation and use of particle accelerators and related research equipment. It is sustained by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). The facilities provide opportunities for research in subatomic physics, material research, radiobiology, and the research and development of unique radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and industrial applications. In November 2018, the South African Ministry, iThemba LABS and FAIR decided to develop a plan for closer collaboration.  

Dr. Clifford Nxomani, Deputy CEO of the South African National Research Foundation, added about the GET_INvolved Agreement: “International collaborations are a key element of promoting science in South Africa. We therefore welcome that talented young researchers now have the opportunity to get trained at one of the top labs in the world. This is an important step towards a closer collaboration of iThemba LABS with the future FAIR facility.”

Dr. Faiҫal Azaiez, Director of iThemba LABS, pointed out: “The education of well-trained scientists is a central mission of iThemba LABS. I am very glad that the agreement with GSI and FAIR allows our young students to get involved with the exciting science at one of the premier accelerator laboratories in the world.“ (mbe)

Further information:

More about GET_INvolved

More about iThemba LABS

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news-3389 Tue, 05 Mar 2019 10:10:48 +0100 FAIR GENCO Award for Dr. Moritz Pascal Reiter https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_genco_nachwuchspreis_fuer_dr_moritz_pascal_reiter0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=09f3c04b8c1e1eff273a0a7603116fc2 This year, Dr. Moritz Pascal Reiter from the II. Physikalisches Institut of the Justus Liebig University in Gießen received the FAIR GENCO Award for young scientists. The award is sponsored by the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. The bestowal by GENCO president Professor Christoph Scheidenberger and vice-president Professor Wolfram Korten took place in February in a special colloquium in the framework of the yearly GENCO meeting at FAIR and GSI. This year, Dr. Moritz Pascal Reiter from the II. Physikalisches Institut of the Justus Liebig University in Gießen received the FAIR GENCO Award for young scientists. The award is sponsored by the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. The bestowal by GENCO president Professor Christoph Scheidenberger and vice-president Professor Wolfram Korten took place in February in a special colloquium in the framework of the yearly GENCO meeting at FAIR and GSI. Every year, the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) presents its Young Scientist Award to a young researcher at the beginning of their scientific career. The international GENCO jury, composed of seven renowned nuclear scientists, elects the winner in a competitive procedure, where several candidates, working in theory or experiment, are evaluated. Furthermore two scientists were honored with a GENCO Membership Award.

Dr. Moritz Pascal Reiter received the FAIR GENCO Award for his impressive research achievements in the areas of nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure physics. He used a  multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which he implemented at the TITAN experiment at the Canadian research facility TRIUMF in Vancouver. It is a game-changer, opening-up multiple new venues for exciting mass measurements, especially on very short-lived nuclei. Already in the first two years of operation, about 200 isotopes could be studied.

The two scientists assigned with the GENCO Membership Award are:

  • Professor Dolores Cortina-Gil for her significant involvement in pioneering reaction experiments with relativistic radioactive beams to pin down single particle structure information of exotic nuclei from the study of weakly and deeply bound nucleons and for her exceptional contributions to the realization of the CALIFA detector.
  • Professor Andrey Popeko for his essential contributions to the discovery of the elements darmstadtium, roentgenium, and copernicium at the SHIP detector of GSI/FAIR, the development of a long-term strategy for superheavy element research, for the design of a second-generation in-flight separators for the superheavy element factory in Dubna, and many important findings on nuclear structure and chemical properties of superheavy elements. (cp)
Further information:
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news-3387 Mon, 25 Feb 2019 09:51:41 +0100 A Field of Allure and Romance — Criteria for the Addition of Superheavy Chemical Elements to the Periodic Table https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////ein_feld_voller_reiz_und_romantik_kriterien_zur_aufnahme_superschwerer_chemischer_elemente_in_das_pe.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5f4baf6e4cebca54e1b28a63d64e66ce When exactly does a newly created element really exist? What requirements must be fulfilled for its measurement to be recognized and for the element to be added to the periodic table of chemical elements? And in the case of several claims, to whom is the discovery attributed, and thus the right to name it? In order to answer these questions, the criteria for element discovery have been revised and published in a preliminary report. When exactly does a newly created element really exist? What requirements must be fulfilled for its measurement to be recognized and for the element to be added to the periodic table of chemical elements? And in the case of several claims, to whom is the discovery attributed, and thus the right to name it? In order to answer these questions in a field of rapidly advancing technology and friendly international competition, the criteria for element discovery have been revised and published in a preliminary report. This means that specified standards exist now for scientists in search of new heavy elements that their measurements and publications have to meet. The report provides assistance in a field of research that Professor Sigurd Hofmann, co-author, element discoverer and longtime head of the search for heavy elements at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, describes as a "field of allure and romance".

“The terms ‘allure’ and ‘romance’ are not what one would expect in such a technical field," explains Hofmann, who is no longer an active scientist, but continues to support the research community with great enthusiasm in a voluntary capacity. "Already the authors of this report's predecessor, which was published back in 1991, described an element discovery as an event of particular importance. It cannot be compared with discovering a comet or a new kind of beetle as numerous of those findings can still be expected in the future. With elements, however, we know that there can be only a limited number. What we don't know is how many there will be. That makes an element discovery something special, and nothing has changed about that to this day." In this field, Hofmann is an expert, as he belongs to the discoverers of a total of six elements with atomic numbers 107 to 112 which were produced at GSI in Darmstadt and, among others, named after the state of Hesse and the city.

The report gives a definition of exactly what a new element is, and when a discovery is to be classified as such. The decisive criterion here is the proof that the element has a different number of protons in the nucleus than other previously known nuclides. As the newly generated heavy elements are usually unstable, the obvious — though not the only — way is to measure the element's decay chain which ends in known nuclides. Here the new element is directly connected with nuclei that have previously been identified in a so-called genetic relationship.

It is highly probable that the researchers will also produce future elements with the aid of fusion experiments at particle accelerators, as was in fact the case with the latest additions to the periodic table. The technical evidence can be brought using physical or chemical methods. These include, for example, separators, precision mass measurements or measurements of the characteristic x-ray radiation specific to an element. The boundary conditions for a discovery are described in detail in the report. Notes on the systematics of the measurements and measurement errors are also considered.

In case of more than one legitimate claim to the discovery of a new element, according to the criteria, it is crucial who was the first to hand in a contribution on their find to a recognized scientific journal. In other words, it is neither the date of production of the element nor the time of publication of the article that is decisive, but rather the date of submission. Additional assessment of the scientific content may be necessary so that even results published at a later point can potentially lead to a co-discovery.

Two international institutions are responsible for the recognition of an element: The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and Physics (IUPAP). Experts evaluate the scientific publications on new elements on the basis of the defined criteria. They grant the right of discovery, which goes hand in hand with permission to name the new element within the framework of the specified naming criteria. An element may only be named after an existing location, a substance property, a mythical term or a scientist.

At present, however, IUPAC and IUPAP are in stand-by position in this respect. Currently all artificially produced elements up to element 118 have been recognized and named. The research community must be patient until a new element is produced or discovered in order to apply the newly established criteria for the first time. "It is very likely that the next elements will be 119 and 120. They are next in line in the periodic table and thus the most likely to be produced," says Hofmann. "We are all curious to see when this will happen." (cp)

Weitere Informationen:

Provisional report "On the discovery of new elements" in the scientific journal Pure and Applied Chemistry

Article about criteria for new elements in the scientific journal Chemistry International (Englisch)

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news-3383 Fri, 22 Feb 2019 10:00:00 +0100 Finger prints of heavy elements in neutron star collisions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fingerabdruecke_von_schweren_elementen_in_neutronensternkollisionen0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8fc7ba72b588986e09c53e7fc24370ce Do some of the heaviest elements in our universe come from the collision of neutron stars? The answer may be gained from how the luminosity of such an event evolves over several weeks. A group of scientists from GSI and FAIR, TU Darmstadt, the National Academy of Sciences of Taiwan and Columbia University, USA, recently published the respective results in the journal Physical Review Letters. Do some of the heaviest elements in our universe come from the collision of neutron stars? The answer may be gained from how the luminosity of such an event evolves over several weeks. A group of scientists from GSI and FAIR, TU Darmstadt, the National Academy of Sciences of Taiwan and Columbia University, USA, recently published the respective results in the journal Physical Review Letters.

The first observation of a neutron star collision in 2017, which was detected by gravitational wave detectors, caused a sensation also in the field of nuclear physics. As predicted by GSI scientists, there were clear indications that heavy atomic nuclei would be produced in these extreme cosmic events. But exactly which nuclei are produced in neutron star collisions is still unclear.

"The luminosity of the neutron star collision reveals which elements are formed during this event," says GSI scientist Professor Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo, who contributed substantially to this publication and also was involved in the predictions on nuclei synthesis in neutron star collisions. "At the event in 2017 we couldn’t observe this as the neutron star collision disappeared behind the sun. That’s why we couldn’t fully observe the light emissions at a crucial stage.” But the next observations of neutron star collisions are expected soon. In order to be able to analyze them, Martínez-Pinedo and his colleagues have made predictions about how the luminosity of the neutron star collision will evolve, depending on which nuclear-physical processes take place during the fusion and which heavy elements are produced.

About one month after the event, there are only about 30 different nuclei left to influence the luminosity, because nuclei with short lifetimes already decayed. Some heavy isotopes dominate the energy output and thus influence the intensity and duration of luminosity, for example Californium-254, followed by Radium-223, Actinium, and lastly, Radium-225. “When telescopes record the next neutron star collision in high resolution, thanks to our model we can probably conclude from the luminosity changes over weeks which heavy elements have been formed and how the nuclear synthesis process unfolds," says Martínez-Pinedo.

The models that are used to predict luminosity and duration contain many nuclear properties that are not yet fully understood. This is where research at the FAIR accelerator facility, which is currently under construction, comes into play. The experiments of the FAIR collaboration NUSTAR are mainly aimed at generating and investigating the heavy nuclei produced by neutron star collisions or supernovae. At FAIR, this can be done in the laboratory with the help of particle accelerators. "With FAIR, we will be able to explore the universe in the laboratory," says Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Research Director of GSI and FAIR. "FAIR will be a unique facility worldwide, allowing researchers to bring the diversity of the universe into the lab to investigate fundamental questions such as the origin of chemical elements in the universe.” (LW)

More information

Original publication: Fingerprints of Heavy-Element Nucleosynthesis in the Late-Time Lightcurves of Kilonovae

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news-3385 Wed, 20 Feb 2019 09:08:10 +0100 Chemistry Olympians visit FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////chemieolympioniken_zu_gast_bei_fair_und_gsi0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5cb1df9c5431533f2c4e82a86002ed95 In the International Year of the Periodic System, 20 school students who are enthusiastic about the exciting world of chemistry visited the FAIR and GSI facilities. These are the participants of the Chemistry Olympiad from Hesse and Thuringia with their tutors. In the International Year of the Periodic System, 20 school students who are enthusiastic about the exciting world of chemistry visited the FAIR and GSI facilities. These are the participants of the Chemistry Olympiad from Hesse and Thuringia with their tutors. After an introductory talk, the group gained insight into the existing accelerators and experiments and the current GSI scientific research projects in a guided tour, as well as an overview of the construction of the future international accelerator center FAIR. Thomas Neff from GSI's Theory department accompanied the program for in-depth scientific discussions on current research. About 25 years ago he was also a member of the German team at the Chemistry Olympiad.

The visit took place within the scope of a regional seminar in Darmstadt lasting several days, for which the participants qualified by reaching the second stage of a four-stage selection process for the International Chemistry Olympiad IChO. GSI has been part of the program since last year, and is embedded in the seminar as a regular component on account of the positive feedback it has received. (JL)
 

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news-3379 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 08:38:00 +0100 Merging neutron stars — How cosmic events give insight into fundamental properties of matter https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////verschmelzende_neutronensterne0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=87a2e8ec2ccf16425a727508bafdc9d9 The option to measure the gravitational waves of two merging neutron stars has offered the chance to answer some of the fundamental questions about the structure of matter. At the extremely high temperatures and densities in the merger scientists conjecture a phase-transition where neutrons dissolve into their constituents: quarks and gluons. In the current issue of Physical Review Letters, two international research groups report on their calculations of what the signature of such a phase transition in a The option to measure the gravitational waves of two merging neutron stars has offered the chance  to answer some of the fundamental questions about the structure of matter. At the extremely high temperatures and densities in the merger scientists conjecture a phase-transition where neutrons dissolve into their constituents: quarks and gluons. In the current issue of Physical Review Letters, two international research groups report on their calculations of what the signature of such a phase transition in a gravitational wave would look like.

Quarks, the smallest building-blocks of matter, never appear alone in nature. They are always tightly bound inside the protons and neutrons. However, neutron stars, weighing as much as the Sun, but being just the size of a city like Frankfurt, possess a core so dense that a transition from neutron matter to quark matter may occur. Physicists refer to this process as a phase transition, similar to the liquid-vapor transition in water. In particular, such a phase transition is in principle possible when merging neutron stars form a very massive meta-stable object with densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and with temperatures 10,000 times higher than in the Sun's core.

The measurement of gravitational waves emitted by merging neutron stars could serve as a messenger of possible phase transitions in outer space. The phase transition should leave a characteristic signature in the gravitational-wave signal. The research groups from Frankfurt, Darmstadt and Ohio (Goethe University/FIAS/GSI/Kent University) as well as from Darmstadt and Wroclaw (GSI/Wroclaw University) used modern supercomputers to calculate what this signature could look like. For this purpose, they used different theoretical models of the phase transition.

In case a phase transition takes place more after the actual merger, small amounts of quarks will gradually appear throughout the merged object. “With aid of the Einstein equations, we were able to show for the first time that this subtle change in the structure will produce a deviation in the gravitational-wave signal until the newly formed massive neutron star collapses under its own weight to form a black hole,” explains Luciano Rezzolla, who is a professor for theoretical astrophysics at the Goethe University.

In the computer models of Dr. Andreas Bauswein from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt a phase transition already happens directly after the merger — a core of quark matter forms in the interior of the central object. “We succeeded to show that in this case there will be a distinct shift in the frequency of the gravitational wave signal,” says Bauswein. “Thus, we identified a measurable criterion for a phase transition in gravitational waves of neutron star mergers in the future.”

Not all of the details of the gravitational-wave signal are measurable with current detectors yet. However, they will become observable both with the next generation of detectors, as well as with a merger event relatively close to us. A complementary approach to answer the questions about quark matter is offered by two experiments: By colliding heavy ions at the existing HADES setup at GSI and at the future CBM detector at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), which is currently under construction at GSI, compressed nuclear matter will be produced. In the collisions, it might be possible to create temperatures and densities that are similar to those in a neutron-star merger. Both methods give new insights into the occurrence of phase transitions in nuclear matter and thus into its fundamental properties. (cp)

Further information
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news-3381 Tue, 12 Feb 2019 10:00:00 +0100 Student’s visit: CURIEosity Team from Greece at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////schuelerbesuch_curieosity_team_aus_griechenland_bei_gsi_und_fair0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=882675b0e060ed07b102c4f7a01a6b79 17 Greek high school students profoundly interested in science from the Senior High School (Lyceum) of Gazi, Heraklion, Crete, visited GSI and FAIR. Since 2016, these students call themselves the CURIEosity Team and aim to promote science within their schoolmates’ community. 17 Greek high school students profoundly interested in science from the Senior High School (Lyceum) of Gazi, Heraklion, Crete, visited GSI and FAIR. Since 2016, these students call themselves the CURIEosity Team and aim to promote science within their schoolmates’ community, for example by running a workshop on atoms for younger pupils. The team also participates into contests like “Beamline For Schools” and “Science on Stage in Greece”. The students are assisted and encouraged by their teacher Astrinos Tsoutsoudakis.

On a tour to outstanding sciences labs in Germany, they spent one day at GSI and FAIR, where they got guided tours to the ion sources, the linear accelerator UNILAC, the ring accelerator SIS18, the experimental storage ring ESR, the superconducting magnet testing facility, biophysics laboratories, the ion beam therapy cave and the FAIR construction site. (mbe)

Further information

The CURIEosity-Team

 

 

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news-3377 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 08:50:00 +0100 Order in the periodic table — Measurement of ionization potentials of heavy elements confirms: actinide series ends with lawrencium https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////ionisierungsenergien_actinoide0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5e3f73cc2bf6e2e0a22576c059b08c44 An international group of researchers including participants from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and its two branches, the Helmholtz Institutes Mainz and Jena, have determined the first ionization potentials of the artificially created elements fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and lawrencium. The data unambiguously show that the actinide series ends with lawrencium. The results have been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS). An international group of researchers including participants from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and its two branches, the Helmholtz Institutes Mainz and Jena, have determined the first ionization potentials of the artificially created elements fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and lawrencium. The data unambiguously show that the actinide series ends with lawrencium. The results have been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS).

The chemical elements fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and lawrencium have the atomic numbers 100 to 103 in the periodic table of the elements. They do not occur naturally on earth, but can be artificially created, in nuclear fusion reactions at particle accelerators, for example. This process features low rates of production — at most a few atoms per second. All are unstable, decaying again within seconds to minutes. This renders studies of their chemical properties difficult, requiring complex experimental investigations of individual atoms.

In the current experiments the scientists looked at the first ionization potentials of the elements. This quantity measures the energy required to remove the least tightly bound electron from the outer shell of a neutral atom. The researchers expected the ionization potential to increase until nobelium is reached, which would correspond to a completely filled electron shell. For the following element, lawrencium, which possesses only a single, less strongly bound electron, a decrease in the ionization potential was expected.

Corresponding values for nobelium and lawrencium were already available from previous experiments. The present work expands the data set to the heaviest four members of the actinide elements, thus completing the data set of 14 elements of the whole actinide series. “The measured values are in agreement with the predictions of current relativistic calculations that were carried out in parallel with the experiment, and with the measurements carried out on nobelium using laser spectroscopy by a further collaboration working at GSI,” explained Professor Christoph Düllmann, head of the Superheavy Elements Chemistry departments at GSI and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz. “With this experiment we were able to unequivocally demonstrate that the actinide series ends with lawrencium, in analogy to the lighter lanthanide series, which is located above the actinides in the periodic table.”

The researchers were able to create and measure the artificial elements at the Tandem accelerator and the attached isotope separator at the Japanese research organization JAEA in Tokai, Japan. The first ionization potentials were determined using a surface ionization process. A gas stream in a Teflon tube carried the elements to a tantalum chamber with a surface heated to up to 3,000°C, where they could be ionized. Comparing the number of atoms fed in with that of ionized atoms provided a value for the efficiency of the ionization, from which the first ionization potential of the elements could be determined.

Research institutes from Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Israel, and Switzerland participated in this work. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3373 Fri, 01 Feb 2019 11:30:00 +0100 FAIR and GSI inform members of the Bundestag in Berlin https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_und_gsi_informieren_bundestagsabgeordnete_in_berlin0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=4a52ed403431597582663635e4beed47 "Megaproject aktuell - Realisierung des internationalen Teilchenbeschleunigerzentrums FAIR in Deutschland" was the topic of a parliamentary breakfast in Berlin at 16. January 2019, to which the management of FAIR and GSI had invited in cooperation with Dr. Astrid Mannes, member of the Bundestag of Darmstadt. Numerous members of the Bundestag, employees of the parliamentary offices and speakers from all parliamentary groups accepted the invitation to the event. "Megaproject aktuell - Realisierung des internationalen Teilchenbeschleunigerzentrums FAIR in Deutschland" was the topic of a parliamentary breakfast in Berlin at 16. January 2019, to which the management of FAIR and GSI had invited in cooperation with Dr. Astrid Mannes, member of the Bundestag of Darmstadt. Numerous members of the Bundestag, employees of the parliamentary offices and speakers from all parliamentary groups accepted the invitation to the event, which was held under the patronage of the former Federal Research Minister Professor Heinz Riesenhuber.

After the welcome by Dr. Astrid Mannes, the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Ursula Weyrich, and the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, presented the FAIR project. In addition, Dr. Ingo Peter, Head of Press and Public Relations department, also introduced details of the topic.

The FAIR accelerator center (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) is one of the world's largest construction projects for cutting edge international research and is currently being built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. It will enable scientists from all over the world to explore the universe in the laboratory.

The members of the Bundestag were able to get first-hand information about FAIR and took the opportunity to discuss the unique particle accelerator facility in detail with the FAIR and GSI management. Professor Paolo Giubellino, Ursula Weyrich and Jörg Blaurock answered questions about the current status of the project, provided background information and offered a compact overview of science, structural and technical progress, strategic goals and special challenges and developments at the site in Darmstadt.

The social contribution of the megaproject FAIR was also an important topic. FAIR generates new knowledge for mankind and makes value contributions to society on many levels, whether as a driver of innovation, provider of highly qualified and high quality jobs and in education of young scientists and engineers or in the development of new medical applications and the education of young scientists and engineers. The FAIR and GSI management emphasized: "FAIR will be an important building block for securing the long-term sustainability of Germany as a research location in an international context and at the same time a strong pillar of our research landscape in global competition. A central challenge of modern research is to think ahead over long periods of time. FAIR will not only be built for the coming years, but for the coming decades."

Dr. Astrid Mannes, who has a focus of her work as member of the Bundesausschuss für Bildung, Forschung und Technikfolgenabschätzung (Federal Committee for Education, Research and Technology Assessment), was pleased about the visit of the representatives of the Darmstadt research institution to Berlin. "It is good when research institutions that receive public funding present themselves directly to politicians. In addition, the topics addressed are of great importance. It was therefore valuable and important for the members of parliament present to receive background information on the major scientific project," said the member of the Bundestag. (BP)

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news-3375 Thu, 31 Jan 2019 11:30:00 +0100 Darmstadt magistrate visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////darmstaedter_magistrat_besichtigt_fair_und_gsi0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=29d2e2f37ff1d009b889f4524e6feb54 The magistrate of the city of Darmstadt was a guest of FAIR and GSI. First there was an information program about the current development of the accelerator facility FAIR, before the magistrate held its working session on site. The guests were welcomed by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, FAIR Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations. The magistrate of the city of Darmstadt was a guest of FAIR and GSI. First there was an information program about the current development of the accelerator facility FAIR, before the magistrate held its working session on site. The guests were welcomed by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, FAIR Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp and Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations.

The members of the magistrate, headed by the Lord Mayor of Darmstadt, Jochen Partsch, first received an introductory presentation on the research and realization of FAIR. The focus was on current scientific activities and the progress of the FAIR project, which is one of the largest research projects worldwide.

Afterwards a bus tour led over the FAIR construction site in the east of GSI. The construction progress included the shell construction of the large SIS100 ring accelerator and the excavation pits for the transfer building, the central hub for guiding the facility´s beam, and for the CBM experimental site. CBM is one of the four research pillars of the future accelerator center. (BP)

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news-3371 Wed, 23 Jan 2019 13:45:00 +0100 Korean delegation visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////koreanische_delegation_besucht_fair_und_gsi0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=47744a55b5b68ca7faa14998432f91e4 A Korean delegation consisting of representatives from the government and from science institutions visited the FAIR and GSI facilities recently. Following an introductory talk about the research and the construction of the international FAIR facility, the group had the opportunity for in-depth discussions with Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke and with Professor Marco Durante, Head of the Biophysics research department. A Korean delegation consisting of representatives from the government and from science institutions visited the FAIR and GSI facilities recently. Following an introductory talk about the research and the construction of the international FAIR facility, the group had the opportunity for in-depth discussions with Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke and with Professor Marco Durante, Head of the Biophysics research department.

On the subsequent tour through the facility, the participants visited, among other stations, the main control room, the facility for the production of superheavy elements and the treatment facility for tumor therapy with carbon ions. On the viewpoint platform of the FAIR construction site the group gained an overview of the building measures and the progress of the construction works. (cp)

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news-3369 Mon, 14 Jan 2019 10:00:00 +0100 Research on tumor therapy with oxygen ions: GSI doctoral candidate is honored https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////tumor_therapy_with_oxygen_ions.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1f1a780adf859a9d6be346e0a6b82093 Clinical and radiobiological studies for tumor therapy with heavy ions began at GSI over 20 years ago. Today the objective of such research at GSI and FAIR is to continue improving this successful therapy and to use it in increasingly customized ways in medical applications. One of the researchers with this objective is Dr. Olga Sokol, a scientist in the Biophysics Department at GSI. One of the focuses of her research is the use of oxygen ions in tumor treatment. Clinical and radiobiological studies for tumor therapy with heavy ions began at GSI over 20 years ago. Today the objective of such research at GSI and FAIR is to continue improving this successful therapy and to use it in increasingly customized ways in medical applications. One of the researchers with this objective is Dr. Olga Sokol, a scientist in the Biophysics Department at GSI. One of the focuses of her research is the use of oxygen ions in tumor treatment. This was the main thrust of her doctoral dissertation, for which she was recently honored with the Giersch Award for outstanding doctoral dissertations in 2018.

Ion beam therapy is a rapidly developing branch of tumor therapy. Because ions release the largest proportion of their energy at the end of their range, they are good candidates for the effective treatment of deep-seated tumors. In addition, they make it possible to efficiently spare the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. The tumor therapy with accelerated carbon ions that was developed at GSI is now being used in clinical procedures on a broad scale at institutions including the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). In current research, scientists are looking to find out which kinds of heavy ions — such as carbon, oxygen or helium ions — are the most effective for specific tumor diseases. For some types of tumors the most effective ions have already been clearly demonstrated; for others, further physical and radiobiological studies are necessary.

This is the area where Sokol is doing her research. Her dissertation, “Oxygen ions as a single and combined modality in radiotherapy,” at the Physics Department of Technische Universität Darmstadt was based on an experimental investigation of the relevant properties of oxygen (16O) ions and an analysis of the possibility of introducing them into clinical practice mainly for the treatment of hypoxic tumors. Many tumors have a poor blood supply and therefore have an oxygen concentration that is lower than normal — a condition known as hypoxia. As a result of their lack of oxygen, these tumors respond poorly to radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as being predisposed to metastases. In such cases, treatment with oxygen ions could bring progress, due to their specific physical properties, namely an increased linear energy transfer. Sokol’s dissertation presents the first comprehensive description and experimental characterization of oxygen-16 ions from the standpoints of physics and radiation biology, as well as the subsequent treatment planning studies. She carried out this work at GSI and HIT.

Sokol was able to provide the first experimental demonstration that oxygen ions could be more effective than carbon ions in treatments of certain cases of hypoxic tumors. Her comparison of radiotherapy plans with oxygen and with lighter ion beams showed that the use of oxygen ions for hypoxic tumors resulted in optimally uniform target recognition and also in certain cases might lead to the reduction of the radiation damage to normal tissue and critical organs. The recommended use of a tumor therapy with oxygen ions could thus improve therapeutic success for some cases of hypoxic tumors. Dr. Sokol’s dissertation was supported and assessed by Professor Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI, and Professor Thomas Aumann, head of the Nuclear Reactions Research Division at GSI. (BP)

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news-3366 Wed, 02 Jan 2019 10:56:00 +0100 Frigate „Hessen“ visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fregatte_hessen0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=7a9a92af695a2d8b928466d88777c7f8 In the framework of a visiting tour through the Federal State of Hesse the crew of the frigate “Hessen” under command of frigate captain Olliver Pfennig visited the campus of FAIR and GSI. The group was welcomed by Jörg Blauroch, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. Subsequently, the participants received an overview of the accelerators and experiments, the scientific highlights and the construction of the international FAIR facility in an introductory talk. In the framework of a visiting tour through the Federal State of Hesse the crew of the frigate “Hessen” under command of frigate captain Olliver Pfennig visited the campus of FAIR and GSI. The group was welcomed by Jörg Blauroch, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. Subsequently, the participants received an overview of the accelerators and experiments, the scientific highlights and the construction of the international FAIR facility in an introductory talk.

On a guided tour of the campus the group visited the control center of the accelerator and the storage ring CRYRING. Also they learned more about the discovery of new elements at the SHIP experiment, the tumor therapy with carbon ions and the large-scale experiment HADES. A view onto the FAIR construction site showed them the progress of the construction works and concluded the tour.

The Hesse frigate belongs to the German Navy and was officially commissioned in Wilhelmshaven in 2006 as the third ship of the Saxony class. She is the godfather ship of the Federal State of Hesse. Many ships and boats of the navy maintain sponsorships to a federal state or to a city. These sponsorships are based on many years of tradition and illustrate the close and friendly relations between communities and politics and the armed forces in Germany. In order to further deepen this friendly connection to the federal state of Hesse, the crew of the frigate is currently travelling through the state to obtain information about culturally, scientifically and industrially outstanding facilities. (cp)

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news-3364 Thu, 20 Dec 2018 10:30:00 +0100 "target" magazine issue 17 published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////target_170.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8473ab4a5112bf130dccd7ce45b02a4b In the 17th issue of our magazine "target" we report our close cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA. Furthermore, a lot of progress has been accomplished in the construction of FAIR. At our research facilities liquid water at spectacularly low temperatures could be measured. Several experiments used our laser system PHELIX, which celebrates its 10th anniversary this year. And also scientists have made another step to realize a nuclear clock. In the 17th issue of our magazine "target" we report our close cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA. Furthermore, a lot of progress has been accomplished in the construction of FAIR. At our research facilities liquid water at spectacularly low temperatures could be measured. Several experiments used our laser system PHELIX, which celebrates its 10th anniversary this year. And also scientists have made another step to realize a nuclear clock. (cp)

Download of "target" – Issue 17, December 2018 (PDF, 8,2 MB)

Further information:

Registration and target archive

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news-3362 Mon, 17 Dec 2018 10:57:52 +0100 A guest professorship in China for Takehiko Saito https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gastprofessur_saito_en.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=cb6f22585ff397c52426fdcbe52256a8 Dr. Takehiko Saito has been invited to serve as a guest professor at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in Lanzhou, China for a period of three years. In a ceremony at the IMP, the GSI scientist was presented with a certificate identifying him as a Visiting Professor at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). Dr. Takehiko Saito has been invited to serve as a guest professor at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in Lanzhou, China for a period of three years. In a ceremony at the IMP, the GSI scientist was presented with a certificate identifying him as a Visiting Professor at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS).

During the ceremony, Dr. Saito thanked the Institute for the certificate and promised to further promote and intensify the two research institutes’ scientific cooperation in the future. The three-year guest professorship will include conducting his researches and supervising students and young researchers at the IMP.

After receiving his master degree in physics from the University of Tsukuba in Japan, Takehiko Saito received his doctorate from the Niels Bohr Institute/University of Copenhagen in Denmark in 1999. The subject of his doctoral dissertation was the nuclear structure of A~180 nuclei. He did postdoctoral work at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA and subsequently moved on to the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and then to GSI in order to conduct research with high-energy rare-isotope beams. From 2006 to 2012 he also headed a Helmholtz Young Investigators Group at GSI and took over a professorship at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. He is currently the Head of the Hypernuclear Group at GSI, conducts research on exotic hypernuclei, and is working for Nustar, one of the four major experiment pillars of the future FAIR accelerator center. He is also taking on a position as Head Scientist at the RIKEN research institute in Japan since September 2018.

The honor from CAS is also a recognition of the success and significance of the many years of scientific cooperation between the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt. The partnership between CAS and GSI in the areas of accelerator physics and research fields such as atomic, nuclear, and astrophysics as well as materials research can look back on a long tradition. Both research institutes operate heavy ion accelerators, and both are planning the construction of next-generation accelerators: FAIR in Darmstadt and HIAF in Huizhou. (BP)

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news-3359 Sat, 08 Dec 2018 13:00:00 +0100 Saturday Morning Physics: Excursion leads to FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////saturday_morning_physics_excursion_leads_to_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=beea28f93d349baf5a4256838495e60d It's a success story with 20 years of tradition: On Saturday, December 8, more than 210 high school students from all over the state of Hesse had the opportunity to gain an insight into current physical research at FAIR and GSI. During tours of the research facilities, the participants explored the accelerators and experiments on the GSI and FAIR campus. They also learned about the construction of the international accelerator facility FAIR and had the opportunity to take a closer look at the current progress on the construction site. At the beginning, there was traditionally a small breakfast together. It's a success story with 20 years of tradition: On Saturday, December 8, more than 210 high school students from all over the state of Hesse had the opportunity to gain an insight into current physical research at FAIR and GSI. During tours of the research facilities, the participants explored the accelerators and experiments on the GSI and FAIR campus. They also learned about the construction of the international accelerator facility FAIR and had the opportunity to take a closer look at the current progress on the construction site. At the beginning, there was traditionally a small breakfast together.

"Saturday Morning Physics" is a project of the physics department of the TU Darmstadt. The series of lectures is held annually and aims to increase the interest of young people in physics. In lectures and experiments on seven consecutive Saturdays between autumn and Christmas holidays the high school students learn about the latest developments in physical research at university. Those who take part in six of seven courses receive the "Saturday Morning Physics" diploma. The visit to FAIR and GSI takes place as an excursion within the series. GSI has been one of the sponsors and supporters of this project since the start. (BP)

More Information

Website of Saturday Morning Physics

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news-3357 Thu, 06 Dec 2018 13:26:09 +0100 Anniversary Calender "50 Years GSI" https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////anniversary_calender_50_years_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c11e17138234d0612cc136174d538f3b In 2019 the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung celebrates its 50th birthday. On 17 december 1969, the former Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung was founded. In the anniversary year several activities are planned. For the kick-off into the anniversary we offer the photo calendar “50 years GSI”. We send one calendar for free to the first 500 people who send us their address by email. In 2019 the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung celebrates its 50th birthday. On 17 december 1969, the former Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung was founded. In the anniversary year several activities are planned. For the kick-off into the anniversary we offer the photo calendar “50 years GSI”. We send one calendar for free to the first 500 people who send us their address by email. If you would like to get a copy, please send your postal address to fotokalender(at)gsi.de (Data Protection). Please note: Due to the shipping costs we can only send the calendar to addresses in Germany! Only as long as supplies last. (LW)

More information

On the anniversary website we will keep you updated on the planned activities throughout the year:

www.gsi.de/50years

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news-3343 Mon, 03 Dec 2018 17:47:00 +0100 Young German Physical Society visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////young_german_physical_society_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6449847b8e7aae909c539de738ed8d44 In November the regional section Darmstadt of the young German Physical Society (jDPG), which was founded in spring 2018, visited the accelerators and experiments of FAIR and GSI with a group of 23 students of the Technical University of Darmstadt. The guided tour followed the path of the ions starting at the ion sources and moving along linear accelerator, main control room, experimental storage ring, ion traps and the treatment facility for tumor therapy, ending at the FAIR construction site. In November the regional section Darmstadt of the young German Physical Society (jDPG), which was founded in spring 2018, visited the accelerators and experiments of FAIR and GSI with a group of 23 students of the Technical University of Darmstadt. The guided tour followed the path of the ions starting at the ion sources and moving along the linear accelerator, main control room, experimental storage ring, ion traps and the treatment facility for tumor therapy, ending at the FAIR construction site. The students showed great interest during their stay, and thus the visit contributed to enhance the collaboration with the Technical University of Darmstadt. Thanks to the visit, discussions about possible bachelor, master and PhD theses took place, which could be carried out at FAIR and GSI.

The jDPG is a working group within in the German Physical Society (DPG). It is organized in 33 regional branches throughout Germany and offers physics students and also interested pupils more than 200 regional, nationwide and international events each year. (cp)

Further information:
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news-3353 Thu, 29 Nov 2018 14:30:00 +0100 Open research platform as goal: GSI and FAIR awarded EU funding https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////open_research_platform_as_goal_gsi_and_fair_awarded_eu_funding.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=7a45601cce292354b18319da4cfd6eed To create a European science cloud, allowing universal access to research data through a single online platform – that is the aim of the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) initiative launched by the European Union member states. The EU project ESCAPE has now received a grant. ESCAPE (European Science Cluster of Astronomy & Particle physics ESFRI research infrastructures) aims to address the common Open Science challenges in astronomy and particle physics research domains. FAIR and GSI are playing a decisive role in this comprehensive project. To create a European science cloud, allowing universal access to research data through a single online platform – that is the aim of the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) initiative launched by the European Union member states. The EU project ESCAPE has now received a grant. ESCAPE (European Science Cluster of Astronomy & Particle physics ESFRI research infrastructures) aims to address the common Open Science challenges in astronomy and particle physics research domains. FAIR and GSI are playing a decisive role in this comprehensive project.

ESCAPE, one out of five EOSC Initiative projects, is due to start in the first quarter of 2019.  The European Commission is supporting the ESCAPE project with 16 million euros. Around EUR 1.3 million of this will go to GSI and FAIR - which once again underscores the excellence located here through the successful acquisition of third-party funding. GSI and FAIR can also contribute their competence and experience in data management to ESCAPE. With their expertise in green IT, high-performance computing and scientific computing, they also belong to the key players in this field. One of the most modern and efficient data centers in the world, the Green IT Cube, is already in operation on campus. 

A deluge of data is expected in the coming years by the next generation facilities of astronomy and particle physics, including as a core piece the future FAIR accelerator center and its four large experimental pillars CBM, NUSTAR, PANDA and APPA. The million funding boost of the ESCAPE project will help Europe's world-leading research infrastructures work together to find common solutions to their data challenges, their data interoperability, their data access and to accentuate the openness of Fundamental Science research to the full international community, from professionals to the public.

The project is led by the national institute of nuclear and particle physics within CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique), the French public research organisation, with a consortium of 31 partners including European partner institutions, pan-European research organisations, and medium-sized enterprises. Important partners are GSI and FAIR. (BP)

Further Information

About ESCAPE

ESCAPE Press Release

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news-3355 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 16:06:37 +0100 Alternative concept for particle acceleration https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////alternative_concept_for_particle_acceleration.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ff5c50994402869e0e809e798be4e90f Under the direction of the GSI scientist Professor Dr. Oliver Boine-Frankenheim, the accelerator physics group at the TU Darmstadt aims to use computer-aided models to optimize the operation of accelerators at the highest beam intensities, such as in the FAIR facility. In addition, future concepts for particle accelerators will be developed. The Boine-Frankenheim group has now developed a concept for a laser-driven electron accelerator, which is so small that it could be produced on a silicon chip. It would be inexpensive and with multiple applications. Under the direction of the GSI scientist Professor Dr. Oliver Boine-Frankenheim, the accelerator physics group at the TU Darmstadt aims to use computer-aided models to optimize the operation of accelerators at the highest beam intensities, such as in the FAIR facility. In addition, future concepts for particle accelerators will be developed. The Boine-Frankenheim group has now developed a concept for a laser-driven electron accelerator, which is so small that it could be produced on a silicon chip. It would be inexpensive and with multiple applications.

In the future, such accelerator structures could be used at GSI and FAIR for medical research. "For example, such a micro-accelerator structure for electrons is interesting for cell irradiation in biophysics," explained Professor Dr. Oliver Boine-Frankenheim. (JL)

More information:
Press release TU Darmstadt
Original publication in Physical review Letters

 

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news-3351 Mon, 26 Nov 2018 11:09:58 +0100 Cryogenic testing of magnet units: Contracts signed in Dubna https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////cryogenic_testing_of_magnet_units_contracts_signed_in_dubna.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f6a91f57a31f43c54c2a2300aa7d19aa Further important steps toward the completion of the unique superconducting magnets for the future accelerator center FAIR have been taken during the visit of a delegation from GSI and FAIR to Dubna, Russia. In order to guide the particles in a precise beam at close to light speed, FAIR requires hundreds of magnets and complete magnet systems, some of them custom-made. These systems also include a series of superconducting quadrupole units for the large ring accelerator SIS100. Russia is constructing these units as an in-kind contribution to the FAIR project. The contract for the comprehensive test program for this magnet series has now been signed at a ceremony on October 26, 2018 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). Further important steps toward the completion of the unique superconducting magnets for the future accelerator center FAIR have been taken during the visit of a delegation from GSI and FAIR to Dubna, Russia. In order to guide the particles in a precise beam at close to light speed, FAIR requires hundreds of magnets and complete magnet systems, some of them custom-made. These systems also include a series of superconducting quadrupole units for the large ring accelerator SIS100. Russia is constructing these units as an in-kind contribution to the FAIR project. The contract for the comprehensive test program for this magnet series has now been signed at a ceremony on October 26, 2018 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).

The 166 quadrupole units, which weigh around a ton each, each consist of a superconducting main quadrupole magnet that is combined in a variety of arrangements with superconducting correction magnets (sextupole and steering magnets). Unlike the usual copper cables, superconducting systems don’t pose any resistance to electric currents. To achieve superconductivity, the units are cooled to around -270 degrees Celsius during operation.

The technology for these magnets, which are very important for the FAIR ring accelerator, has been constantly improved over many years in a joint development program. The main features of this optimization were the minimization of the heat input into the cooling system, the quality of the magnetic field, and the mechanical stability of the magnets during rapid changes in current (high ramp rates) and at high repetition rates. The magnets, which make use of a special superconducting cable known as Nuclotron cable, enable extremely high field strength rise rates of up to four tesla per second — much higher than can be achieved by conventional superconducting magnets.

The quadrupole and correction magnets are being constructed at JINR, thereafter they will undergo the comprehensive test program specified in the contract. This program, which will be carried out in Dubna, includes cooling the magnets to their final operating temperature of -270 Grad and testing the tightness of the hydraulic system and the integrity of the electrical circuits and coils. A facility incorporating a cryogenic system was constructed in Dubna for such tests in a joint project between GSI and JINR during the past years.

Once all of the tests have been passed, the quadrupole units will each be released and transported to Germany, where they will be brought together with other components procured by GSI and assembled into complete modules for the SIS100. This integration and manufacture of the quadrupole modules for the SIS100 by the Bilfinger Noell company, who are also manufacturing the superconducting dipoles for the large FAIR ring accelerator — was commissioned as the result of a call for tenders which was concluded at the beginning of the year.

The ratification of the contract and the commissioning of various companies by JINR means that the series production and testing of the SIS100 quadrupole units can now start. In addition, the delegation, which consisted of the Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock; the head of SIS100/SIS18 Peter Spiller; the head of the department for superconducting magnets and testing (SCM), Christian Roux; and the department employees Alexander Bleile and Egbert Fischer, in the course of the visit signed an additional framework agreement with JINR over further cooperation between the GSI, FAIR, and JINR in the area of superconducting magnets. 

Says Jörg Blaurock: “FAIR is a mega project; we have not yet completed all the assignments. This contract offers several possibilities for further expanding our cooperation in the future. The main areas of our cooperation are the production and testing of magnets, but there are also possibilities for the development of techniques and technologies for our experiments, for example, for the CBM experiment.” (BP)

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news-3349 Thu, 22 Nov 2018 16:33:19 +0100 Presentation of the Christoph Schmelzer Award marks an anniversary https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////presentation_of_the_christoph_schmelzer_award_marks_an_anniversary.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a6fc15fe3ff5dead45374d4cfc0afd88 This year marks the 20th time that the The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions (Verein zur Förderung der Tumortherapie mit schweren Ionen) has honored young scientists with the Christoph Schmelzer Award. The association honored the two best doctoral dissertations and the best master’s thesis of 2018 with prize money of €1,500 for each dissertation and €750 for the master’s thesis. This year marks the 20th time that the The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions (Verein zur Förderung der Tumortherapie mit schweren Ionen) has honored young scientists with the Christoph Schmelzer Award. The association honored the two best doctoral dissertations and the best master’s thesis of 2018 with prize money of €1,500 for each dissertation and €750 for the master’s thesis.

Dr. Christian Möhler (Heidelberg University), Dr. Patrick Wohlfahrt (TU Dresden), and Tabea Pfuhl (Goethe University Frankfurt) received the awards at a gala ceremony at the GSI campus in Darmstadt on November 22. After a welcoming address by Dr. Dieter Schardt, the Chairman of the Association, and a word of greeting by Gerhard Kraft, the initiator and crucial pioneer of this tumor therapy at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum, the awards were officially presented.

In her master’s thesis at Goethe University Frankfurt, Tabea Pfuhl documented her efforts to precisely measure the dose buildup effects during the penetration of proton beams into tissue or water and to compare this data with simulation calculations.

With the help of a carefully thought-out experimental setup, she succeeded in separating the contribution of the delta electrons and thus determining the dose fractions of the nuclear target fragments, which are otherwise difficult to access experimentally. She conducted the experiments for her investigations at the proton therapy facility in Trento, Italy.

A special aspect of this year’s award is the fact that both of the recipients for doctoral dissertations, Dr. Christian Möhler and Dr. Patrick Wohlfahrt, worked together on the same topic. They conducted comprehensive and pioneering studies in the area of range calculation by means of dual-layer spectral computer tomography. They also successfully translated their findings step by step into clinical applications.

The 20th annual presentation of this award testifies to the association’s long and continuous promotion of young scientists in the field of ion-beam tumor therapy. The topics of these scientific research projects have fundamental significance for the further development of ion therapy, because the results of the award-winning projects are often translated into clinical applications. The awards are named after Professor Christoph Schmelzer, the co-founder and first Scientific Director of GSI. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, where heavy ion therapy was developed in Germany to the clinical use stage in the 1990s, traditionally offers an appropriate setting for the annual presentation ceremony.

The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy supports activities conducted within the research project Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions at GSI, with the goal of improving tumor treatment by refining the system and making it available for general use in patient care. During a pilot project conducted at the accelerator facility at GSI from 1997 to 2008, more than 400 patients with tumors in the head and neck were treated with ion beams. The cure rate of this method has been more than 90 percent in some categories, and the side effects are very slight. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), patients have routinely been treated with heavy ions since 2009. (JL)

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news-3347 Thu, 22 Nov 2018 13:00:00 +0100 Dr. Mustafa Schmidt receives PhD Award of the PANDA Collaboration https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////dr_mustafa_schmidt_receives_phd_award_of_the_panda_collaboration.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=840caf048499053d3dca75939f631503 For his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Justus Liebig University in Giessen Dr. Mustafa Schmidt has received the Panda PhD Prize 2018. The award was presented by the spokesman of the Panda Collaboration, Klaus Peters from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, at the most recent Panda Collaboration meeting at GSI. For his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Justus Liebig University in Giessen Dr. Mustafa Schmidt has received the Panda PhD Prize 2018. The award was presented by the spokesman of the Panda Collaboration, Klaus Peters from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, at the most recent Panda Collaboration meeting at GSI.

Physicist Mustafa Schmidt, 33 worked also for a couple of years in industry before his PhD.  The prize of €200 and a certificate was awarded to him for his dissertation titled Particle Identification with the Endcap Disc DIRC for PANDA. His doctoral advisor was Professor Dr. Michael Düren from the Justus Liebig University in Giessen.

The Panda Collaboration has awarded the PhD Prize once per year since 2013 in order to honor the best dissertation written in connection with the Panda Experiment. Panda will be one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR. The experiment focuses on antimatter research as well as on various topics related to the weak and the strong force, exotic states of matter, and the structure of hadrons. More than 500 scientists from 20 countries currently work in the Panda Collaboration. In his dissertation, Dr. Schmidt studied the Endcap Disc DIRC, a Cherenkov detector that forms one of the main components of the charged particle identification of the Panda detector, which is being built at the FAIR accelerator facility.

Candidates for the PhD Prize are nominated by their doctoral advisors. In addition to being directly related to the Panda Experiment, the nominees’ doctoral degrees must have received a rating of “very good” or better. Up to three candidates are shortlisted for the award and can present their dissertations at the Panda Collaboration meeting. The winner is chosen by a committee that is appointed for this task by the Panda Collaboration. The Panda Collaboration awards the PhD Prize to specifically honor students’ contributions to the Panda project. (BP)

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news-3345 Mon, 19 Nov 2018 08:58:00 +0100 Physics class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////physics_class_of_the_royal_swedish_academy_of_sciences_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1f61f04642116ddc5e5223bb88fc22ac A delegation of 20 high-ranking members of the physics class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences visited the research facilities of FAIR and GSI last week. Following a welcome by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, the group gained insight into the existing accelerators and experiments and the scientific highlights of GSI as well as the plans and the project progress of the future international accelerator center FAIR in an introductory talk. A delegation of 20 high-ranking members of the physics class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences visited the research facilities of FAIR and GSI last week. Following a welcome by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, the group gained insight into the existing accelerators and experiments and the scientific highlights of GSI as well as the plans and the project progress of the future international accelerator center FAIR in an introductory talk.

On the subsequent bus tour to the FAIR construction site the Overall Site Manager Harald Hagelskamp, presented the progress of the construction work. Furthermore, the delegation visited the SHIP experiment where the GSI elements 107 to 112 were produced, as well as the treatment facility for tumor therapy with carbon ions. At the storage ring CRYRING, an in-kind contribution of Sweden to FAIR, they were informed in particular about the planned research in atomic physics. Also a visit to to the experiment for exotic nuclei R3B and the GLAD magnet were part of the program. Finally, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, gave an overview of the details of the FAIR construction in his talk. The day ended with a joint dinner and intense discussions, where the Swedish representatives particularly commended FAIR and GSI for their many young scientists.

The Royal Swedisch Academy of Sciences is the highest scientific institution in Sweden. It aims to further sciences, in particular natural sciences and mathematics. It is located at Swedens capital Stockholm and is world famous for the nomination of the Nobel Prize winners in physics and chemistry, as well as the awarding of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences donated by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden.  The Academy is divided into ten so-called classes, among them also the physics class, which consists of Swedish as well as external members. (cp)

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news-3341 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 13:00:00 +0100 Stern Gerlach Medal: Renowned Award for Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////stern_gerlach_medal_renowned_award_for_professor_peter_braun_munzinger.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e18edfd888f51d156ae5b23ef0181e89 Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, receives the renowned Stern Gerlach Medal of the German Physical Society (DPG). Together with Braun-Munzinger, Professor Johanna Stachel from the University of Heidelberg will also get the award. The two researchers receive the award for their outstanding work on development and further research for the ALICE experiment at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Professor Peter Braun-Munzinger, Director of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, receives the renowned Stern Gerlach Medal of the German Physical Society (DPG). Together with Braun-Munzinger, Professor Johanna Stachel from the University of Heidelberg will also get the award. The two researchers receive the award for their outstanding work on development and further research for the ALICE experiment at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. 

The nuclear physicist Peter Braun-Munzinger, who deals mainly with ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions and the quark gluon plasma produced in them, headed the ALICE department at GSI from 1996 to 2011 and was also a professor at the TU Darmstadt during this time. From the beginning, GSI has played a leading role in ALICE's construction and scientific program. The main objective of ALICE is to explore how matter in the universe was fractions of a second after the Big Bang. At that time prevailed unimaginably high temperatures and pressures, a so-called quark gluon plasma existed. The quark gluon plasma is generated by collisions of heavy ions at the CERN accelerator LHC and is investigated with the ALICE experiment. 

The Stern Gerlach Medal is the DPG's highest award for outstanding achievements in the field of experimental physics. The prize consists of a hand-written parchment certificate and a gold medal with portraits of the two physicists Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, after whom the Stern-Gerlach experiment is named, a fundamental experiment in physics. (BP)

Further Information

Press release of the German Physical Society (in German)

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news-3339 Fri, 09 Nov 2018 08:34:00 +0100 Successful discussions in South Africa https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////successful_discussions_in_south_africa.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=7714a87031e01f1504a892f6450c1d71 In November the 6th International Conference on Collective Motion in Nuclei under Extreme Conditions (COMEX) took place in Cape Town in the Republic of South Afrika. It was opened by the South African Minister of Science and Technology Ms Mmamoloko Kubayi-Ngubane, who took the opportunity to meet with a delegation of representatives of nuclear physics laboratories from all over the world. The meeting was led by Professor Faïҫal Azaiez, the Director of iThemba LABS, which is a South African research institution for accelerator science. In November the 6th International Conference on Collective Motion in Nuclei under Extreme Conditions (COMEX) took place in Cape Town in the Republic of South Afrika. It was opened by the South African Minister of Science and Technology Ms Mmamoloko Kubayi-Ngubane, who took the opportunity to meet with a delegation of representatives of nuclear physics laboratories from all over the world. The meeting was led by Professor Faïҫal Azaiez, the Director of iThemba LABS, which is a South African research institution for accelerator science.

During the meeting, Professor Paolo Giubellino,  the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, had the opportunity to present the FAIR project and its science prospects, and to address the possibility of enhanced collaboration between South Africa and GSI/FAIR, which was welcomed by the Minister. The ministry, iThemba LABS and FAIR will now work together to develop a roadmap of collaboration, that might eventually lead to the direct involvement of South Africa in FAIR. South Africa has a strong tradition in nuclear physics and has just approved a major expansion of its facilities at iThemba LABS. It is therefore a partner of great potential for FAIR.

The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) is a multidisciplinary research facility that is based on the development, operation and use of particle accelerators and related research equipment. iThemba LABS brings together scientists working in the physical, medical and biological sciences. The facilities provide opportunities for research in subatomic physics, material research, radiobiology, and the research and development of unique radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and industrial applications. iThemba LABS have various collaboration agreements and joint training programs with higher education institutions and research laboratories around the world. (cp)

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news-3337 Tue, 06 Nov 2018 14:04:37 +0100 New detectors for the ALICE experiment: From Darmstadt to Wonderland https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////new_detectors_for_the_alice_experiment_from_darmstadt_to_wonderland.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=24a4a02e0fdcb521c30d0b4480fbdeef The particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN will end its second running period with a heavy-ion run, colliding lead nuclei (Pb), starting in November. After a subsequent long shutdown, in 2021 the accelerator will resume operation with an increased luminosity. In order to fully benefit from the expected rate of 50,000 Pb-Pb collisions per second, the ALICE experiment is currently upgrading its detectors. The ALICE group at GSI is on the forefront of this activity. The particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN will end its second running period with a heavy-ion run, colliding lead nuclei (Pb), starting in November. After a subsequent long shutdown, in 2021 the accelerator will resume operation with an increased luminosity. In order to fully benefit from the expected rate of 50,000 Pb-Pb collisions per second, the ALICE experiment is currently upgrading its detectors. The ALICE group at GSI is on the forefront of this activity.

The ALICE group among others assembles twenty new readout detectors for the Time Projection Chamber which is the heart of the ALICE apparatus. After four years of intensive work, the last five detectors were delivered to CERN at the end of October. The production took place in the GSI Detector Laboratory, strongly profiting from – but also helping to further extend – its excellent infrastructure. (OeA)

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news-3333 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 10:08:36 +0100 Yuri Litvinov receives chinese expert award https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////yuri_litvinov_receives_chinese_expert_award.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=9b71e5e2bc8d650f4d7c82208a75953b The nuclear physicist Professor Dr. Yuri Litvinov has been awarded the Chinese "Dunhuang Prize". The GSI and FAIR researcher is one of seven laureates to receive the award this year. The awarding ceremony was led by Li Bin, the vice-governor of the Chinese province Gansu. The nuclear physicist Professor Dr. Yuri Litvinov has been awarded the Chinese "Dunhuang Prize". The GSI and FAIR researcher is one of seven laureates to receive the award this year. The awarding ceremony was led by Li Bin, the vice-governor of the Chinese province Gansu.

The Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences nominated Yuri Litvinov for this prize for his outstanding contributions to the development of precision experiments with stored highly-charged ions at the cooler-storage ring (CSRe) in Lanzhou in the province Gansu. The "Dunhuang Prize" is awarded to the foreign experts in areas of science, technology, education, health, economy and management, who have made distinct contributions to the development of Gansu province.

Since its first edition in 1996, 177 foreign experts have received such a prize. Yuri Litvinov is the second GSI scientist receiving this award. In 2004, Otto Klepper was awarded for his contributions in establishing a fruitful collaboration between the GSI and the IMP research divisions.

Yuri Litvinov studied physics in St. Petersburg and is a GSI researcher for nearly 20 years. In 2003 he defended with distinction his PhD thesis at the university of Gießen (doctoral supervisor Professor Hans Geissel). Starting 2009 he spent two years at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg for his habilitation. Since then Litvinov is actively involved in the APPA/SPARC research activities led by Professor Thomas Stöhlker. Among other tasks at GSI he is the coordinator of the experiments at the experimental storage ring ESR, and since 2012 he is the head of the SPARC Detectors department. Yuri Litvinov, who is also an adjunct professor at the University of Heidelberg, has already received numerous honours for his scientific work. (BP)

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news-3323 Tue, 23 Oct 2018 11:53:00 +0200 Excellent! – Lilly Schönherr receives award for best internship report in Hessen https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////excellent_lilly_schoenherr_receives_award_for_best_internship_report_in_hessen.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a43395637ec8a23ba13ab5173f7b2441 Following the award for her outstanding internship report by the “Arbeitskreis Schule Wirtschaft Osthessen” in June, Lilly Schönherr was now able to convice the jury on the Hessian state level as well. She won against the competitors from the other regional divisions and received the award for the best internship report in school level “secondary school” in the whole State of Hesse in September 2018 in the Bildungshaus in Bad Nauheim. The award is endowed with a prize money of 100 euro. Lilly Schönherr now studies in the tenth grade of the Geschwister-Scholl-Schule, a secondary school in Rodgau. She completed her two-weeks of company placement in the research department “Atomic Physics” at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in March 2018. Following the award for her outstanding internship report by the “Arbeitskreis Schule Wirtschaft Osthessen” in June, Lilly Schönherr was now able to convice the jury on the Hessian state level as well. She won against the competitors from the other regional divisions and received the award for the best internship report in school level “secondary school” in the whole State of Hesse in September 2018 in the Bildungshaus in Bad Nauheim. The award is endowed with a prize money of 100 euro. Lilly Schönherr now studies in the tenth grade of the Geschwister-Scholl-Schule, a secondary school in Rodgau. She completed her two-weeks of company placement in the research department “Atomic Physics” at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in March 2018.

The internship of Lilly Schönherr was supervised by Dr. Wolfgang Quint and his colleagues, especially Nils Stallkamp and Davide Racano, from GSI’s atomic physics department. Mainly she worked at the experiments ARTEMIS and HILITE of the ion trap HITRAP, which is connected to the experimental storage ring ESR. Among other things, she built in detectors, tested vacuum components for her leak tightness and equipped a thermic shield with a multi-layered foil during her internship. Also milling in the workshop, the work with electronics and the design of mechanical components with a CAD system was part of her work. Lilly wants to become a physicist after finishing school.

The “Arbeitskreis Schule Wirtschaft Hessen”, a task force to bring together schools and industry in State of Hesse, consists of the seven divisions Fulda, Mittelhessen, Nordhessen, Osthessen, Rhein-Main-Taunus, Südhessen and Wiesbaden-Rheingau-Taunus. The competition is held in six school types. A jury of representatives of schools and companies evaluates the reports taking into account their formal structure, their content, their layout and originality and the overall impression. The winners of all school types on the Hessian state level receive a prize money.

Weitere Informationen
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news-3325 Wed, 17 Oct 2018 11:00:00 +0200 Expo Real: FAIR draws positive balance after its trade fair participation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////expo_real_fair_draws_positive_balance_after_its_trade_fair_participation.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b3d39f3a7716790fffed147d8b32ef98 Intense discussions and numerous new contacts — the FAIR construction project’s participation this year in the internationally renowned real estate trade fair Expo Real was once again very successful. The project’s dynamic progress attracted strong interest from professionals and trade fair visitors. Over a period of three days, an extensive presentation of the construction planning and the next steps toward the realization of the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) were on exhibition at Expo Real in Munich. This year the focus was primarily on the current calls for tender and the awarding of contracts in the area of technical building services. Intense discussions and numerous new contacts — the FAIR construction project’s participation this year in the internationally renowned real estate trade fair Expo Real was once again very successful. The project’s dynamic progress attracted strong interest from professionals and trade fair visitors. Over a period of three days, an extensive presentation of the construction planning and the next steps toward the realization of the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) were on exhibition at Expo Real in Munich. This year the focus was primarily on the current calls for tender and the awarding of contracts in the area of technical building services.

The construction of the particle acceleration center, which is currently being built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, has speeded up considerably since the groundbreaking ceremony for the big SIS100 ring accelerator in the summer of 2017. “Just over a year after construction started, we’ve been able to show in Munich where we stand today and how much momentum this project has generated,” said Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. After the FAIR presentation at Expo Real, he drew a positive balance. “Because many important players from the construction sector were present, the trade fair gave us an outstanding opportunity to further enhance the FAIR project’s profile in the construction industry and actively present the next steps in our call for tenders for further services,” he added.

At this year’s event, the market continued to show strong interest in the realization of the FAIR project. Potential contractors and bidding syndicates for the upcoming work on the FAIR construction site eagerly took advantage of opportunities to hold direct and comprehensive talks about the construction plans for FAIR and find out about possible participation. “The discussions also showed that a scientific megaproject such as FAIR is an extremely attractive addition to a construction company’s portfolio. We’ve gained important new professional contacts,” said Blaurock, who had cooperated with Michael Ossendorf, Director FAIR Site & Buildings, and Klaus Ringsleben, Chair of the FAIR Building Advisory Committee, to present the currently open FAIR project contracts at the trade fair presence in Munich. 

At the moment, the FAIR realization project has a large order volume related to the complex area of technical building services (TBS), which must be installed in coordination with the construction of the particle accelerator. In the process, numerous individual trades have to mesh. “FAIR doesn’t require standard equipment, but rather customized solutions that are both cost-effective and efficient. This is quite a challenge. That’s why we’re cooperating closely with the overall planning team to divide this complex construction project into manageable contract packages that are in line with market conditions,” explained Michael Ossendorf. The calls for tenders for the next TBS packages, including those for ventilation and electrotechnical systems, will begin this year. Plans call for the contract awarding process to take place in 2019.

Klaus Ringsleben is also satisfied with the FAIR trade fair appearance. "We were able to convince with comprehensive, competent information and good preparation and provide detailed information about our scientifically and technically extraordinary construction project. With our appearance at the trade fair, we have made our mark.”   

FAIR’s partnership with Darmstadt as a science city has once again paid off. At this year’s trade fair, the FAIR project had its own presentation at the Darmstadt stand, which was featured as part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main metropolitan area. The Expo Real trade fair attracts around 40,000 visitors each year and is one of Europe’s most important get-togethers for the real estate, construction, and location marketing sectors. (BP)

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news-3319 Mon, 08 Oct 2018 10:51:00 +0200 A physicist for two weeks https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////a_physicist_for_two_weeks.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=56b72a30b7ad073a27a7d1bbd773ad69 Johannes Bentzien (18) from Erfurt won a special prize in the “Jugend forscht” competition for junior scientists: an internship at the research facilities of GSI and FAIR. In September he spent two weeks on the GSI and FAIR campus getting acquainted with a variety of research areas. Johannes Bentzien (18) from Erfurt won a special prize in the “Jugend forscht” competition for junior scientists: an internship at the research facilities of GSI and FAIR. In September he spent two weeks on the GSI and FAIR campus getting acquainted with a variety of research areas.

Johannes, which research areas have you been able to check out so far?

During the first week I observed the experiments with super-heavy elements at SHIPTRAP and TASCA. To begin with, I received lots of information explaining how they work. After that I was allowed to help out. For example, I helped to fill the magnets with liquid nitrogen, make filaments for an experiment, start and stop a series of experiments, and do conversion work. Next, I spent a couple of days with the nuclear spectroscopy group, where I was able to measure the speed of light in an experiment. That was really something special. Right now I’m in the target laboratory, where I’m producing targets made of gold foil.

Which of your internship experiences have really taught you something?

In the nuclear spectroscopy group they only spoke English. My mentor had organized my visit this way on purpose so that I would be challenged — and that was really great! Besides, I was able to really get a sense of how the researchers do their daily work. Starting in October, I’ll be studying physics at the University of Rostock. At some point I’ll have to face the question of whether to pursue a career in industry or in research. Now I’ve already gotten to know one of these options a little bit.

What did you do in your free time?

I lived in the guest house, so I spent most of my time on the campus. Last week the summer students threw their farewell party, and I was there. It was a great party! On the weekend I went to Darmstadt and took a look around. Otherwise in the evenings I skyped with my family or watched movies.

What was the idea that won the “Jugend forscht” special prize for you?

The name of our project was “Why Does the Banana Shot Bend?” The reason why the banana shot in a soccer game bends is the Magnus effect, which is caused by the difference in pressure that results from the rotation of the ball. Together with two friends, I derived a formula for calculating the Magnus effect on spheres and cylinders. My friends, both of whom are computer scientists, wrote a simulation program, and we subsequently compared the results calculated by means of the program with experimental data.

What insights will you be taking home with you after the time you’ve spent here?

A physicist’s daily work is extremely varied. Physicist try out lots of different things, and sometimes they improvise. In addition, they did less calculation and math than I had expected — at least at first glance. Incidentally, I’ll be allowed to take a few of the gold targets that I’m making right now home with me as souvenirs!

(LW)

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news-3320 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 09:54:21 +0200 “Wixhäuser Grenzgang”: Visit at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////wixhaeuser_grenzgang_visit_at_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a9a7c05719d2912bb0a3d93bb30085ff The participants of the “Wixhäuser Grenzgang” this year were guests at GSI and FAIR on their traditional hike along the district borders. During the one hour stopover on the campus the 110 guests got an exciting insight into the current research at GSI and FAIR as well as information about the progress of the FAIR project. The participants of the “Wixhäuser Grenzgang” this year were guests at GSI and FAIR on their traditional hike along the district borders. During the one hour stopover on the campus the 110 guests got an exciting insight into the current research at GSI and FAIR as well as information about the progress of the FAIR project.

Dr. Ingo Peter and Carola Pomplun from the Public Relations Department welcomed the guests. During their visit, the participants, among others the state parliamentary candidates from CDU and SPD, Irmgard Klaff-Isselmann und Tim Huß, had also the possibility to form their own impressions of the mega construction site for the future FAIR accelerator facility. Of particular interest was the view of the construction site from the hill above the existing SIS18 ring accelerator, which has been extensively upgraded. The guests also had the opportunity to learn about the outstanding experimental opportunities available to researchers at FAIR.

The border crossing, organized by the Wixhausen district administrator Bernd Henske and the first chairman of the trade association Klaus Müller, started at Kerbplatz Wixhausen and ended with a final rest at Aumühle. The “Wixhäuser Grenzgang” has been organised again since its incorporation in 1977, and the district administration has thus revived an old tradition. (BP)

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news-3317 Mon, 24 Sep 2018 10:09:00 +0200 Gisela Taucher-Scholz receives Ulrich Hagen Award https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gisela_taucher_scholz_receives_ulrich_hagen_award.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fc251f56cd761764f5c87d6047281443 The GSI biochemistry professor Gisela Taucher-Scholz has received this year’s Ulrich Hagen Award of the Gesellschaft für Biologische Strahlenforschung (German Society for Biological Radiation Research – GBS). The award presentation ceremony was held as part of the annual GBS congress at the Klinikum Frankfurt on September 17, 2018. The award certificate and a medal were presented by the President of GBS, Professor Michael Hausmann. The GSI biochemistry professor Gisela Taucher-Scholz has received this year’s Ulrich Hagen Award of the Gesellschaft für Biologische Strahlenforschung (German Society for Biological Radiation Research – GBS). The award presentation ceremony was held as part of the annual GBS congress at the Klinikum Frankfurt on September 17, 2018. The award certificate and a medal were presented by the President of GBS, Professor Michael Hausmann.

Gisela Taucher-Scholz studied biochemistry in Santiago, Chile, and received her doctorate for a research project conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg. She has worked in the biophysics department of GSI since 1988, and has headed a research group there since 1999. She was awarded an honorary professorship in biology at the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD) in 2012. Her research activities focus on the molecular radiobiology of charged particles, DNA repair in the context of chromatin, and spatiotemporal studies and living-cell microscopy of repair proteins. In addition to research, her work is mainly devoted to providing support for young academics. This aspect of her work is reflected in her many years of commitment as a juror in the youth science competition “Jugend Forscht” and her scientific presentations to schools as part of the “Brückenschlagen” (Building Bridges) project, to name just a few examples. Since 2011 she has been responsible for the Radiation Biophysics module in the master’s degree program Technical Biology, which is offered every winter semester at GSI.

The Ulrich Hagen Award has been presented since 2004 to scientists for outstanding achievements in the field of radiation research. The award is named after Professor Ulrich Hagen (1925–2007), the pioneer of molecular radiation biology.

GBS presents this award every two years for significant achievements in biological radiation research. In addition to scientific excellence, there are also additional criteria, such as participation in the support of young academics and networking and commitment to the research community in Germany. (cp)

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news-3315 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 09:23:00 +0200 Scientists present new observations to understand the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////scientists_present_new_observations_to_understand_the_phase_transition_in_quantum_chromodynamics.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c4bc89e898582f47be7cbb217d39eb24 The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved (nearly) freely in a quark-gluon plasma. Then, in a phase transition, they combined and formed hadrons, among them the building blocks of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons. In the current issue of the science journal 'Nature', an international team of scientists presents an analysis of a series of experiments at major particle accelerators which sheds light on the nature of this transition. The scientists determined with precision the transition temperature and obtained new insights into the mechanism of cooling and freeze-out of the quark-gluon plasma into the current constituents of matter such as protons, neutrons, and atomic nuclei. The team of researchers consists of scientists from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, and from the universities of Heidelberg, Münster, and Wroclaw (Poland). This is a joint press release of University Muenster and Heidelberg as well as the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.

The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture.  After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved (nearly) freely in a quark-gluon plasma. Then, in a phase transition, they combined and formed hadrons, among them the building blocks of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons. In the current issue of the science journal "Nature", an international team of scientists presents an analysis of a series of experiments at major particle accelerators which sheds light on the nature of this transition. The scientists determined with precision the transition temperature and obtained new insights into the mechanism of cooling and freeze-out of the quark-gluon plasma into the current constituents of matter such as protons, neutrons, and atomic nuclei. The team of researchers consists of scientists from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, and from the universities of Heidelberg, Münster, and Wroclaw (Poland).

Analysis of experimental results confirm the predicted value of the transition temperature / One hundred and twenty thousand times hotter than the interior of the sun

A central result: The experiments at world-wide highest energy with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the research center CERN produce matter where particles and anti-particles coexist, with very high accuracy, in equal amounts, similar to the conditions in the early universe. The team confirms, with analysis of the experimental data, theoretical predictions that the phase transition between quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter takes place at the temperature of 156 MeV. This temperature is 120,000 times higher than that in the interior of the sun.

"Snowballs in hell"

The physicists analyzed more precisely the yields of a number of particles and anti-particles. "Our investigations revealed a number of surprizing discoveries. One of them is that light nuclei and their anti-particles are produced at the same temperature as protons and anti-protons, although their binding energies are about 100 times smaller than the energy corresponding to the transition temperature", explains Prof. Dr. Anton Andronic who recently joined the University of Münster from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The scientists presume that such "loosely bound objects" are formed at high temperature first as compact multi-quark objects which only later develop into the observed light nuclei and anti-nuclei. The existence of such multi-quark states was proposed a long time ago but no convincing evidence was found.

"Confinement": Charm quarks travel freely in the fireball

Another remarkable observation concerns a phenomenon long known but poorly understood: Normally, quarks are confined into the interior of protons and neutrons; isolated quarks have never been observed, a property which scientists describe as "confinement". In the interior of the fireball formed in nuclear collisions at high energy this confinement is lifted (deconfinement). The new study shows that charmonium states such as J/psi mesons, consisting of a pair of charm and anti-charm quarks, are produced far more often at LHC energies compared to observations at lower energies, such as at the "Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider" in the USA. Because of the higher energy density at LHC the opposite, namely a reduction of J/psi mesons through dissociation was expected. In contradistinction, enhancement was predicted 18 years ago by two of the team members (Prof. Dr. Peter Braun-Munzinger, GSI, and Prof. Dr. Johanna Stachel, Universität Heidelberg) because of deconfinement of the charm quarks. The consequences of the prediction were worked out in detail in a series of publications by the whole team. The now observed enhanced production of J/psi particles confirms the prediction: J/psi mesons can only be produced in the observed large quantities if their constituents, the charm- and anticharm quarks, can travel freely in the fireball over distances of a trillionth of a centimeter – corresponding to about ten times the size of a proton. "These observations are a first step towards understanding the phenomenon of confinement in more detail", underlines Prof. Dr. Krzysztof Redlich of the  University of Wroclaw (Poland).

Experiments at CERN  and at Brookhaven National Laboratory

The data were obtained during several years of investigations in the framework of the experiment "ALICE" at the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at the research center CERN near Geneva. In "ALICE", scientists from 41 countries investigated in collisions between two lead nuclei the state of the universe within microseconds after the Big Bang. The highest ever man-made energy densities are produced in such collisions. These result in the formation of matter (quarks and gluons) as it existed at that time in the early universe. In each head-on collision more than 30,000 particles (hadrons) are produced which are then detected in the ALICE experiment. The actual study also used data from experiments at lower energy accelerators, the "Super Proton Synchrotron" at CERN and the "Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider" at the US-Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York.

The investigations were supported in the framework of the "Collaborative Research Center" 1225 "Isolated quantum systems and universality under extreme conditions (ISOQUANT)" by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Furthermore, they were supported by the Polish National Science Center (NCN) (Maestro grant DEC-2013/10/A/ST2/00106).

Relativistic nuclear collisions at GSI

The investigation of relativistic nuclear collisions has a long tradition at GSI, first at the SIS18 accelerator, then at the CERN SPS. Until 1995 the group was led by Prof. Dr. Rudolf Bock, from 1996 on by Prof. Dr. Peter Braun-Munzinger.

The ALICE group at GSI is since 1993 member of the ALICE collaboration and has played a leading role in the design and construction of the experiment as well as in operation and analysis. Prof. Braun-Munzinger had, as project leader of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber TPC as well as in the design and construction of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector TRD, together with his team an important impact on the whole successful experiment and is involved in ALICE data analysis as well as in the development of projects for the future of ALICE. Since 2011 Prof. Dr. Silvia Masciocchi leads the ALICE GSI group.

The phenomenological investigations towards interpretation of the ALICE data which are central to this Nature publication were performed within the framework of the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, currently led by Prof. Braun-Munzinger.

The results reported in the Nature publication are also trail blazing for research at the future FAIR facility: especially the results on the production of light nuclei and hyper-nuclei open new perspectives for the CBM experiment at FAIR.

More information:

Original publication: Andronic A., Braun-Munzinger P., Redlich K. und Stachel J. (2018): Decoding the phase structure of QCD via particle production at high energy. Nature Sep. 20, 2018 issue; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0491-6 

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news-3306 Tue, 18 Sep 2018 10:00:00 +0200 Collector Ring: Contract with Budker Institute has been signed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////collector_ring_contract_with_budker_institute_has_been_signed.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=78d72ef26f86aeced4b8b19cd8bc3bfc The course for development and construction of the Collector Ring (CR), an important part of the future FAIR accelerator center, has been completely set. During the visit of a delegation of representatives of the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) to the FAIR and GSI campus, the contract for the remaining part of the CR was signed together with the management of FAIR and GSI. Prior to this, two contracts concerning the responsibility for the CR project realization and the dipole magnets construction for the CR had already been concluded. The course for development and construction of the Collector Ring (CR), an important part of the future FAIR accelerator center, has been completely set. During the visit of a delegation of representatives of the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) to the FAIR and GSI campus, the contract for the remaining part of the CR was signed together with the management of FAIR and GSI. Prior to this, two contracts concerning the responsibility for the CR project realization and the dipole magnets construction for the CR had already been concluded.

The CR is designed for fast precooling of hot secondary ions coming from the antiproton separator and the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super-FRS). The fast cooling will be done by means of the RF debuncher and stochastic cooling systems, which are developed by GSI.  The CR is going to be used for mass measurements of short-lived secondary rare isotope beams from the Super-FRS in a special CR optical mode as well.

A large part of the CR is being developed under the direction of the Budker Institute as a Russian in-kind contribution to FAIR. The Budker Institute also bears the main responsibility for the Collector Ring. The signed contracts provides that BINP manufactures dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets, a vacuum system, power supplies for all magnets, beam diagnostic components and injection/extraction system. The most challenging components are 26 dipole magnets weighing almost 60 tons each. The BINP is responsible for assembly and commissioning of all CR components at FAIR site.   

With the contract now signed, all decisive prerequisites for the technological demanding Collector Ring are in place. (BP)

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news-3313 Thu, 13 Sep 2018 09:29:00 +0200 “Euroschool on Exotic Beams” celebrates 25th anniversary https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////euroschool_on_exotic_beams_celebrates_25th_anniversary.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=14cff1ccdd78f8d77cbabd7c70e7ae21 The "Euroschool on Exotic Beams" has been a meeting place for graduates, doctoral students and young postdocs for a quarter of a century. Through high-ranked speakers, a good choice of relevant topics and attractive lectures, the school is ideally suited to prepare young scientists for their research work, e.g. at GSI and FAIR. The anniversary event at the end of August 2018 was celebrated at the University of Leuven in Belgium with a special symposium. The "Euroschool on Exotic Beams" has been a meeting place for graduates, doctoral students and young postdocs for a quarter of a century. Through high-ranked speakers, a good choice of relevant topics and attractive lectures, the school is ideally suited to prepare young scientists for their research work, e.g. at GSI and FAIR. The anniversary event at the end of August 2018 was celebrated at the University of Leuven in Belgium with a special symposium. Lectures were given by international experts in nuclear physics to review the progress made in recent decades. Many of the speakers were participants or lecturers of former Euroschool events.

The special symposium was embedded in the Euroschool week 2018, which took place in Leuven from August 26th to September 1st. The school covers general topics in physics of exotic nuclei, experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear structure and reaction dynamics, nuclear astrophysics, research on superheavy elements and interdisciplinary applications in medicine, energy and society.

The aim of the Euroschool is to promote young scientists at the highest level. The main activity is to provide an excellent lecture program that bridges the gap between the university education and the forefront research activities at the European accelerator-based large-scale laboratories. The lectures are given by invited experts of the field and focus on physics, techniques and applications related to modern nuclear research. The Euroschool trains new generations of young scientists from across Europe and helps them to establish contacts with the leading scientists in the field. Therefore, the school is an important asset to prepare the next generation of scientists for their research work at institutions such as GSI and FAIR.

The Euroschool is organized by its “Board of Directors”, an association of twelve European, internationally recognized research scientists and university professors. The chair is the GSI scientist Professor Christoph Scheidenberger. The annual school events take place in different countries and have typically 60 to 80 participants. Over the last 25 years, the Euroschool on Exotic Beams has had around 1200 participants. The first events took place in Leuven (years 1993-1998 and 2000) and were funded by the European Commission via a training and mobility program, while it is funded by various sources since 2006. Since then the school’s funding is based on a Memorandum of Understanding between several European laboratories, including GSI and FAIR, and universities. Since 2001, the school has travelled throughout Europe and took place at 15 different locations in eleven countries. The Euroschool on Exotic Beams is attended by participants from Europe as well as non-European scientists from North and South America, Australia, Africa, India, China and Japan.

Among other achievements, meanwhile five text books have emerged from this school, which are widely used by students and lecturers. (JL)

 

Further information

Web Site: http://www.euroschoolonexoticbeams.be

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news-3311 Mon, 10 Sep 2018 09:12:00 +0200 Hessian Parliament Representative René Rock visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////hessian_parliament_representative_rene_rock_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=687275c7ce98a77852a536ae44d860ed At the beginning of September René Rock, FDP Fraction Chairman in the Hessian Parliament visited the campus of FAIR and GSI. Central topics were the current research program and the progress within the FAIR project. René Rock was accompanied by Brian Röcken, Head of the District Association of Junge Liberale Südhessen. The Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock as well as Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations welcomed the guests on site. At the beginning of September René Rock, FDP Fraction Chairman in the Hessian Parliament visited the campus of FAIR and GSI. Central topics were the current research program and the progress within the FAIR project. René Rock was accompanied by Brian Röcken, Head of the District Association of Junge Liberale Südhessen. The Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock as well as Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations welcomed the guests on site.

In an introductory talk the two FDP politicians got an overview on the GSI research and the FAIR project, one of the largest cutting-edge research projects worldwide. In the following joint conversation, the FAIR and GSI management gave more detailed information on the plans for the scientific use of the FAIR accelerator facility, the strategic goals for FAIR and GSI and the further development of the campus.

During the guided tour through the existing research facility the visitors informed themselves on the research highlights of GSI, e.g. the tumor therapy with carbon ions, the discovery of new elements and the production of cosmic matter at the HADES detector. The guests also got an impression of the high-tech developments for FAIR which are in full progress. Furthermore, René Rock and Brian Röcken were able to take a direct look at the work on the FAIR site during a bus tour. On the 20-hectare site, the shell construction work for the central ring accelerator SIS100 is ongoing and the excavation pit for the first of the future large-scale experiment stations is prepared.

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news-3304 Fri, 31 Aug 2018 09:06:00 +0200 20 years of tumor therapy: Clinical studies began in 1998 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////20_years_of_tumor_therapy_clinical_studies_began_in_1998.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f455ebc3f7caf44b219f8212eb9e7351 Twenty years ago, researchers at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung began to conduct clinical studies of an innovative cancer treatment that used accelerated carbon ions. In August and September 1998, the first patients were treated with a complete course of carbon therapy for a period of three weeks. It was a starting point of a success story that has led from fundamental research to a widespread medical application. Twenty years ago, researchers at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung began to conduct clinical studies of an innovative cancer treatment that used accelerated carbon ions. In August and September 1998, the first patients were treated with a complete course of carbon therapy for a period of three weeks. It was a starting point of a success story that has led from fundamental research to a widespread medical application.

The therapy was the result of joint research by the GSI Helmholtzzentrum, the Clinic of Radiology and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, and the Helmholtz research laboratory in Rossendorf. Individual radiation treatment with heavy ions had initially been conducted as early as December 1997. This had been preceded by four years of technical development of the therapy unit at the heavy-ion accelerator of GSI, which included a radiation facility for patients, and by 20 years of fundamental research in radiation biology and physics.

Treatment with ion beams is a very precise and highly effective, yet extremely gentle, therapeutic process. The major advantage of this method is that the ion beams, which have previously been brought to very high speeds in the accelerator facility of GSI, develop their strongest effect in the tumor itself, while sparing the healthy tissue that surrounds it. Because the range of the heavy-ion beam can be controlled with millimeter precision, particles are stopped inside the tumor and can release their energy there in a concentrated burst. As a result, this process is especially suited for deep-seated tumors that are located near high-risk organs such as the optic nerve or the brain stem.

The raster-scan method, which was also developed at GSI and was used in heavy-ion therapy for the first time, enables the carbon beam to cover the tumor very precisely. The radiation dose can be applied to the malignant tumor tissue point by point. In order to regulate the intensity of the effect, the beam is left long enough at each point to reach the intended dose. Despite the large number of dots/pixels, the irradiation of a field takes only a few minutes. This process makes it possible to irradiate very precisely tumors with complex shapes, and it is a great improvement over conventional beam delivery methods.

In the period until 2008, GSI used carbon ion beams to treat more than 440 patients for tumors of the head and neck with great success. Today, special clinics in Heidelberg (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center — HIT) and Marburg (Marburger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum — MIT) and Shanghai, China, offer customized versions of the treatment that was first used at GSI in Darmstadt 20 years ago. The initiator and the crucial pioneer of this tumor therapy is Professor Gerhard Kraft, who created GSI’s biophysical research department in the early 1980s and was its director from 1981 to 2008. This is how he remembers the early years: “Back then, most people would hardly have thought it possible to make the outstanding biomedical properties of ion beams technically available for therapy. That became possible only through the collaboration of many disciplines, such as nuclear and atomic physics, radiation biology and radiation medicine, accelerator physics, computer science, to name just a few.”

The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, emphasizes the great social benefits of this treatment: “This method is an outstanding example of how fundamental research benefits society and individual patients through successful technology transfer, and how it is being continuously advanced today.” The establishment of the facilities in Heidelberg and Marburg — in whose development and construction GSI played a major role — by no means marks the end of the research work in this field. Additional medical applications are also a major goal of the biophysical research that will be conducted in the APPA program, which is one of the four major research pillars of the future accelerator center FAIR that is currently being built at GSI. FAIR can offer new research opportunities for the next-generation particle therapy, for example using very high-energy ions for radiography or radioactive ions for PET imaging online.

“Having pioneered heavy ion therapy in Europe, GSI is now the main center for research in this field” says the successor of Professor Kraft as Director of the Biophysics Department, Professor Marco Durante. “We are committed to improve particle therapy for the benefit of the patients, and to seek new strategies and solutions to use heavy ion beams for treating cancer and noncancer diseases”, concludes Durante. For example, scientists in the Biophysics Department are working on the combination of heavy ion therapy and immunotherapy. They are also investigating the use of ion beams to treat cardiac arrhythmia. Here too, the advantages of ion therapy — extremely precise point-by-point application and optimal protection of the surrounding tissue — can be put to good use. As a result, in the next few years carbon ions could be successfully used to treat cardiac arrhythmia as a noninvasive alternative to the present treatment with cardiac catheters or drugs.

Another major goal is to treat moving tumors in the inner organs, such as is the case with lung, liver and pancreatic cancer. The ion beam is targeted very exactly, and for this reason the patients must be held in place with millimeter precision so that this high-precision radiation can be effective. However, tumors in the abdominal and thoracic cavities are moved by the patient’s breathing and heartbeat. Current research is therefore searching for ways to achieve the precision and homogeneity that ion beam radiation requires in order to treat moving targets as well as fixed ones. Tumor therapy with heavy ions thus still offers great opportunities for further scientific findings that will enable it to be used even more effectively in the future for the benefit of many patients. (BP)

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news-3302 Fri, 24 Aug 2018 09:06:00 +0200 Parliamentary State Secretary visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////parliamentary_state_secretary_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=df82f621b6e6e56c8929d117a40fc86a Current research activities and the progress of the FAIR project were the focus of the visit of Dr. Michael Meister, Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research, at the FAIR and GSI Campus. The CDU politician and Member of the Bundestag for the Bergstraße constituency was accompanied by Ministerial Counselor Oda Keppler, Head of Unit at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock as well as Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations. Current research activities and the progress of the FAIR project were the focus of the visit of Dr. Michael Meister, Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research, at the FAIR and GSI Campus. The CDU politician and Member of the Bundestag for the Bergstraße constituency was accompanied by Ministerial Counselor Oda Keppler, Head of Unit at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The guests were welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director, Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock as well as Ingo Peter, Head of Public Relations.

After an introductory presentation about the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the development of the FAIR project, which is currently being constructed at GSI and is one of the largest research projects worldwide, there was an opportunity for discussion with the management of FAIR and GSI. This also included an exchange on the strategic goals for FAIR and GSI, which are the basis of the site's activities.

Afterwards a bus tour led over the FAIR construction site, where the visitors informed themselves about the progresses. These included the shell construction of the large SIS100 ring accelerator and the excavation pits for the transfer building, the central hub for guiding the facility´s beam, and for the CBM experimental site. CBM is one of the four research pillars of the future accelerator center.

The visit was completed by a guided tour of the existing accelerator and research facilities, during which the guests gained the latest up-to-date insights into science on campus. They visited among other things the linear accelerator UNILAC, the facility for ion-based tumor therapy that has been developed at GSI, the large-scale experiment R3B and the large-scale detector HADES – all of them key stations, which will also play an important role for future experiments at FAIR. (BP)

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news-3288 Tue, 21 Aug 2018 13:03:00 +0200 Precise Measurements of Six Chromium Isotopes https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////precise_measurements_of_six_chromium_isotopes.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3ec2cda6f7ac17f510e5a7f5494c2a50 An international research team has for the first time at ISOLDE, the Isotope Separator On Line Device at CERN, succeeded in creating six chromium isotopes and measuring their masses up to 300 times more precisely than ever before using the ISOLTRAP ion trap. The ISOLTRAP experiment was largely constructed by scientists from GSI and has been constantly supported by significant contributions from GSI since that time. The new measurement results have enabled scientist to make the first-ever statements concerning trends of the shape and binding energies of these and neighboring isotopes. An international research team has for the first time at ISOLDE, the Isotope Separator On Line Device at CERN, succeeded in creating six chromium isotopes and measuring their masses up to 300 times more precisely than ever before using the ISOLTRAP ion trap. The ISOLTRAP experiment was largely constructed by scientists from GSI and has been constantly supported by significant contributions from GSI since that time. The new measurement results have enabled scientist to make the first-ever statements concerning trends of the shape and binding energies of these and neighboring isotopes. 

The masses of the exotic chromium nuclides were measured more accurately than ever before by the experimenters at CERN in the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The binding energies can be derived from the results. When the physicists plot the binding energies of the six isotopes they can draw a trend line through the points and from this line they can see whether a shell closure occurs in this region or the nuclear shape suddenly changes between one isotope and the next. The measurement uncertainties were previously too large to enable reliable statements. “Thanks to the new, extremely precise measurements we can now state with confidence that the abrupt change of shape that had previously been speculated about does not occur in the case of these isotopes,” said Frank Herfurth, a scientist from GSI who participated in the experiment. “The new, more exact data shows us a slow change of shape away from the symmetrical form. Thanks to the joint efforts of experimenters and theorists we have been able to compare our results with an ab initio model for the first time. These are special nuclear models, the calculations of which are essentially based on the interactions of protons and neutrons and thus are less dependent on intuitive approximations. Two out of four nuclear structure models confirm our observation, the other two don’t. The experiment results are a valuable help to test the assumptions that underlie the different models.”

ISOLTRAP is a Penning trap mass spectrometer combined with a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-ToF) mass separator. This structure enables the masses of especially rare isotopes to be measured directly. The combination of two Penning traps enables precise and clean measurements unaffected by contaminants. The most exact mass measurements of exotic, short-lived nuclei can thus be carried out using penning trap spectrometers.

ISOLTRAP is a forerunner of the Penning trap precision experiment for exotic ions. Technology, software, and hardware that has been and is being developed for ISOLTRAP is in use at SHIPTRAP, HITRAP, and is also planned for use at the FAIR experiment collaboration MATS within the NUSTAR collaboration. At FAIR, the particle accelerator facility that is under construction at GSI, similar experiments with even more exotic nuclei are planned.

The ISOLTRAP experiment, initiated by the former head of Atomic Physics at GSI, Prof. Kluge, is the result of a collaboration over many years between GSI, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the University of Greifswald, and the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg. In recent years MPIK’s Prof. Blaum has taken over the leadership of the collaboration, and the Institute continues to be supported in this by various GSI/FAIR departments such as Experiment Electronics, Atomic Physics, and Decelerators.

More information

Original publication in Physical review Letters: Precision Mass Measurements of 58–63Cr: Nuclear Collectivity Towards the N=40 Island of Inversion

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news-3298 Mon, 20 Aug 2018 09:00:00 +0200 Hessian Parliament Representative Jörg-Uwe Hahn to visit FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////hessian_parliament_representative_joerg_uwe_hahn_to_visit_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=afda36139ee9ba62eaa82f3ed4270540 Jörg-Uwe Hahn, member of the FDP fraction of the Hessian Parliament, recently visited FAIR and GSI. The politician and former Hessian Minister of Justice informed himself about current research and the progress of the FAIR construction project, one of the largest research projects for cutting-edge research worldwide. Jörg-Uwe Hahn, who came to the campus together with party colleague Dr. Dierk Molter, honorary city councillor in Darmstadt, was received by the Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock s well as Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations. Jörg-Uwe Hahn, member of the FDP fraction of the Hessian Parliament, recently visited FAIR and GSI. The politician and former Hessian Minister of Justice informed himself about current research and the progress of the FAIR construction project, one of the largest research projects for cutting-edge research worldwide. Jörg-Uwe Hahn, who came to the campus together with party colleague Dr. Dierk Molter, honorary city councillor in Darmstadt, was received by the Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich and the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock s well as Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations.

After a presentation about the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR, there was also an opportunity for exchange, for example about the strategic goals for FAIR and GSI. Afterwards, a tour of the existing accelerator facility and the FAIR construction site was on the agenda.

During the tour of the construction site, Jörg-Uwe Hahn and Dr. Dierk Molter were able to take a direct look at the work on the 20-hectare site, for example the ongoing shell construction work for the central ring accelerator SIS100 and the excavation pit for the first of the future large-scale experiment stations to be built. (BP)

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news-3296 Thu, 16 Aug 2018 11:00:00 +0200 Ruprecht Karls Award for Dr. Andreas Samberg https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////ruprecht_karls_award_for_dr_andreas_samberg.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=155d941cea52e2b79289ce1ec5a60873 Dr. Andreas Samberg has received the Ruprecht Karls Award for outstanding scientific achievements in his PhD dissertation. The Heidelberg University Foundation honors his research on the theory of strongly coupled quantum systems performed at the University Heidelberg and at the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at GSI. Dr. Andreas Samberg has received the Ruprecht Karls Award for outstanding scientific achievements in his PhD dissertation. The Heidelberg University Foundation honors his research on the theory of strongly coupled quantum systems performed at the University Heidelberg and at the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at GSI.

Dr. Andreas Samberg has received the Ruprecht Karls Award for his doctoral thesis entitled "Applied String Theory, Hot and Cold: A Holographic View on Quark-Gluon Plasma and Superfluids". In his research work, Dr. Andreas Samberg uses methods from string theory to describe strongly interacting quantum systems in terms of weakly interacting theories of gravity in a higher-dimensional space. The principle of this holographic duality is analogous to the well-known holograms on banknotes which generate a three-dimensional picture from a flat metal film. This holographic duality is employed by Andreas Samberg for the description of the hottest and coldest forms of matter in the Universe. On the one hand, he considers the behavior of heavy quarks in the quark-gluon plasma - an extremely hot state of matter which microseconds after the Big Bang filled the whole Universe and which is now created at the LHC accelerator at CERN. He also studies this state of matter at very high densities as they will be reached in experiments at the future FAIR facility. On the other hand, he considers a phenomenon due to which fluids flow without any viscosity at low temperatures, so-called superfluidity. He discovers new aspects of the dynamics of this state of matter, in particular concerning the turbulence of vortices at strong coupling. Two-dimensional superfluids as they are investigated here will be realized in future experiments on ultra-cold quantum gases.

The thesis honored by the award was performed under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Carlo Ewerz at Heidelberg University and at the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI at GSI. It was supported by GSI with a fellowship in the framework of the strategic cooperation with Heidelberg University. During his thesis work, Andreas Samberg was a member of the Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics (HGSFP) and of the Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research (HGS-HIRe). Together with EMMI, the latter supported a research stay of several months at Princeton University (USA).

The Ruprecht Karls Award is endowed with 3000 Euro and is awarded by the Heidelberg University Foundation for outstanding research work by young scientists at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg. Each year, the award honors the five best doctoral theses of all disciplines at Heidelberg University which are selected in a university-wide, multistage procedure. The award was presented in a ceremony in the Great Hall of the University Heidelberg.

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news-3276 Fri, 03 Aug 2018 09:00:00 +0200 Semenov Medal awarded to Professor Rudolf Bock https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////semenov_medal_awarded_to_professor_rudolf_bock.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fbb034b2dcd85ed81e04e832e3dcde99 In July 2018 the Semenov Medal in gold was awarded to Professor Rudolf Bock at FAIR and GSI in the framework of a small ceremony. The medal was presented by Professor Vladimir Fortov from the Russian Academy of Science (RAS), member of the FAIR Council, in the presence of the FAIR and GSI Management Board – Professor Paolo Giubellino, Ursula Weyrich and Jörg Blaurock – as well as Professor Boris Sharkov, former Scientific Director of FAIR. In July 2018 the Semenov Medal in gold was awarded to Professor Rudolf Bock at FAIR and GSI in the framework of a small ceremony. The medal was presented by Professor Vladimir Fortov from the Russian Academy of Science (RAS), member of the FAIR Council, in the presence of the FAIR and GSI Management Board – Professor Paolo Giubellino, Ursula Weyrich and Jörg Blaurock – as well as Professor Boris Sharkov, former Scientific Director of FAIR.

Professor Bock receives this high-ranking award for his outstanding achievements in the field of heavy ion research. In his laudatio Fortov commended Rudolf Bock on his accomplishments in the fields of heavy ion physics and as one of the founding fathers of GSI. In addition, he emphasized the important contributions of Rudolf Bock to the Russian-German collaboration in research over several generations, in particular his support for young scientists.

Rudolf Bock studied physics at Heidelberg University, where he received his PhD in 1958 with a thesis on nuclear reactions, supervised by Nobel Prize winner Professor Walther Bothe. Afterwards, as a member of the newly founded  Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Research in Heidelberg, he started heavy ion research at the new Tandem accelerator, the first one in Germany. In 1967, he became professor at Marburg University from where he pursued the founding of the new heavy ion research center GSI, jointly with other Hessian professors. After its foundation in 1969 he belonged to the board of directors from 1970 to 1995. From the beginning he took care of many international collaborations, in particular with Russian research institutes, since 1982 also in the framework of a research project on energy production via intertial fusion driven by heavy ion beams.  Since 1979 he is External Scientific Member of the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, since 1979 he is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He was awarded with a Honorary Professorship of the Chinese Academy of Science in 1987, and an honorary doctorate at the University of Frankfurt in 2000.

The Semenov medal is named after Nikolai Nikolayevich Semenov (1896-1986), one of the founders of physical chemistry, creator of polymer theory and author of many publications on chemical kinetics, awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1956. The Semenov medal can awarded by RAS to Russian or foreign scientists who have made major contributions to the development of physical and chemical sciences.

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news-3294 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 11:20:58 +0200 Visit to FAIR and GSI by Kerstin Radomski, member of the Bundestag https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////visit_to_fair_and_gsi_by_kerstin_radomski_member_of_the_bundestag.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ae620ed0bc1a0731dcae4f9a30b96f9d The progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on the Campus were the central topics during the visit of Kerstin Radomski, member of the Bundestag. The politician comes from Krefeld and belongs to the CDU party. Her positions include member of the budget committee of the Bundestag and deputy member of the committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. She was received by Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations. The progress of the FAIR project and the current scientific activities on the Campus were the central topics during the visit of Kerstin Radomski, a member of the Bundestag. The politician comes from Krefeld and belongs to the CDU party. Her positions include member of the budget committee of the Bundestag and deputy member of the committee on Education, Research and Technology Assessment. She was received by Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, and Ingo Peter, the Head of Public Relations.

Ms. Radomski informed herself about the current status of the FAIR construction project, which is one of the largest cutting-edge research projects worldwide, and about previous research successes and the current experimental program “FAIR Phase 0.” The visit also provided an opportunity to discuss the strategic goals in all of the areas of management. These goals provide the framework for all of the activities conducted at FAIR and GSI

Ms. Radomski was able to view the progress on the FAIR construction site from close up during a drive around the site. The status of the various building works ranged from the recently started shell construction for the SIS100 central ring accelerator to the excavation pit for the first of the large-scale experimental stations to be built. Information was also provided about the project organization behind the work and the construction site logistics.

The visit concluded with a tour which provided Ms. Radomski with an insight into the existing research facilities. She visited the Experimental Storage Ring ESR, the therapy unit for tumor treatment using carbon ions, and the HADES large-scale detector. (BP)

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news-3284 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 10:00:00 +0200 PANDA Collaboration honors PhD: Theory Prize for Dr. Antje Peters https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////panda_collaboration_honors_phd_theory_prize_for_dr_antje_peters.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f9b5c58facf1f620f6696c4c1a38f585 Dr. Antje Peters has been honoured with the PANDA Theory PhD Prize 2018 for her doctoral thesis at the Goethe University in Frankfurt. She received the award at the most recent PANDA Collaboration Meeting in Stockholm. Dr. Antje Peters has been honoured with the PANDA Theory PhD Prize 2018 for her doctoral thesis at the Goethe University in Frankfurt. She received the award at the most recent PANDA Collaboration Meeting in Stockholm.

Physicist Antje Peters, 27, received the prize of €200 and a certificate for her dissertation titled Investigation of heavy-light four-quark systems by means of Lattice QCD. Her doctoral advisor was JProf. Dr. Marc Wagner from the Goethe University in Frankfurt.

The PANDA Collaboration has awarded the Theory PhD Prize for the first time in order to honor the best theory dissertation written in connection with the PANDA Experiment and its science program. It will be granted annually. PANDA will be one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR. The experiment focuses on antimatter research as well as on various topics related to the weak and the strong force, exotic states of matter, and the structure of hadrons. More than 500 scientists from 20 countries currently work in the PANDA Collaboration. In her dissertation, Dr. Peters studied lattice QCD calculations for open-flavour tetra-quark systems – a very important topic for the PANDA physics program.

Candidates for the PhD Prize are nominated by their doctoral advisors. In addition to being directly related to the PANDA Experiment, the nominees’ doctoral degrees must have received a rating of “very good” or better. Up to three candidates are shortlisted for the award and can present their dissertations at the PANDA Collaboration meeting. The winner is chosen by a committee that is appointed for this task by the PANDA Collaboration. The PANDA Collaboration awards the Theory PhD Prize to specifically honor students’ contributions to the PANDA project and to highlight the importance of cooperation with theory groups. (BP)

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news-3292 Tue, 24 Jul 2018 08:46:00 +0200 Welcome Summer Students! https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////welcome_summer_students-1.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a8d15bc4583e1802331b323ae9d6e3f1 36 students from 24 countries take part in this year’s Summer Student Program at GSI and FAIR. During their eight-weeks stay on the campus they participate actively in GSI and FAIR science projects, get to know the experiments and the research areas and get involved in the everyday working life at an accelerator institute. 36 students from 24 countries take part in this year’s Summer Student Program at GSI and FAIR. During their eight-weeks stay on the campus they participate actively in GSI and FAIR science projects, get to know the experiments and the research areas and get involved in the everyday working life at an accelerator institute.

From plasma physics to tumor therapy and atomic physics: Every summer student gets the chance to work on his own research project within the current GSI and FAIR experiments.

The main focus are developments and tests of technical and experimental components for the accelerator facility FAIR, which is being built at GSI, and its future experiments. Apart from the scientific program there are also social events planned like a barbecue party, a football match or trips to the region for networking and international exchange. In public lectures, which are part of the program, the summer students learn about GSI and FAIR research and scientific results.

For many of the students, who come mainly from European but also from more distant countries in Asia or Central America, the Summer Student Program is the first step to a master or PhD thesis at GSI and FAIR. The Summer Student Program, which takes place for the 38th time, is organized together with the graduate school HGS-HIRe.

The lectures are public and can be visited by everyone.

More information

Sommer Student Program of GSI and FAIR

Lectures

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news-3280 Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:39:00 +0200 Workshop on next-generation medical accelerators for cancer treatment https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////workshop_on_next_generation_medical_accelerators_for_cancer_treatment.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f6fd111494a1d4d753fcd48fd361cf8c Sixty experts from all over the world met at ESI, the European Scientific Institute in France, in June to jointly explore future medical accelerators for treating cancer with ions. The workshop, “Ions for cancer therapy, space research and material science”, jointly organised by CERN, GSI and ESI, focused on possibilities to advance towards the design for a next generation medical and research facility for ion therapy in Europe. It is the second workshop of a series initiated by GSI to highlight the increasingly important interface between physics and its applications. Sixty experts from all over the world met at ESI, the European Scientific Institute in France, in June to jointly explore future medical accelerators for treating cancer with ions. The workshop, “Ions for cancer therapy, space research and material science”, jointly organised by CERN, GSI and ESI, focused on possibilities to advance towards the design for a next generation medical and research facility for ion therapy in Europe. It is the second workshop of a series initiated by GSI to highlight the increasingly important interface between physics and its applications.

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news-3274 Wed, 18 Jul 2018 08:13:00 +0200 Delegation from Thailand obtains information about FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////delegation_from_thailand_obtains_information_about_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=dc0a5e9cf032de45e2c6c7c919a70e2a A high-ranking delegation from Thailand consisting of 15 participants visited the FAIR and GSI facilities in June. To the group, among others, belonged Professor Soranit Siltharm, Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. A high-ranking delegation from Thailand consisting of 15 participants visited the FAIR and GSI facilities in June. To the group, among others, belonged Professor Soranit Siltharm, Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, welcomed the participants and informed them about the research activities. Subsequently, Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, gave an overview about the FAIR project and the advancements of the construction, which was enhanced by a bus tour to the construction site.

Furthermore, Dr. Michael Schulz and Dr. Pradeep Ghosh reported on the biophysics research and the student program GET_involved. In a guided tour lead by Dr. Ingo Peter and Dr. Klaus-Dieter Groß, the guests from Thailand visited the existing research facility: In the Main Control Room they were able to witness the commissioning of the accelerator. Also they visited the experimental storage ring ESR, the therapy facility for the treatment of tumors with carbon ions as well as the large-scale detector HADES. In the energy-efficient high-performance computer center Green IT Cube they got to know more about the data processing of FAIR and GSI.

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news-3282 Mon, 16 Jul 2018 08:01:00 +0200 GSI biophysicist Christian Graeff is honored https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gsi_biophysicist_christian_graeff_is_honored.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f9263ed518ae8c30e0b3bb226f184cda The GSI biophysicist Dr. Christian Graeff has been honored for his scientific achievements with the Günther von Pannewitz Award of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). The award was presented in recognition of his research on the use of ion beams to treat cardiac arrhythmia. Dr. Graeff accepted the award at the DEGRO annual congress in Leipzig. The GSI biophysicist Dr. Christian Graeff has been honored for his scientific achievements with the Günther von Pannewitz Award of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). The award was presented in recognition of his research on the use of ion beams to treat cardiac arrhythmia. Dr. Graeff accepted the award at the DEGRO annual congress in Leipzig.

He is the leader of the Medical Physics group at the Biophysics Department at GSI. His field of research includes innovative applications of ion beams, for example in a process that could be used in the future to treat cardiac arrhythmia. The ion beams used in the process were made up of carbon ions. As in the tumor therapy that has already been developed at GSI, the ions can be directed very precisely, while leaving the surrounding tissue largely unscathed. In the next few years, carbon ions could be successfully used to treat cardiac arrhythmia as a noninvasive alternative to the present treatment with cardiac catheters or drugs.

After studying medical engineering at Hamburg University of Technology, Graeff received his doctorate in engineering with a study of the computer tomography-supported diagnostics of osteoporosis. He did postdoctoral work in the Medical Physics group of the Biophysics Department at GSI. He has been the leader of this group since 2012. His research has focused on innovative applications of ion beams, the development of processes for irradiating moving targets with scanned ion beams, and the development of new therapy monitoring systems for raster scanning.

The Günther von Pannewitz Award, which is endowed with €1,000, is presented in recognition of outstanding research work devoted to radiation therapy for non-malignant diseases, including radiation biology, radiation physics, and clinical research.  The presentation of this award honors the lifetime achievement of the Freiburg-based radiologist Günther von Pannewitz. (BP)

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news-3278 Fri, 13 Jul 2018 08:53:00 +0200 Patrick Burghardt gets informed about FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////patrick_burghardt_gets_informed_about_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b33a1b97a5f4bf1a481cd3a6f939adb7 In July Patrick Burghardt, State Secretary in the Hessen State Ministry for Higher Education, Research and the Arts (HMWK), visited FAIR and GSI. He was accompanied by Ulrike Mattig, representative of the State of Hesse in the FAIR Council and deputy chair of the GSI supervisory board. Burghardt took the opportunity to extensively inform himself about the research of the existing facility and the progress on the construction site. “Today I could see for myself about the cutting-edge research at GSI! You have to experience what’s happening here to understand it,” he commented his visit on Twitter. In July Patrick Burghardt, State Secretary in the Hessen State Ministry for Higher Education, Research and the Arts (HMWK), visited FAIR and GSI. He was accompanied by Ulrike Mattig, representative of the State of Hesse in the FAIR Council and deputy chair of the GSI supervisory board. Burghardt took the opportunity to extensively inform himself about the research of the existing facility and the progress on the construction site. “Today I could see for myself about the cutting-edge research at GSI! You have to experience what’s happening here to understand it,” he commented his visit on Twitter.

Burghardt was welcomed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, and Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. In a joint discussion they reported about previous research highlights and the currently running research program of GSI, as well the plans for the scientific use of the FAIR accelerator facility. Burghardt received comprehensive information about the construction of FAIR, and was able to see the progress with his own eyes on a subsequent bus tour to the construction site.

In the following tour to the existing GSI facility he witnessed the accelerator operation in the main control room. He also visited the experimental storage ring ESR, and learned more about the tumor therapy with carbon ions developed at GSI.

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news-3270 Wed, 11 Jul 2018 09:00:00 +0200 Muons influence supernova explosion mechanisms https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////muons_influence_supernova_explosion_mechanisms.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=57f84d89a3b20e12aef9e6cd980b9160 Complex processes take place on the microphysical level when a star explodes and becomes a neutron star. According to the latest findings the role of muons in these supernovas must be reconsidered. The muons — elementary particles that were previously neglected — have an effect on the speed of the contraction to form the neutron star. Thus they also affect the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism. The findings were made by scientists from GSI and FAIR, TU Darmstadt, the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching, and Indiana University in the USA. Complex processes take place on the microphysical level when a star explodes and becomes a neutron star. According to the latest findings the role of muons in these supernovas must be reconsidered. The muons — elementary particles that were previously neglected — have an effect on the speed of the contraction to form the neutron star. Thus they also affect the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism. The findings were made by scientists from GSI and FAIR, TU Darmstadt, the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching, and Indiana University in the USA.

What exactly happens when a star explodes and becomes a neutron star? Scientists use complex model calculations to study this question. Simulations of a neutrino-driven supernova explosion have now provided indications that the muon, an elementary particle that was previously unjustifiably neglected in the calculations, actually needs to be taken into account. This result has been published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Muons have previously been neglected in simulations of supernova explosions because it had been assumed that they were not produced in significant quantities in such events. The scientists working with Prof. Gabriel Martínez Pinedo, a theoretical physicist at GSI/FAIR and TU Darmstadt, have shown in their publication that the temperature and the electrochemical potential, however, are such that muon production is possible. “That changes the composition of the particles in the stellar material and the neutrino emission,” says Martínez Pinedo. These two effects are based on the following mechanism: A neutron star forms in the interior of certain supernovae. As such a star forms, it attracts matter, and powerful gravitational forces are present. Electrons in the interior of the neutron star, however, work against the gravitation due to their mutual repulsion and so create pressure. A proportion of these electrons are now converted into muons. Because muons have a higher mass than electrons, they generate less counterpressure in the interior of the neutron star being formed. As a result, the contraction speeds up. The faster contraction gives rise to more heat, which results in more neutrinos being produced and emitted. That affects the explosion mechanism. “The models must therefore take account of muons, because they affect the supernova explosion mechanism,” concludes Martínez Pinedo.

Theoretical calculations often provide important reference points for laboratory experiments. This is also the case at GSI and FAIR. Cosmic matter can be created in the laboratory using the particle accelerators in Darmstadt. The HADES experiment and the future CBM experiment at FAIR can, for example, reach the temperatures and densities at which the muon production takes place during neutron star formation. Theoretical predictions could provide the experimental physicists with orientation when they evaluate their experiments. “For our next step we are planning simulations that will tell us more about the role of the pions,” says Martínez Pinedo, looking forward. “They could also be playing an important role that is not yet completely understood.”

Original Publication:

Muon Creation in Supernova Matter Facilitates Neutrino-Driven Explosions, Physical Review Letters

 

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news-3272 Mon, 09 Jul 2018 09:28:58 +0200 Lord Mayor of Darmstadt learns about the progress of the FAIR project https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////lord_mayor_of_darmstadt_learns_about_the_progress_of_the_fair_project.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a67e268b86ef3504b3b7fd5c426d3a55 Future developments and research at GSI and FAIR were the focus of a visit by the Lord Mayor of Darmstadt, Jochen Partsch. The first point on the agenda was an introductory presentation of the current status of the center’s scientific activities and the progress of the FAIR project. Future developments and research at GSI and FAIR were the focus of a visit by the Lord Mayor of Darmstadt, Jochen Partsch. The first point on the agenda was an introductory presentation of the current status of the center’s scientific activities and the progress of the FAIR project.

A conversation with the management of GSI and FAIR offered the Lord Mayor an opportunity to find out about the strategic goals of the areas represented by the Scientific Managing Director, Professor Paolo Giubellino; the Administrative Managing Director, Ursula Weyrich; and the Technical Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock. Significant steps towards achieving these goals are already visible today. The “FAIR-Phase 0” research program is just beginning, the construction of FAIR is making great progress, the started upgrades of the existing facilities are on the home straight, and the constructional development of the campus is also significantly forging ahead. The outstanding profile of Darmstadt as a research site was another theme discussed during the Lord Mayor’s visit.

The discussion was followed by a tour of the FAIR construction site to observe the current status of the work under way there, including the excavation of the pit for the SIS100 accelerator tunnel, which has now reached a depth of 17 meters, and the further construction measures. On a tour of the existing accelerator facility, Jochen Partsch also visited the main control room, which has been restructured, technically optimized, and equipped with state-of-the-art technology for its future task of controlling the complex accelerator facilities of GSI and FAIR. (BP)

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news-3260 Thu, 05 Jul 2018 10:00:00 +0200 A prestigious award for Professor Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////a_prestigious_award_for_professor_nasser_kalantar_nayestanaki.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fd862a4feae806bd3c5294ebc29cfe8c Professor Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki has been named a Knight of the Order of the Netherlands Lion. This honor, which is the oldest and highest order of chivalry open to civilians in the Netherlands, was awarded to Kalantar-Nayestanaki in recognition of his achievements in the field of nuclear research and his social commitment. Kalantar-Nayestanaki has been connected with GSI and FAIR for many years through his scientific work. Among other things, he is a member and a former spokesperson of the international NUSTAR collaboration and the Vice President of the GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO). Professor Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki has been named a Knight of the Order of the Netherlands Lion. This honor, which is the oldest and highest order of chivalry open to civilians in the Netherlands, was awarded to Kalantar-Nayestanaki in recognition of his achievements in the field of nuclear research and his social commitment. Kalantar-Nayestanaki has been connected with GSI and FAIR for many years through his scientific work. Among other things, he is a member and a former spokesperson of the international NUSTAR collaboration and the Vice President of the GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO).

Kalantar-Nayestanaki, who was born in Iran, conducts research and teaches as a professor of experimental nuclear physics at the KVI Center for Advanced Radiation Technology at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He has made a name for himself at the international level primarily for his research on the forces acting between very small nuclear particles. His research has focused on fields including systems consisting of a small number of nucleons, the structures of exotic nuclei, and hadron spectroscopy. Thanks to Kalantar-Nayestanaki’s outstanding research, the processes for calculating the forces within systems consisting of three nuclear particles have been significantly improved. His more than 350 publications are often cited by fellow researchers all over the world. In 2013 he was made a Fellow of the American Physical Society, and in 2017 he was elected a member of the Academia Europaea.

He also participates in the FAIR research program, in particular through the NUSTAR collaboration, which is one of the four scientific pillars of this future accelerator center. His research within NUSTAR focuses on matter under extreme conditions. As the speaker of NUSTAR, he also took on the task of representing the more than 850 participating scientists from 40 countries.

In addition to his numerous academic activities, he also represents the interests of individuals in other fields, for example in the representative body of employees of the University of Groningen. For many years he was also the Chairman of the Minority Council in Groningen, which advised the municipality on social issues.

Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki expressed great pleasure upon receiving his recent award. “I feel extremely honored. This award gives me an extra impetus to continue my activities with commitment and scientific curiosity,” he said. He also expressed his enthusiasm about the unique research opportunities that will be opened by FAIR: “For example, in combination with other studies in which I also participate, we will find out a great deal of new information about how the elements originated within the interiors of stars and what kinds of properties they have. FAIR truly brings the universe into the laboratory.”

The Order of the Netherlands Lion has been awarded since the 19th century in the name of the King to individuals who have rendered outstanding services to society. The order was founded by King William I of the Netherlands, and its Grand Master is the current monarch of the Netherlands. The recipients of this award have included scientists, artists, and successful athletes. (BP)

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news-3268 Wed, 04 Jul 2018 08:07:00 +0200 “FAIR is a reason to be here” — Dr. Alexandre Obertelli receives Humboldt Professorship at TU Darmstadt https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_is_a_reason_to_be_here_dr_alexandre_obertelli_receives_humboldt_professorship_at_tu.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=d81c496e6ae06f56ac61a01c6277db2e The Technical University Darmstadt is awarded an Alexander von Humboldt Professorship for the first time; it is also the first one in the state of Hesse. In his role as a Humboldt Professor at TU Darmstadt, Dr. Alexandre Obertelli is set to expand the field of physics of rare isotopes into a world‐leading research location. He will also be involved in the development of the FAIR particle accelerator facility at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, which is currently under construction. The nuclear physicist, nominated by the TU Darmstadt, is one of five scientists from abroad who have been selected this year for Germany's most highly endowed international research award. The Technical University Darmstadt is awarded an Alexander von Humboldt Professorship for the first time; it is also the first one in the state of Hesse. In his role as a Humboldt Professor at TU Darmstadt, Dr. Alexandre Obertelli is set to expand the field of physics of rare isotopes into a world‐leading research location. He will also be involved in the development of the FAIR particle accelerator facility at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, which is currently under construction. The nuclear physicist, nominated by the TU Darmstadt, is one of five scientists from abroad who have been selected this year for Germany's most highly endowed international research award.

“The international FAIR accelerator facility with its unique research opportunities for scientists from all over the world is one of the reasons for me to come to TU Darmstadt,” says Obertelli. “I look forward to working at FAIR and contributing to its scientific output by my research. This will also enhance the cooperation between TU Darmstadt and FAIR, and will further establish the ‘City of Science’ Darmstadt as a world-class research location.”

The Alexander von Humboldt Professorship, which is endowed with up to five million euros each, is awarded to the world's leading researchers of all disciplines who have so far worked in another country. They are to conduct forward-looking research at German universities in the long term. The award is granted by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

The Humboldt Professorship enables German universities to offer top international researchers competitive general conditions for research and to sharpen their own international profiles in the global research market at the same time. The award is granted on the precondition that the new Humboldt Professors are given long-term prospects for their research in Germany. To date, a total of 68 researchers, including twelve women, have been appointed to a Humboldt Professorship, facilitating their move to Germany.

Born in France, Alexandre Obertelli previously worked at the Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (IRFU) at the Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) in Paris‐Saclay, France, from 2006 as a Senior Researcher. In between times, he conducted research in the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University, USA, and at the RIKEN Research Institute in Japan. His work has gained him numerous grants, including an ERC Starting Grant and an ERC Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council. He is a member of various programme advisory boards at renowned research institutions like CERN in Switzerland as well as the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCPN) and RIKEN in Japan. In the context of FAIR and GSI Obertelli already has a number of tangible project proposals for the enhancement of the scientific coverage of the R3B and HISPEC experiments which belong to NUSTAR (Nuclear Structure, Astrophysics and Reactions), one of the four experimental pillars of FAIR.

Experimental nuclear physics — research focus

How were chemical elements — the building blocks of our world — originally formed? What are the processes behind their formation? In the context of these fundamental questions in nuclear and atomic physics Alexandre Obertelli studies so‐called exotic nuclei, atomic nuclei with a comparatively disproportionate number of protons or neutrons. They have barely been researched so far. A deeper understanding of their properties could provide insights into the development of elements in the universe because neutron‐rich atomic nuclei play a central role in the formation of heavy elements. In this connection, Obertelli led experimental investigations on the reactions and structures of exotic nuclei which have now become a benchmark in nuclear physics. He has also developed and implemented spectroscopic measuring methods for characterising extremely neutron‐rich isotopes, whose further developments shall be implemented at FAIR. In the framework of his Humboldt Professorship he plans new projects for an enhancement of the R3B experiment to facilitate  new research opportunities with exotic ions beams at FAIR, e.g. the study of neutron-rich hyper nuclei or the exploration of properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter as it occurs in neutron stars.

Further information
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FAIR
news-3266 Mon, 02 Jul 2018 10:00:00 +0200 FDP Secretary General visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fdp_secretary_general_visits_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=0144ed4252d3fc15bc3f364b0107ee8b The Secretary General of the FDP political party, Nicola Beer, visited the research facilities of FAIR and GSI, where she learned about the research being conducted there as well as about the progress of the FAIR project. She was received by the Scientific Managing Director, Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director, Ursula Weyrich, and the Technical Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock. The Secretary General of the FDP political party, Nicola Beer, visited the research facilities of FAIR and GSI, where she learned about the research being conducted there as well as about the progress of the FAIR project. She was received by the Scientific Managing Director, Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director, Ursula Weyrich, and the Technical Managing Director, Jörg Blaurock.

Ms. Beer and the management first discussed the strategic goals of the activities conducted at FAIR and GSI. Significant steps towards achieving these goals are already visible today. The “FAIR-Phase 0” research program is just beginning, the construction of FAIR is making great progress, the started upgrades of the existing facilities are on the home straight, and the constructional development of the campus is also significantly forging ahead.

In addition to receiving information about the progress that is being made at all strategic levels, Ms. Beer was given a guided tour of the existing accelerator facility, including the UNILAC linear accelerator, the main control room, the therapy center for tumor treatment with carbon ions, the ESR experimental storage ring, the HADES large detector, and the Green IT Cube. During her visit, Nicola Beer, elected representative in the German Bundestag and member of the parliamentary Committee on Education, Research and Technical Assessment, also had the opportunity to take a tour of the construction site to find out about the current status of the unique accelerator center FAIR, which is currently under construction. (BP)

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news-3264 Wed, 27 Jun 2018 10:00:00 +0200 Probing nobelium with laser light https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////probing_nobelium_with_laser_light.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b15c25a39b2ae682151d9b9b2fe6a64b Sizes and shapes of nuclei with more than 100 protons were so far experimentally inaccessible. Laser spectroscopy is an established technique in measuring fundamental properties of exotic atoms and their nuclei. For the first time, this technique was now extended to precisely measure the optical excitation of atomic levels in the atomic shell of three isotopes of the heavy element nobelium, which contain 102 protons in their nuclei and do not occur naturally. This was reported by an international team lead by scientists from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Nuclei of heavy elements can be produced at minute quantities of a few atoms per second in fusion reactions using powerful particle accelerators. The obtained results are well described by nuclear models, which suggest the nuclei to have a bubble-like structure with lower density in their center than at their surface. The results were published in a recent article in Physical Review Letters. Sizes and shapes of nuclei with more than 100 protons were so far experimentally inaccessible. Laser spectroscopy is an established technique in measuring fundamental properties of exotic atoms and their nuclei. For the first time, this technique was now extended to precisely measure the optical excitation of atomic levels in the atomic shell of three isotopes of the heavy element nobelium, which contain 102 protons in their nuclei and do not occur naturally. This was reported by an international team lead by scientists from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Nuclei of heavy elements can be produced at minute quantities of a few atoms per second in fusion reactions using powerful particle accelerators. The obtained results are well described by nuclear models, which suggest the nuclei to have a bubble-like structure with lower density in their center than at their surface. The results were published in a recent article in Physical Review Letters.

Atoms consist of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by an electron shell. The inner electrons penetrate the volume of the nucleus and thus atomic level energies are influenced by the size and shape of the atomic nucleus. A difference in size of two different atomic nuclei resulting, for example, from a different number of neutrons results in a small shift of electronic energy levels. Precise measurements of these energies are possible using laser light. Energy shifts are traced by varying the frequency and correspondingly the color of the light required to excite electrons to higher energy levels. So far, this method could only be applied to isotopes of lighter elements which are produced at larger production rates and whose atomic structure was already known from experiments with abundant long-lived or stable isotopes. Nuclei of elements above fermium (Fm, Z=100) can be produced at minute quantities of a few atoms per second in fusion reactions and generally exist only for at most a few seconds. Therefore, their atomic structure was so far not accessible with laser spectroscopic methods.

In the current experiments, nobelium isotopes were produced by fusion of calcium ions with lead at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI’s accelerator facility. To enable laser spectroscopy, the high energetic nobelium atoms were stopped in argon gas. The results are based on a preceding experiment also conducted at GSI, exploring the atomic transitions of nobelium (No).  The chemical element with atomic number 102 was discovered about 60 years ago.  The recent experiment investigated the isotopes No-254, No-253 and No-252 which differ in the number of constituent neutrons in their nuclei, with laser spectroscopy. The rates available for the experiment reached values below one ion per second for the isotope No-252.

From the measurements of the excitation frequency for the individual isotopes, the shift in color of the required laser light was determined for No-252 and No-254. For No-253, the fragmentation of the line into several hyperfine components induced by the single unpaired odd neutron was also resolved. The sizes and the shapes of the atomic nuclei were deduced from using theoretical calculations of the atomic structure of nobelium, which were carried out in collaboration with scientists from the Helmholtz Institute Jena in Germany, the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, and the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. The results confirm that the nobelium isotopes are not spherical but are deformed like an American football. The measured change in size is consistent with nuclear model calculations performed by scientists from GSI and from the Michigan State University in the USA. These calculations predict that the studied nuclei feature a lower charge density in their center than at their surface.

Thanks to these pioneering studies, further heavy nuclides will be accessible for laser spectroscopic techniques, enabling a systematic investigation of changes in size and shape in the region of heavy nuclei. These experiments are so far only possible at GSI and allow for a unique in-depth understanding of the atomic and nuclear structure of the heaviest elements. The results also play a role for the future facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently under construction at GSI. The same techniques and methods could also be employed in the low-energy branch of FAIR’s super fragment separator.

The experiments were conducted by an international team of scientists from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Helmholtz institute Mainz, TU Darmstadt, KU Leuven (Belgium), University of Liverpool (UK) und TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada).

Further information:
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news-3258 Fri, 22 Jun 2018 09:38:40 +0200 „I couldn’t have wished for a better internship“ – Lilly Schönherr receives award for internship report https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////i_couldnt_have_wished_for_a_better_internship_lilly_schoenherr_receives_award_for_inter.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=7d8a69015d833dd761686c79556a10a0 For her outstanding internship report Lilly Schönherr received an award by the “Arbeitskreis Schule Wirtschaft Osthessen”. Lilly Schönherr studies in the ninth grade of the Geschwister-Scholl-Schule, a secondary school in Rodgau. She completed her two-weeks of company placement in the research department “Atomic Physics” at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. With her award for the second-best internship report in the school level “secondary school” she is also qualified for the next evaluation level (Osthessen). The award was bestowed on June 21, 2018, at the Sparkasse Langen-Seligenstatt. Next to the awardees also the mentoring teachers as well as the internship companies received a certificate of appreciation. For her outstanding internship report Lilly Schönherr received an award by the “Arbeitskreis Schule Wirtschaft Osthessen”. Lilly Schönherr studies in the ninth grade of the Geschwister-Scholl-Schule, a secondary school in Rodgau. She completed her two-weeks of company placement in the research department “Atomic Physics” at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. With her award for the second-best internship report in the school level “secondary school” she is also qualified for the next evaluation level (Osthessen). The award was bestowed on June 21, 2018, at the Sparkasse Langen-Seligenstatt. Next to the awardees also the mentoring teachers as well as the internship companies received a certificate of appreciation.

The internship of Lilly Schönherr was supervised by Dr. Wolfgang Quint and his colleagues from GSI’s atomic physics department, especially Nils Stallkamp und Davide Racano. Mainly she worked at the experiments ARTEMIS and HILITE of the ion trap HITRAP, which is connected to the experimental storage ring ESR. Among other things, she built in detectors, tested vacuum components for her leak tightness and equipped a thermic shield with a multi-layered foil during her internship. Also milling in the workshop, the work with electronics and the design of mechanical components with a CAD system was part of her work. Lilly wants to become a physicist, and her conclusion in the internship report is: “I couldn’t have wished for a better internship.”

The “Arbeitskreis Schule Wirtschaft Osthessen”, a task force to bring together schools and industry in the eastern part of the State of Hesse, consists of the six sub-divisions in Schlüchtern, Gelnhausen, Hanau, the city of Offenbach, and the districts of Offenbach East and West. The competition is held in six school types. A jury of regional representatives of schools and companies evaluates the reports taking into account their formal structure, their content, their layout and originality and the overall impression. The winners of all school types receive sponsored prizes and an award certificate.

 

Further information

 

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news-3256 Thu, 21 Jun 2018 09:45:00 +0200 “Beam on”: Accelerator operation restarts, experimental time is being prepared https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////beam_on_accelerator_operation_restarts_experimental_time_is_being_prepared.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1ab5d04bfb187df23bb882bea0332a13 It’s a significant moment for the scientific work at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR. Following a two-year break during which it underwent extensive modernization, the existing accelerator facility has been restarted very successfully and will soon be supplying researchers from around the world with a large variety of high-quality ion beams. This will mark the beginning of the experiment period scheduled for 2018, which also coincides with the start of the first stage of the FAIR experimental program, or “FAIR Phase 0.” It’s a significant moment for the scientific work at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR. Following a two-year break during which it underwent extensive modernization, the existing accelerator facility has been restarted very successfully and will soon be supplying researchers from around the world with a large variety of high-quality ion beams. This will mark the beginning of the experiment period scheduled for 2018, which also coincides with the start of the first stage of the FAIR experimental program, or “FAIR Phase 0.”

The modernized facility is to run at a significantly higher level of performance for the future FAIR operation and will already offer unique opportunities for the "FAIR Phase 0" experimental program that is now starting. In addition to the GSI accelerators UNILAC (linear accelerator), SIS18 (ring accelerator) and ESR (experimental storage ring) as well as the existing experimental structures and the Petawatt High-Energy Laser PHELIX, FAIR components can already be used also, such as the storage ring CRYRING and a number of detectors, measuring instruments and other pieces of high-tech equipment developed especially for FAIR.

“Back in operation,” the machine is running again, was the decisive statement of the accelerator experts: That thrilling and extremely successful moment, the restart of the system, was preceded by the longest shutdown phase in the history of GSI. Over the past two years, GSI circular accelerator facilities had already been significantly improved for their future role as a pre-accelerator for FAIR. The pre-injector will be further upgraded in the future for the FAIR operation.

It was a precision landing: The process schedules drawn up two and a half years ago for shutting down and recommissioning the machines could be kept exactly to the day. The key objectives for the various parts of the existing facility have been achieved. Among other things, these include machine upgrades, the new FAIR control systems and new measurement technology. The connection, scheduled for later on, of the GSI accelerator to FAIR was also prepared. In addition, the new transformer station at the north side of the FAIR complex is already in operation for the start of the experiment period and is ensuring a more powerful electricity supply.

The scientific program now starting is a major step toward the future research at FAIR. “FAIR Phase 0” offers outstanding opportunities for experimentation. The demand from the international scientific community for the use of beam time is correspondingly high, and it underscores how attractive the FAIR project already is. Last year, an overwhelming number of scientists (over 1,000) submitted applications for beam time for the start of the FAIR research program, asking for more than twice of the currently available beam time. This shows the importance of the experimental program and the enthusiasm that prevails in the global research communities with regard to FAIR.

The period of experiments was preceded by an established selection process. The proposals were examined by an international committee, and selections were made based on scientific relevance and feasibility. 118 experiments have been granted for this and next year. Therefore, the accelerator facility will run for about 110 days per year.

During the beam times, scientists from around the world travel to Darmstadt to carry out their investigations at the facility and use the beam for experiments in a variety of fields of research, including particle physics, nuclear physics, plasma physics, biophysics and materials research.

In the coming weeks, the accelerator experts will initially be working diligently on the commissioning with beam. After testing all basic functions with beam on the machines, the machine settings required for experimental operation are tested, scientific measuring instruments are fine-tuned and the beam quality is checked. After that, finally, it’s “beam on” for science and the FAIR research program. (BP)

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news-3254 Tue, 19 Jun 2018 10:52:34 +0200 Helmholtz Association supports ATHENA with 29.99m euro grant https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////helmholtz_association_supports_athena_with_2999m_euro_grant.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3e29f7223982bb0ae14842c81ca5c20e ATHENA (“Accelerator Technology HElmholtz iNfrAstructure”) is a new research and development platform focusing on accelerator technologies and drawing on the resources of all six Helmholtz accelerator institutions (GSI with its branch, the Helmholtz Institute of Jena, as well as DESY, Jülich Research Centre, Helmholtz Centre Berlin, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and KIT). The Helmholtz Association has now decided to fund ATHENA as a strategic development project with almost 30 million euros. “This decision demonstrates the Helmholtz Association’s strong commitment to developing and supplying ground-breaking new accelerator technologies for solving the future challenges faced by society,” says Helmut Dosch, who is the Chairman of DESY’s Board of Directors and also the spokesperson for the Helmholtz Association’s research division Matter. ATHENA (“Accelerator Technology HElmholtz iNfrAstructure”) is a new research and development platform focusing on accelerator technologies and drawing on the resources of all six Helmholtz accelerator institutions (GSI with its branch, the Helmholtz Institute of Jena, as well as DESY, Jülich Research Centre, Helmholtz Centre Berlin, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and KIT). The Helmholtz Association has now decided to fund ATHENA as a strategic development project with almost 30 million euros. “This decision demonstrates the Helmholtz Association’s strong commitment to developing and supplying ground-breaking new accelerator technologies for solving the future challenges faced by society,” says Helmut Dosch, who is the Chairman of DESY’s Board of Directors and also the spokesperson for the Helmholtz Association’s research division Matter.

Together, these centres want to set up two German flagship projects in accelerator research based on innovative plasma-based particle accelerators and ultramodern laser technology: an electron accelerator at DESY in Hamburg and a hadron accelerator at HZDR. At both facilities, a range of different fields of application are to be developed, ranging from a compact free-electron laser, through novel medical uses to new applications in nuclear and particle physics. As soon as they have reached the necessary level of maturity to be put to practical use in a particular area, new compact devices could be built for use in other Helmholtz centres, as well as in universities and hospitals.

“The funding of the ATHENA project, which is coordinated by DESY, is an important milestone in the ARD (Accelerator Research and Development) programme which was set up by the Helmholtz Association in 2011,” explains Reinhard Brinkmann, one of the initiators of ARD and the head of the accelerator department at DESY. “Channelling the competencies of the various Helmholtz accelerator centres promises to lead to ground-breaking developments and new applications for ultra-compact particle accelerators.”

Ralph Aßmann, the project coordinator of ATHENA and lead scientist at DESY, and Ulrich Schramm, head of laser particle acceleration at HZDR, agree that “The study of new types of plasma accelerators takes place in the context of strong international competition from the US and Asia. ATHENA is consolidating the traditional leading role of Germany’s accelerator research and supporting Germany’s international competitiveness as a place for doing science.”

The work on ATHENA is closely embedded in the wider context of European research through the EU-sponsored design study EuPRAXIA, with its 40 partner institutes, which is also coordinated by DESY. Hence the top German research project ATHENA has had a clear European perspective and orientation right from the start.

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news-3252 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 09:34:03 +0200 First event at GSI and FAIR in the context of Netzwerk Teilchenwelt https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////first_event_at_gsi_and_fair_in_the_context_of_netzwerk_teilchenwelt.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=78aba6b4f4ff825c0eafd5d51fa9c1af On June 11 and 14 the first event in the context of Netzwerk Teilchenwelt took place at GSI and FAIR. About 20 high school students of Schuldorf Bergstraße got to know the basics of heavy ion and particle physics in a teaching unit and afterwards did a one-day trip to GSI and FAIR. There they visited the research facility and analyzed real experiment data. The membership of GSI in Netzwerk Teilchenwelt opens up new options in promotion of young researchers. On June 11 and 14 the first event in the context of Netzwerk Teilchenwelt took place at GSI and FAIR. About 20 high school students of Schuldorf Bergstraße got to know the basics of heavy ion and particle physics in a teaching unit and afterwards took a one-day trip to GSI and FAIR. There they visited the research facility and analyzed real experiment data. The membership of GSI in Netzwerk Teilchenwelt opens up new options in promotion of young researchers.

The GSI Helmholtzzentrum is part of the Netzwerk Teilchenwelt since 2017. The network supports particle physics institutes in Germany to offer workshops on astrophysics and particle physics for young people and teachers at schools, school labs or museums. Now the first two-day workshop took place at the campus of GSI and FAIR and at Schuldorf Bergstraße. One GSI scientist and two GSI PhD students, who are active in Netzwerk Teilchenwelt, managed the event with support of the teacher. The students got an impression of the principles of research at accelerator experiments by working with real science data. They analyzed data of the CERN experiment ALICE where GSI researchers are involved. On the tour through the facility the students saw particle accelerators and large detectors.

For eight years the International Masterclass takes place at GSI and FAIR, where students analyze real experiment data as well. With the help of Netzwerk Teilchenwelt the program is supposed to be expanded. More events for students and teachers are planned.

More information

Here, young people, teachers and project managers can find more events and teaching material: http://www.teilchenwelt.de/

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news-3250 Thu, 07 Jun 2018 10:00:00 +0200 Test results for new type of accelerator structure published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////test_results_for_new_type_of_accelerator_structure_published.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8f883171b330c4d6cd94750256d62a1b In collaboration with the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, physicists and engineers of the Helmholtz Institute Mainz and Goethe University Frankfurt have conducted successful tests for a new type of accelerator structure: a new design for a superconducting CH-cavity (crossbar H-mode cavity) has now been tested with an ion beam from the GSI High Charge State Injector. In collaboration with the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, physicists and engineers of the Helmholtz Institute Mainz and Goethe University Frankfurt have conducted successful tests for a new type of accelerator structure: a new design for a superconducting CH-cavity (crossbar H-mode cavity) has now been tested with an ion beam from the GSI High Charge State Injector.

This is a key step toward the proposed superconducting (continuous-wave) linear accelerator (cw linac), which has the potential to open up new prospects for research with its continuous particle beam. The researchers have now reported on their results in the scientific journal “Physical Review Accelerators and Beams” (PRAB).

The demonstrator of the continuous-wave linac was studied in a test environment at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum. During this study, argon ions were injected into the new accelerator structure and accelerated. The test module consisted of a CH-cavity surrounded by two superconducting high-field magnets. Dr. Winfried Barth, head of the development team for the cw linac, describes the new design of the CH cavity as groundbreaking and summarizes the successful test by saying: “With the demonstrator of the cw linac, we have attained full particle acceleration up to the desired beam energy. With an acceleration voltage of 4.0 megavolts, the demonstrator accelerated a heavy-ion beam with an intensity of 1.5 particle microamperes to the target energy over a distance of only 70 centimeters.” The result confirms the effectiveness and capabilities of the new design of the CH cavity.

A continuous particle beam from the proposed continuous-wave linac is of interest for the generation and study of new chemical elements, and for experiments from the field of materials research that could also profit from the continuous beam of the proposed new linac. (BP)

Further Information:

Scientific publication in Physical Review Accelerators and Beams

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news-3248 Tue, 29 May 2018 09:30:00 +0200 Physicist Hannah Petersen receives renowned award https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////physicist_hannah_petersen_receives_renowned_award.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e1fd368966be2f6bed204b32af3d4a2a The theoretical physicist Hannah Petersen has been awarded the Zimanyi Medal of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The award is in honor of her work on relativistic heavy ion collisions. This young researcher has been the leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigators Group at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung since 2012 and is a professor teaching at the Goethe University in Frankfurt. Her studies are important for the work on the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being constructed at GSI. The theoretical physicist Hannah Petersen has been awarded the Zimanyi Medal of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The award is in honor of her work on relativistic heavy ion collisions. This young researcher has been the leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigators Group at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung since 2012 and is a professor teaching at the Goethe University in Frankfurt. Her studies are important for the work on the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being constructed at GSI.

Prof. Petersen received the award at the Quark Matter Conference in Venice, where she also presented the latest results from her working group. The quark matter conference is the largest conference in this field with over 800 participants. Hannah Petersen is the youngest member of the International Advisory committee of the Quark Matter Conference.

She is working on new theoretical descriptions of the state of matter shortly after the Big Bang. Relativistic heavy ion collisions offer a way to study strongly interacting matter under the extreme conditions that prevailed at that time. “By accelerating lead or gold nuclei to almost the speed of light and smashing them together, we can reach temperatures and densities that existed in the early universe only microseconds after the Big Bang,” she says to describe her research. At such high energy densities, the basic theory of strong interaction, the quantum chromodynamics, predicts the existence of a new phase of matter—the quark-gluon plasma—which expands explosively at extremely high pressure.

Prof. Petersen was one of the first to recognize and investigate how the course of this explosion was affected by density and temperature variations resulting from quantum effects. By comparing theoretical and experimental data she was able to propose a frequently cited hybrid model that illustrates the dynamics and viscosity of the plasma as a function of the respective initial state of the quantum fluctuation.

The future accelerator center FAIR will provide the researchers with conditions that otherwise only exist in outer space. The work of Prof. Petersen and her Young Investigators Group is an important element for drawing essential conclusions from the experiments. Her main goal is to develop a transport approach for the dynamical description of heavy ion reactions at FAIR using state-of-the-art scientific computing. The scientific managing director of GSI and FAIR, Prof. Paolo Giubellino, is delighted about the young physicist’s award. “Hannah Petersen’s analytical method lays an important new foundation for experimental measurements at FAIR. Her work has now been rightly honored with the highest award for young theoretical physicists in the area of heavy ion physics,” he said.

The Zimanyi Medal is awarded by the Wigner Research Center for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest. The prize was created in memory of the nuclear physicist József Zimányi, who died in 2006. Zimányi was also a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and a professor at the Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (RMKI). The medal is awarded to theoretical physicists under the age of 40 years who have achieved important international recognition and impact in the area of theoretical high-energy physics. (BP)

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news-3246 Tue, 22 May 2018 09:10:26 +0200 Hot Plasma and Fast Ions: High-Performance Laser PHELIX Celebrates Ten-Year Anniversary https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////hot_plasma_and_fast_ions_high_performance_laser_phelix_celebrates_ten_year_anniversary.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ed5c1af62071bf6e8e3377f8313cc255 As of this month, the high-performance laser PHELIX at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt will have been in operation for ten years. At PHELIX, scientists from around the world have the unique opportunity to conduct experiments that combine laser beams and ion beams produced in the existing accelerator facility. This makes it possible to study extreme states of matter, such as those that occur in stars or inside large planets. As of this month, the high-performance laser PHELIX at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt will have been in operation for ten years. At PHELIX, scientists from around the world have the unique opportunity to conduct experiments that combine laser beams and ion beams produced in the existing accelerator facility. This makes it possible to study extreme states of matter, such as those that occur in stars or inside large planets.

PHELIX (Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Ion Experiments) is one of the most powerful lasers in the world. It can deliver laser pulses with energies of up to 1,000 joules and laser pulses with a power of up to half a petawatt. The output power is quintillion times (billions of billion times) greater than that of a laser pointer or a laser in a CD player.

PHELIX is so large that it takes up an entire building the size of a two-story house with a clean-room atmosphere inside. The laser beam, which has a diameter of 30 cm, is guided to the site of the experiment using special mirrors and focused on a point. A laser pulse can be generated only about every 90 minutes.

Since it was first started up in the year 2008, PHELIX has completed a total of 115 operational periods or “beam times.” Over 100 experiments were successfully performed during these periods, resulting in more than 70 scientific publications. For years, there has been great demand among the research community for beam time at PHELIX. The amount of beam time requested regularly exceeds what can be offered. For this reason, there is an established selection procedure to allow research groups to carry out their experiments at PHELIX. Following the calls to submit proposals for experiments, these proposals are examined by an international committee, and experiments are then selected based on scientific relevance and feasibility.

“At PHELIX, in combination with the GSI accelerator facility scientists can conduct experiments that aren’t possible anywhere else in the world,” says Dr. Vincent Bagnoud, head of the “Plasma Physics/PHELIX” research department at GSI. “The objective is to study matter when it exists in the form of what is called plasma. In this state, the electron shell of atoms is completely or partially separated from the atomic nuclei. This is only possible under extreme conditions and above all at high temperatures of the sort found in stars or inside large planets such as Jupiter.” Plasma is one of the four states of matter — the other, more familiar states being solid, liquid and gaseous. In our everyday lives, we encounter less energetic types of plasma, such as a candle flame or a bolt of lightning during a thunderstorm.

In their experiments, the researchers expose samples of matter to radiation. These samples can be heated up with the laser beam to such a degree that a plasma forms. Just fractions of a second later, they can be bombarded with ions. An analysis of the resulting reactions makes it possible to study the properties of the plasma.

The possibility of using the laser beam to accelerate ions and then transfer them to stationary conventional accelerator structures is also being studied. This combined use of the laser and ion accelerator is unique and enables the generation of very brief ion pulses with high particle counts.

Further improvements are contemplated for the future, especially for use at the FAIR accelerator facility: In the long term, researchers are aiming to use ion acceleration with the laser to achieve different sorts of ions, higher energies and greater intensities. An increase in the pulse repetition rate of the laser is also planned.

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news-3244 Thu, 17 May 2018 13:31:56 +0200 Another Award for Start-up Class 5 Photonics https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////another_award_for_start_up_class_5_photonics.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b0431b34ad1593350ef851bc64a9d144 Class 5 Photonics, a spin-off from Helmholtz-Institut Jena, a branch of GSI, and from Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY specialized in high-performance laser technology, is the proud Gold Winner of the Laser Focus World Innovators Award 2018 in the laser category with its Supernova OPCPA product. The Laser Focus World Innovators award recognizes companies that have made major contributions to advancing the field of optics and photonics through recently launched products or services and is awarded yearly during the CLEO conference and tradeshow in San Jose, California. Class 5 Photonics, a spin-off from Helmholtz-Institut Jena, a branch of GSI, and from Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY specialized in high-performance laser technology, is the proud Gold Winner of the Laser Focus World Innovators Award 2018 in the laser category with its Supernova OPCPA product. The Laser Focus World Innovators award recognizes companies that have made major contributions to advancing the field of optics and photonics through recently launched products or services and is awarded yearly during the CLEO conference and tradeshow in San Jose, California.

The novel Laser systems from Class 5 Photonics are deployed worldwide in leading research laboratories. The Supernova OPCPA already received the PRISM AWARD in the category of Lasers in January of this year. This Laser system allows researchers to conduct experiments ten times faster.

CEO Robert Riedel is pleased about the double recognition: “We are really proud having won this award. The Supernova has shown its’ strengths now for the second time against many other excellent competitors – it really proves that this laser system is a highly desired product. The Laser Focus World Innovators Award is a great incentive for us to continue our work and deliver outstanding products.

The spin-off company was founded in 2014 in Hamburg. The scientists from Helmholtz Institute Jena and DESY are developing high power lasers with pulses in the femtosecond range. One femtosecond is a quadrillionth of a second. Shorter laser pulses allow more precise working of materials, for instance. Also, such short laser pulses open up new innovative applications like 3D nanostructuring. For science, the technology is of great importance.

Further Information

www.class5photonics.com

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news-3242 Mon, 14 May 2018 09:00:00 +0200 MAT-Science Week at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////mat_science_week_at_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=9a7105b4c21bcc9ce87f0273005dd6fb The MAT-Science Week at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung brought together more than 100 scientists from 30 universities and research institutions worldwide involved in materials science with ion beams and related applied fields. The MAT-Science Week at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung brought together more than 100 scientists from 30 universities and research institutions worldwide involved in materials science with ion beams and related applied fields.

The event began with the annual Workshop on Ion and Particle Beams (Ionenstrahl Workshop) covering the activities of the German science community using positrons and ion beams (from eV up to GeV) for analysis, material modification and fabrication of nanostructures. The progress reports of research projects funded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

The progress of the collaborative research projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research was presented in numerous contributions and the upcoming activities for the FAIR phase 0 were discussed. During the following MAT Collaboration Meeting, the users of the GSI facilities presented their current activities in many different fields covering radiation effects in solids, radiation hardness of accelerator materials and electronic devices, and ion-track nanotechnology.

The event also offered a platform to gather experts from materials science, plasma physics, high-pressure science, mineralogy and geoscience, in order to discuss upcoming opportunities at the future APPA facilities at FAIR. APPA is one of the four research pillars of the future accelerator facility FAIR

Dedicated talks covered exciting topics such as the response of solids to multiple extreme conditions (e.g. irradiation, temperature, and pressure) and the creation of quenchable high-pressure phases. Further topics included the emission of beam-induced acoustic signals, mitigation processes of surface desorption under high-intensity ion beams, and warm dense matter physics, also in combination with nanostructured targets. The stimulating discussions made clear that coupling swift heavy ions, high pressure, and versatile state-of-the-art instrumentation provide exciting new research opportunities partially already available at the existing facilities within the phase 0 of FAIR.

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news-3240 Wed, 09 May 2018 09:20:10 +0200 Efficiently managing construction projects: FAIR presentation at project management conference https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////efficiently_managing_construction_projects_fair_presentation_at_project_management_conference.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e03cc66794470784d9c18064be12c91a How can large, complex projects be efficiently managed? What will project management be like in the future? These were some of the key questions that were addressed at the spring conference of the Deutscher Verband der Projektmanager in der Bau- und Immobilienwirtschaft (German Association of Project Managers in the Construction and Real Estate Business/DVP) in Frankfurt on April 20, 2018. The event, which was devoted to the theme “Project management 2020 — methodological expertise and professional implementation”, also showcased the FAIR project, which is one of the world’s biggest construction projects for a cutting-edge international research facility. How can large, complex projects be efficiently managed? What will project management be like in the future? These were some of the key questions that were addressed at the spring conference of the Deutscher Verband der Projektmanager in der Bau- und Immobilienwirtschaft (German Association of Project Managers in the Construction and Real Estate Business/DVP) in Frankfurt on April 20, 2018. The event, which was devoted to the theme “Project management 2020 — methodological expertise and professional implementation”, also showcased the FAIR project, which is one of the world’s biggest construction projects for a cutting-edge international research facility.

Over the years, project management has become a separate discipline in big construction projects. The importance of targeted, solution-oriented project management is also exemplified by the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, held a speech at the conference, where he presented the FAIR project in all of its facets.

A holistic efficient project organization was created to carry out the highly complex FAIR construction project. Building construction, civil and structural engineering, accelerator development and construction, and scientific experiments are being closely coordinated with one another in the overall planning work. This enables the builders to proceed in a very concentrated way as they make FAIR a reality. To this end, the planners developed and established an integrated construction work schedule and tailored contracting strategies for the construction services.

The construction of FAIR commenced in the summer 2017, when the groundbreaking ceremony was held for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 in an event that attracted widespread public attention. In the years ahead, a group of international partners will build a one-of-a-kind accelerator facility where it will be possible to perform an unprecedented variety of scientific experiments. To make this possible, scientists, engineers, and other experts have teamed up with industrial partners to engage in a structured process for the development of new technologies in many areas. (BP)

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news-3238 Mon, 07 May 2018 13:28:09 +0200 Detailed fusion: The visualization of clustering in nuclear collisions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////detailed_fusion_the_visualization_of_clustering_in_nuclear_collisions.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b9107315f4cde4c1bb192d91fd3470f6 Colliding nuclei can fuse and form a new nucleus. Sometimes this fusion is temporary – the newly formed nucleus is in an excited state and decays after a short period of time into a stable state or falls apart. Such a short-lived nucleus is called a pre-compound. In a publication of the journal Physical Review C the two scientists Dr. Bastian Schütrumpf from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and Dr. Witold Nazarewicz from the Michigan State University, USA, take a closer look at the inner structure of such pre-compounds. Colliding nuclei can fuse and form a new nucleus. Sometimes this fusion is temporary – the newly formed nucleus is in an excited state and decays after a short period of time into a stable state or falls apart. Such a short-lived nucleus is called a pre-compound. In a publication of the journal Physical Review C the two scientists Dr. Bastian Schütrumpf from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and Dr. Witold Nazarewicz from the Michigan State University, USA, take a closer look at the inner structure of such pre-compounds.

Atomic nuclei consist of two building blocks, the protons and neutrons. Schütrumpf and Nazarewicz developed a model to predict the behavior of these building blocks and also to visualize it. The new technique demonstrates that groups of protons and neutrons form temporary clusters which correspond to smaller, stable nuclei within the larger nucleus produced by the collision. These clusters are variable and can change between different states.

The researchers analyzed reactions triggered by collisions of oxygen, calcium, and carbon, which can – depending on the collision energy – result in either fusion or fission. The calculations reveal clusters corresponding to the nuclei helium-4, carbon-12, magnesium-24, and argon-36. For example, two oxygen-16 nuclei colliding at an energy of 20 mega electron-volt form a pre-compound in which two deformed carbon-12 clusters oscillate against two helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles).

“Such fleeting nuclear states often appear in stars or other space phenomena. This is why they are of great interest to the scientists and are frequently examined in collision reactions. To understand their structure is fundamental for deciphering them,” explains Dr. Bastian Schütrumpf, who works as a post-doc in the GSI research department “Theory”. “Previous theory and experiments have suggested the existence of clusters in the pre-compound. Existing models, however, couldn’t reveal their detailed nature.” To address this problem, Schütrumpf and Nazarewicz used a mathematical tool originally developed to describe electron arrangements within atoms and molecules and applied it to the nucleons.

In the future, the scientists want to improve and enhance their calculations. Thus, the model could tackle even more complex asymmetrical reactions with different nuclei. While the current application focusses on low-energy reactions, clustering of neutrons and protons is a ubiquitous phenomenon which impacts also high-energy collisions as they will occur e.g. at FAIR.

Further information:
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news-3236 Mon, 30 Apr 2018 08:02:00 +0200 FAIR at the largest accelerator conference in the world https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_at_the_largest_accelerator_conference_in_the_world.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f99321392a90c62d098cbfacf06444c8 The world’s largest accelerator conference is held from 29 April to 4 May in Vancouver, Canada, this year. Already for the 9th time experts from all over the world meet at the International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC) to discuss cutting-edge accelerator research and development results and gain the latest insights into accelerator facilities across the globe. IPAC is the main international event for the worldwide accelerator community and industry. More than 1,200 delegates and 70 industry exhibits are expected to be in attendance. The world’s largest accelerator conference is held from 29 April to 4 May in Vancouver, Canada, this year. Already for the 9th time experts from all over the world meet at the International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC) to discuss cutting-edge accelerator research and development results and gain the latest insights into accelerator facilities across the globe. IPAC is the main international event for the worldwide accelerator community and industry. More than 1,200 delegates and 70 industry exhibits are expected to be in attendance.

FAIR and GSI will be present at IPAC with a booth at the exhibition area. The exhibition is open from 29 April to 2 May until 6 p.m. FAIR experts are available for discussions to give deeper insight into the accelerators and experiments and to answer questions. In two talks Dr. Peter Spiller, head of the SIS100/SIS18 department responsible for the new FAIR ring accelerator, will inform about the status of the FAIR project, and Professor Mei Bai, head of the Accelerator Operation, will explain the challenges of the current experiment activities of FAIR Phase 0.

Further information:
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news-3234 Thu, 26 Apr 2018 12:15:48 +0200 More than 40 girls learn about science and technology during Girls’Day https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////more_than_40_girls_learn_about_science_and_technology_during_girlsday.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f8fe9dae2fa65462ace9b6fe3421ac6e On Thursday, 26 April 2018, a total of 43 schoolgirls– an unprecedented number – from grades 5 through 9 had the opportunity to find out about the work at GSI and FAIR during Girls’Day. They took advantage of this future-oriented day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far. On Thursday, 26 April 2018, a total of 43 schoolgirls– an unprecedented number – from grades 5 through 9 had the opportunity to find out about the work at GSI and FAIR during Girls’Day. They took advantage of this future-oriented day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far.

For the participants, Girls’Day began with a welcoming address by Dorothee Sommer, head of the Human Resources department, and Dr. Birgit Kindler as a representative of the equal opportunities committee. This was followed by a tour of the particle accelerator and experiment facilities on the research campus.

After that, the girls could gain practical experiences in various technical and scientific working areas at workshops, technical laboratories, and research departments. Many departments had prepared for the girls’ visit by creating a special program, and they provided plenty of support for their young visitors. For example, the girls could try their hand in the mechanical workshops, soldered electronics and worked with concrete. They were also given a tour of the construction site of the future FAIR particle accelerator, which will be unequaled anywhere else in the world.

After all this, the girls could look back on an exciting day during which they had achieved many practical results. For example, they had produced candle holders, milled buttons for themselves, made ice cream with liquid nitrogen, controlled bikes for their safety equipment or plated components with a metallic layer in the electroplating shop.

Girls’Day is a day of action all over Germany. On this day, businesses, factories, and universities all over Germany open their doors to schoolgirls from Grade 5 and above. There the girls learn about courses of study and professions that offer traineeships in the areas of IT, the skilled trades, the natural sciences, and technology — areas where women have seldom been active in the past.

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news-3230 Mon, 23 Apr 2018 09:00:00 +0200 Björn Jonson receives Russian Lomonosov Gold Medal https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////bjoern_jonson_receives_russian_lomonosov_gold_medal.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=731fb79f381acd7b109e792191996558 Professor Björn Jonson has been rewarded with the highest award of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) — the Lomonosov Gold Medal named after the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. Jonson is currently a professor at the Chalmers University in Sweden. His longstanding cooperation with GSI/FAIR include leading the HALO collaboration at the Large Area Neutron Detector (LAND) of GSI and being spokesperson of the NUSTAR collaboration. He was also deputy spokesman of the R3B collaboration and is currently chair of the R3B Scientific Board as well as of the NUSTAR Council. Furthermore in 2013 Jonson received the Helmholtz International Fellow Award and spent his research stay at GSI. The award of the Helmholtz Association is supposed to promote cooperation with the world's best researchers. Professor Björn Jonson has been rewarded with the highest award of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) — the Lomonosov Gold Medal named after the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. Jonson is currently a professor at the Chalmers University in Sweden. His longstanding cooperation with GSI/FAIR include leading the HALO collaboration at the Large Area Neutron Detector (LAND) of GSI and being spokesperson of the NUSTAR collaboration. He was also deputy spokesman of the R3B collaboration and is currently chair of the R3B Scientific Board as well as of the NUSTAR Council. Furthermore in 2013 Jonson received the Helmholtz International Fellow Award and spent his research stay at GSI. The award of the Helmholtz Association is supposed to promote cooperation with the world's best researchers.

Jonson was awarded with the Lomonosov Medal for his extensive contributions within fundamental nuclear physics. The RAS emphasizes that his work is of fundamental importance for the study of the nuclear structure and nuclear stability of exotic lightest nuclei at the boundaries of nucleon stability.

The prize acknowledges outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities. Among the previous recipients, there are many renowned scientist and even Nobel Prize laureates.

The award ceremony was held in Moscow at the General Meeting of the RAS in March 2018. The Lomonosov Gold Medal is awarded each year since 1959. Since 1967, two medals are awarded annually: one to a Russian and one to a foreign scientist. This year’s Russian medal went to Professor Yuri Oganessian. 

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news-3228 Wed, 18 Apr 2018 19:00:00 +0200 A step closer to the nuclear clock https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////a_step_closer_to_the_nuclear_clock.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=7346791a04bf2d6cfcaf8ad86a6f6a38 Precise time measurements play a vital role in our daily life. They allow reliable navigation and accurate experimenting and provide a basis for world-wide synchronized exchange of data. A team of researchers of PTB Braunschweig, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt now reports on a decisive step toward the potential development of a nuclear clock, which bears the potential to significantly outperform the best current atomic clocks. Precise time measurements play a vital role in our daily life. They allow reliable navigation and accurate experimenting and provide a basis for world-wide synchronized exchange of data. A team of researchers of PTB Braunschweig, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt now reports on a decisive step toward the potential development of a nuclear clock, which bears the potential to significantly outperform the best current atomic clocks. The only known excited state of an atomic nucleus that is located at a suitably low excitation energy to be accessible by optical techniques, as they are in use in current atomic clocks, exists in thorium-229. Fundamental properties of thorium-229 in this state have now been determined, the researchers report in the current issue of the journal Nature.

Some 15 years ago, researchers at PTB in Braunschweig, the National Metrology Institute of Germany, developed a concept for the design of a novel optical clock with unique characteristics. Instead of exploiting oscillations in the electron shell, they proposed that one could make use of a transition between energy levels within an atomic nucleus as the basis for a nuclear clock. Because the protons and neutrons in the nucleus are orders of magnitude more densely packed and much more tightly bound than the electrons in the outer electron shells, they are much less susceptible to perturbation by outside forces that might affect their transition frequencies. Therefore, a nuclear clock should be far more stable and precise than present-day optical atomic clocks. However, the typical frequencies of nuclear transitions are much higher than those that occur in electron shells and generally lie in the gamma-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This means that they cannot serve as the basis for an optical atomic clock, as all such clocks are based on excitation by microwaves or laser light.

The exception to this rule is found in an unstable isotope of thorium, thorium-229, which exhibits a quasi-stable, so-called isomeric nuclear state with an extraordinarily low excitation energy. The frequency of the transition between the ground state and this isomeric state corresponds to that of ultraviolet light. This transition can therefore be induced by means of a laser-based technique similar to that used in state-of-the-art optical atomic clocks. More than ten research groups worldwide are now working on the realization of a nuclear clock based on the thorium-229 isomer. Experimentally speaking, this is an exceedingly challenging endeavor. While the existence of the state was inferred from data obtained over several decades, the direct detection and hence unambiguous proof of its existence in the first place was achieved in 2016 in collaborative work of the LMU group together with the groups in Mainz and Darmstadt. They subsequently succeeded in measuring its half-life. However, it has not been possible to observe the nuclear transition by optical means yet, as the exact excitation energy of the isomer has not been determined with sufficient precision. The transition itself is extremely sharp – as required for timing purposes – and can only be induced if the frequency of the laser light corresponds exactly to the difference in energy between the two states. The quest for the magic frequency may be compared to the proverbial search for a needle in a haystack.

Measuring the basic features of the thorium-229 isomer

A collaborative effort by researchers and engineers at PTB, LMU, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung has now achieved an important breakthrough in this search. The researchers have now measured some of the basic features of the thorium-229 isomer, such as the size of its nucleus and the general form of the distribution of protons. In the present study, the nuclei were not excited from the ground state by means of laser light, as they would be in a future clock. Instead, the isomer was produced by the alpha-decay of uranium-233 and decelerated in a device developed at LMU, extracted, and stored in an ion trap as Th2+ ions. The uranium-233 source was provided by the groups in Mainz und Darmstadt. For this purpose, uranium-233 was chemically purified and its decay products were removed to avoid any influence on the measurements. Subsequently, suitable sources were deposited as homogenous thin films on a silicon layer in an electrochemical procedure for the laser experiments of PTB at the LMU apparatus. Christoph Düllmann, professor at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and head of the involved research teams at HIM and GSI, said: "This is a fascinating interdisciplinary team of physicists and chemists studying a topic that connects nuclear and atomic physics. Our contribution is testimony to the need of nuclear chemistry expertise in the preparation of samples suitable for experiments in a variety of fields in contemporary physics and chemistry research."

With the aid of laser systems specifically developed for spectroscopic analyses of this ionic species at PTB, researchers have now been able to determine the transition frequencies in the electron shell of Th2+. These parameters are directly influenced by the state of the nucleus and encode valuable information on its physical properties. On the basis of theoretical modeling alone, it has not been possible to predict how the structure of the thorium-229 nucleus in this unusually low-excited isomer might behave.

Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Vice Director of Research and head of the Atomic Physics division at GSI, added: "These fantastic new results are very helpful to determine the energy of the transition of Th-229 in future experiments at the storage rings of GSI and FAIR with high precision." Furthermore, it is now possible to probe the structure of the electron shell to confirm a successful laser-excitation of the nucleus into the isomer. The hunt for determining the optical resonance frequency that triggers the transition to the isomeric first excited state of the thorium-229 nucleus is not yet over. But researchers now have a far better idea of what the needle in the haystack really looks like.

Weitere Informationen:
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news-3226 Fri, 06 Apr 2018 10:00:00 +0200 Cryogenic testing of magnets: First quadrupole units for the large FAIR ring accelerator tested https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////cryogenic_testing_of_magnets_first_quadrupole_units_for_the_large_fair_ring_accelerator_tested.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c586089f9a53f9f0856f619d8c3c5e5c Hundreds of powerful magnets will be needed to guide particles in a precise beam at nearly the speed of light at the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. Widely varied types of magnets and magnet systems are used for this purpose. They include the 168 quadrupole magnet units that will be used in the large SIS100 ring accelerator. These units are being manufactured and tested by Russia and represent an important non-cash contribution to the FAIR project. The two first of series (FoS) quadrupole units were manufactured in 2017, and at the end of the year they were successfully subjected to cryogenic tests at temperatures near absolute zero. The tests are another important step in the development and construction of the SIS100. Hundreds of powerful magnets will be needed to guide particles in a precise beam at nearly the speed of light at the future accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. Widely varied types of magnets and magnet systems are used for this purpose. They include the 168 quadrupole magnet units that will be used in the large SIS100 ring accelerator. These units are being manufactured and tested by Russia and represent an important non-cash contribution to the FAIR project. The two first of series (FoS) quadrupole units were manufactured in 2017, and at the end of the year they were successfully subjected to cryogenic tests at temperatures near absolute zero. The tests are another important step in the development and construction of the SIS100.

The quadrupole units, weighing tons, consist of a superconducting quadrupole magnet that is combined in a variety of arrangements with superconducting sextupole and steering magnets. Unlike conventional copper cables, superconductors enable electricity to flow through them without any resistance. In order to achieve superconductivity, the units are cooled down to ‑270 degrees Celsius during operation.

The acceptance tests for the FoS units were conducted in the presence of a team of experts from GSI and the responsible work package manager, Egbert Fischer. The quadrupole magnets worked flawlessly during the performance tests at an operating temperature of 4.5 K (i.e. 4.5 degrees Celsius above absolute zero, which is about -273 degrees Celsius). During fast-pulsed operation at 23,000 amperes per second, the magnets surpassed the intended maximum operating current of about 12,000 amperes. Initial evaluations of the measured magnetic fields indicate that the units are of a sufficiently high quality within the range of the defined requirements.

The FoS units will soon be accepted and sent to FAIR. Series production is scheduled to be approved in the near future. GSI will subject the two units to an initial integration test, in which they and other installations will be mounted onto a carrier system.

Over the past four years, GSI and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) have built a high-performance testing facility in Dubna, Russia, to conduct cryogenic testing of the units from the series. The facility was put into operation during an official ceremony in late 2016. It tests superconducting magnets for the two future accelerator centers FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility), which are currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt and at JINR in Dubna, Russia, respectively. About half of the tests at the facility will be of magnets for the NICA project, while the other half will be of magnets for the future SIS100 accelerator at FAIR. A corresponding contract for the operational implementation of the serial tests will be signed soon. The contract will require JINR to conduct the site acceptance tests (SATs) of the quadrupole units on behalf of GSI.

For the construction of FAIR, researchers are developing and using ultra-innovative methods and techniques in numerous areas. One example of that is the main quadrupoles of the units that recently underwent cryogenic testing. The quadrupoles are based on a technology that was originally developed for the Nuclotron accelerator at JINR. The key element of this technology is a Nuclotron cable that consists of superconducting strands wrapped around a copper-nickel tube. This cable technology is completely different from that of Rutherford cables, which are employed in high-field magnets. The new technology is especially well suited for the construction of superconducting magnets that enable fast electric current changes (high ramp rates). In a development process lasting several years, GSI and JINR optimized the Nuclotron magnet technology for use in the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100.

The focus was on reducing dynamic losses (heat input) at high ramp rates, optimizing the magnetic design, and adapting the system to a new high-current Nuclotron cable that offers sufficiently low hydraulic resistance. The steering magnet technology is based on a further development of the nucleon cable that was created specifically for FAIR’s SIS100 ring accelerator. In this system, the strands are insulated from one another so that the number of turns of a coil can be significantly increased even though the current is reduced.

The development of this new kind of cable was initially supported by a program funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and JINR. The development process was successfully completed when the first two SIS100 units were accepted. (BP)

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news-3222 Tue, 03 Apr 2018 09:30:00 +0200 FAIR and GSI in great demand at VDI career fair https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_and_gsi_in_great_demand_at_vdi_career_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=d7839f40578d89cccba410370dc4885b In addition to its scientific significance, the FAIR project is also an important job generator. FAIR and GSI currently offer a large number of highly qualified jobs in the field of cutting-edge technologies and international science. Recently FAIR and GSI presented numerous new job offers at the Frankfurt Exhibition Center at the "VDI Nachrichten Recruiting Tag", an important career fair of the VDI Association of German Engineers. In addition to its scientific significance, the FAIR project is also an important job generator. FAIR and GSI currently offer a large number of highly qualified jobs in the field of cutting-edge technologies and international science. Recently FAIR and GSI presented numerous new job offers at the Frankfurt Exhibition Center at the "VDI Nachrichten Recruiting Tag", an important career fair of the VDI Association of German Engineers.

At the career day FAIR and GSI were able to offer a whole series of current job advertisements, a large part of them in the "FAIR Site & Buildings" department. The main focus was on specialized engineers and technicians with emphasis on construction, building services engineering and electrical engineering in planning and implementation, but also IT specialists. Young professionals and those with initial professional experience were just as much in demand as those with many years of professional experience.

There was a great demand at the FAIR and GSI booth, numerous participants took the opportunity to enter into direct dialogue and inquire in detail about employment possibilities and career opportunities. The contact persons of FAIR and GSI were in constant conversations with interested parties and potential applicants. There was also extensive information on the FAIR project, one of the largest construction projects for research worldwide, which was also presented at the central forum of the event.

Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, gave a positive review of the trade fair presentation. "Our presence in this environment of highly qualified engineering and technology has borne fruit. We were also one of the few companies in the field of science and research. A unique selling point that piqued great interest."

Many unsolicited applications were already received on the day of the fair itself, and the response via the regular application process in the following period is also very positive. (BP)

Further information

More information on working at FAIR and GSI and current vacancies can be found here.

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news-3224 Thu, 29 Mar 2018 09:30:00 +0200 Delegation of the Hessian Parliament visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////delegation_of_the_hessian_parliament_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=33544931e2cebddb9eb73cc91f5c0727 On Tuesday, 27 March 2018, a delegation of the CDU fraction of the Hessian Parliament visited the research center of FAIR and GSI. Participants in the event were Karin Wolff from the electoral district Darmstadt-Stadt II, Birgit Heitland from the district Bergstraße II, Andreas Hofmeister from the district Limburg-Weilburg II, as well as Dr. Ralf-Norbert Bartelt from the district Frankfurt III. On Tuesday, 27 March 2018, a delegation of the CDU fraction of the Hessian Parliament visited the research center of FAIR and GSI. Participants in the event were Karin Wolff from the electoral district Darmstadt-Stadt II, Birgit Heitland from the district Bergstraße II, Andreas Hofmeister from the district Limburg-Weilburg II, as well as Dr. Ralf-Norbert Bartelt from the district Frankfurt III.

The FAIR and GSI management board informed the delegation in two introductory talks about the existing GSI accelerator facilities and research highlights as well as about the future international research center FAIR and the progress of the construction project. In a bus tour to the construction site the participants were able to take a look at the advancements: Current works include, among other things, the connection of the existing GSI facilities to the FAIR accelerator, the commissioning of two transformer stations for the energy supply of both facilities, and the excavation works for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS100.

Furthermore, in a guided tour through the existing facility the delegation visited the experimental storage ring ESR, the tumor therapy with carbon ions and the large-scale detector HADES, which will become part of the CBM experiment for the investigation of compressed matter at FAIR.

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news-3218 Mon, 26 Mar 2018 10:32:00 +0200 Playing Billiards with a Laser Beam https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////playing_billiards_with_a_laser_beam.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=747c1a14a8da92339948d46cd816654b A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. Using tiny plastic beads as targets, they have produced proton bunches that possess unique features, opening up new opportunities for future studies. The experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser on the campus of GSI und FAIR. This news is based on a press release by the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich.

A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. Using tiny plastic beads as targets, they have produced proton bunches that possess unique features, opening up new opportunities for future studies. The experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser on the campus of GSI und FAIR.

In their experiments, a team led by physicists at LMU Munich fired a powerful laser pulse at a micrometer-sized plastic sphere, blasting a bunch of protons from the target and accelerating them to velocities approaching the speed of light. The resulting velocity distribution is much narrower than that obtained when thin metal foils are used as targets. The physicist now present their research results in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

Recent years have seen remarkable advances in the development of a new approach to the acceleration of subatomic particles. This strategy makes use of the intense electric fields associated with pulsed, high-energy laser beams to accelerate electrons and protons to ‘relativistic’ velocities (i.e. speeds approaching that of light). Hitherto, the laser shot has generally been directed at a thin metal foil, generating and accelerating a plasma of free electrons and positively charged ions. Physicists at LMU have now replaced the foil target by a plastic microsphere with a diameter of one-millionth of a meter. These beads are so tiny that they cannot be stably positioned by mechanical means. Instead, the researchers use an electric field to levitate the target particle. Using a feedback circuit, the levitated bead can be trapped with sufficient precision to ensure that it does not drift off the beam axis. The electromagnetic trap was designed and built in the Department of Medical Physics at LMU.

“The basic approach is analogous to collisions between billiard balls. In our experiment, one of the balls is made of light and the other is our tiny levitated target,” explains Peter Hilz, who led the experiments. This novel approach to the generation of proton beams will make experiments feasible which have hitherto been out of reach.

More information:
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news-3216 Thu, 22 Mar 2018 09:26:00 +0100 Solution to the hyperfine puzzle in reach https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////solution_to_the_hyperfine_puzzle_in_reach.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e9658b48c3702600f1b30304e9b30b92 Last year, physicists at TU Darmstadt cast doubt on our current understanding of the interplay between electrons and atomic nuclei, and are now upping the ante by proposing a solution to this so-called “hyperfine puzzle”. New measurements of the magnetic properties of bismuth atomic nuclei are now published in an article in the prestigious “Physical Review Letters” journal. A researcher from the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a branch of GSI, is also involved. This news is based on a press release of the Technical University Darmstadt
from February 28, 2018

Last year, physicists at TU Darmstadt cast doubt on our current understanding of the interplay between electrons and atomic nuclei, and are now upping the ante by proposing a solution to this so-called “hyperfine puzzle”. New measurements of the magnetic properties of bismuth atomic nuclei are now published in an article in the prestigious “Physical Review Letters” journal. A researcher from the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a branch of GSI, is also involved.

The optical spectrum of any given atom is a result of the interplay between light and the electrons within the atomic shell. Ultra-precise measurements can even reveal the effects of the internal structure of the atomic nucleus, which are referred to as the “hyperfine structure”. When measuring the hyperfine structure of highly-charged ions with few remaining electrons, researchers at TU Darmstadt found a discrepancy between the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined splittings: these empirically observed discrepancies were referred to as the “hyperfine puzzle”, and raised the question as to whether the interplay between the few electrons bound to the atomic nucleus and the nucleus itself, under the influence of the prevailing enormously strong magnetic fields, is fully understood. The next step towards solving the puzzle was to re-determine the strength of the magnetic field within the atomic nucleus: theoretical predictions are strongly dependent on this parameter, which must be determined experimentally.

Physicists of the working groups of Prof. Wilfried Nörtershäuser and Prof. Michael Vogel from the Institute for Nuclear Physics and the Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, respectively, at the TU Darmstadt were collaborating to remeasure the strength of the magnetic field – the so-called magnetic moment – using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which is used in medicine where it is referred to as MRI. It is based on the principle that atomic nuclei have a magnetic field, if they, like the bismuth isotope under investigation, have a nuclear spin. The north and south poles are oriented along the spin axis and will align with the magnetic field axis of an external magnetic field. The orientation of the nuclear magnets can be reversed by irradiating the atoms under investigation with radio waves of an appropriate frequency, and this effect can be observed. The frequency of the radio waves at which the poles change their direction depends upon the magnetic moment. Measuring the frequency allows one to deduce the value of the magnetic moment.

Measurement of the magnetic moment is affected

To achieve this, the researchers introduced an aqueous solution enriched with bismuth ions to a superconducting magnet and irradiated it with radio frequencies via a small coil until they registered a polarity reversal in the bismuth ions.

The challenge in doing this is that the ions’ environment, i.e., the atoms to which it is bound as well as the fluid in which it is dissolved, changes the external magnetic field in the vicinity of the atomic nucleus, which, in turn, affects the precise measurement of the magnetic moment. This disruptive effect has to be subtracted from the calculation, to which end highly specialised quantum-theoretical calculations were carried out by a group of theoretical physicists at the University of St. Petersburg and at the Helmholtz Institute Jena. It became apparent that the effect was much larger than previously expected when using bismuth-nitrate solutions, which means that measurements taken with the aid of bismuth-nitrate solutions are evidently inadequate.

The researchers finally achieved a breakthrough by using a complex organometallic compound, which releases hexafluoridobismuthate(V) ions in organic solution. The Darmstadt-based scientists received support from a research group specialised in fluorine chemistry at the University of Marburg, who produced a sample of the required substance. Thus, it was possible to measure much narrower resonance curves and to make more precise statements about the magnetic moment of the nucleus. Moreover, from the quantum-theoretical perspective, much more accurate calculations can be performed for this system than had previously been possible for bismuth nitrate.

The researchers used the newly calculated value for the magnetic moment of the stable bismuth isotope and made a theoretical prediction of the hyperfine structure splitting within the highly-charged ions. The values obtained, are in very good agreement with the results from the previously reported laser-spectroscopic measurements. “It would be too early to state that this represents the complete solution to the hyperfine puzzle,” Prof. Wilfried Nörtershäuser of the TU Darmstadt’s Institute for Nuclear Physics explains, going on to say; “nevertheless, it is for sure a significant part of the solution. Further experiments are still needed to achieve complete clarity about the interplay between the atomic nucleus and the shell and, therefore, to verify the theoretical predictions of the nature of quantum mechanics in very strong fields”. To better understand the complex influence of the electron shell on measurements of nuclear magnetic moments, scientists at TU Darmstadt now want to conduct measurements of nuclear magnetic moments on atomic nuclei with just a single bound electron or no electron shell at all. According to Nörtershäuser, such experiments are prepared at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt involving also other working groups from TU Darmstadt.

Further information:
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news-3182 Mon, 19 Mar 2018 12:51:00 +0100 New targets greatly improve the performance of laser-driven particle acceleration https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////new_targets_greatly_improve_the_performance_of_laser_driven_particle_acceleration.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=bcc366267629a8679b708bce895861ba The use of nanostructured targets enables the PHELIX laser to accelerate considerably more particles to substantially higher energies. The experiment with the high-performance laser was conducted at the GSI/FAIR campus by scientists from GSI and FAIR as well as from Goethe University Frankfurt and the Helmholtz Institute Jena. The innovative nano target was created at GSI's Materials Research department. The results give laser-driven particle acceleration a boost, and also harbor considerable potential for future plasma research at the FAIR accelerator facility. The use of nanostructured targets enables the PHELIX laser to accelerate considerably more particles to substantially higher energies. The experiment with the high-performance laser was conducted at the GSI/FAIR campus by scientists from GSI and FAIR as well as from Goethe University Frankfurt and the Helmholtz Institute Jena. The innovative nano target was created at GSI’s Materials Research department. The results give laser-driven particle acceleration a boost, and also harbor considerable potential for future plasma research at the FAIR accelerator facility.

One of Germany’s strongest lasers is located on the campus of GSI and FAIR: the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Ion Experiments (PHELIX). By focusing all of the light energy into a hair-thin beam, plasma physicists can use the laser to study states of matter under conditions that are similar to those inside stars and giant planets. However, they also test possible applications such as laser-driven particle acceleration. To do this, scientists shoot the laser at a target to study how the ultra-powerful pulse of light affects the material. Now, scientists have, for the first time, tested a target with a nanowire surface instead of one with a smooth surface. “In the new surface, extremely thin nanowires are located close to one another like tall tree trunks in a dense forest that is bombarded from above by a laser,” explains Paul Neumayer, a plasma physicist at GSI and the director of the experiment. Nanotargets are extremely fragile structures. Until recently, laser pulses would destroy such targets before fully reaching them. In cooperation with the Helmholtz Institute Jena, the scientists at FAIR have greatly improved PHELIX’s temporal contrast, which means the laser pulse is now extremely “cleanly” delineated in terms of time. As a result, the wires are immediately hit by the laser’s full energy density, thus stripping off the electrons from the target atoms at one blow. This creates an electrostatic field, which, in turn, can accelerate lightweight particles.

“The new target enabled us to accelerate 30 times more particles than with the normally employed smooth foil targets under the same conditions,” says Neumayer. “Moreover, we increased the energy of the accelerated particles by 2 to 2.5 times.” There are two reasons for this improvement. First, a nanotarget has a much higher surface area than a smooth one, thus intensifying the laser’s interaction with the material. Second, the laser pulse can penetrate deep into the target’s structure in the spaces between the wires. As a result, the laser energy can be deposited with much higher densities than would normally be achievable with the laser light.

In addition to making laser-driven particle acceleration more efficient, the new targets have another benefit: they greatly increase the X-ray emissions of the hot plasma. “This is not only a huge advantage for the measurement of exotic plasmas, but also opens up interesting prospects for the development of extremely intense short-pulsed X-ray sources for future FAIR experiments,” explains Neumayer.

The innovative nanotargets were developed by Dimitri Khaghani as part of his doctoral dissertation. Khaghani is a laser and plasma physicist who earned his doctorate at Goethe University Frankfurt. For his dissertation, he worked together very closely with GSI’s Materials Research department, which has been researching and producing nanowires for years. Nanowires grow in tiny channels in plastic foils. To create these channels, researchers first bombard the foils with heavy ions from a linear accelerator. The areas damaged along the ions’ path are then chemically etched to turn them into open channels that are subsequently filled using an electrochemical method. “This process enabled us to test nanowires made of different materials and of various lengths and diameters so that we could find out when laser acceleration is most efficient,” says Khaghani, who received the Giersch Excellence Grant and the Giersch Award for Outstanding Doctoral Thesis for his research with nanotargets. “The synergy effect achieved through the close cooperation between the Plasma Physics and Materials Research departments on the campus certainly contributed to the success of the experiments and enabled us to take a big step forward,” says Khaghani, who is now a postdoc at the Helmholtz Institute Jena.

More Information

Original publication: Nature Scientific Reports, „Enhancing laser-driven proton acceleration by using micro-pillar arrays at high drive energy“ 

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news-3210 Fri, 16 Mar 2018 09:27:46 +0100 Masterclass 2018 — Particle physicist for a day https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////masterclass_2018_particle_physicist_for_a_day.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3d53b041b7abe3eb792003fe7e70cc50 On Thursday, March 15, 2018 the 8th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 20 high-school students were invited to become a scientist for a day and analyse data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning. On Thursday, March 15, 2018 the 8th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 20 high-school students were invited to become a scientist for a day and analyse data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning.

The young persons were asked to evaluate and interpret data of the ALICE experiment. Under professional supervision of scientists they autonomously analyzed recent data recorded in proton-proton and lead collisions. In the lead collisions a so-called quark-gluon plasma is generated – a state of matter which existed in the universe shortly after the big bang. This plasma undergoes a phase transition back to normal matter in fractions of seconds. The particles produced in the process can give insight into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

In two introductory talks about quark-gluon plasma and the examination of heavy ion collisions at the ALICE experiment the pupils were informed about the analysis. Furthermore they visited the large-scale experiment HADES, one of the current experiments at the GSI accelerator facility that will also become a part of the future FAIR accelerator. Afterwards they started the data analysis.

The basic idea of the program is to allow the students to work in the same fashion as the scientists. This includes having a videoconference at the end of the day. In a conference connection with groups from the universities in Frankfurt, Münster, and Padua (Italy) as well as CERN they presented and discussed their results.

This year 215 universities and research institutes from 52 countries participate in the International Masterclasses. They are organized by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG). All events in Germany are held in cooperation with the "Netzwerk Teilchenwelt", a nationwide network committed to the communication of particle physics to youngsters and teachers. They aim to make particle physics accessible to a broader public. As of late, GSI as a location is also a part of “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt”.

ALICE is one of the four large international experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is the experiment specifically designed to investigate collisions of heavy nuclei at high energies. Scientists of GSI and of German universities were involved in the development of new detectors and in the scientific program of ALICE from the beginning. The GSI computing center is an inherent part of the computing grid for data analysis of ALICE.

Further information:
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news-3208 Tue, 13 Mar 2018 09:07:00 +0100 FAIR joins the Big Science Business Forum https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_joins_the_big_science_business_forum.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6a778abc1b172de65e4300a9c68d311c Eighteen of the world’s largest research facilities gathered to create Big Science Business Forum to present their offers to European industry. BSBF was a one-stop shop for companies from all over Europe, where Big Science facilities could give them insight into our future investments and purchases in just one location over the course of a few days. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR GmbH) makes extensive procurements, from the smallest screw to high-tech consultancy, often with a requirement of extremely high quality and innovation.

This high-tech branch is known as Big Science and for the first time, eighteen of the world’s largest research facilities gathered to create Big Science Business Forum to present their offers to European industry. BSBF was a one-stop shop for companies from all over Europe, where Big Science facilities could give them insight into our future investments and purchases in just one location over the course of a few days.

BSBF 2018 was the first ever conference of its kind, to which FAIR contributed and thus consolidated its place in the world’s big-league of scientific facilities.

The conference took place in Copenhagen from 26th -28th February, hosted by the Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science and BigScience.dk. Altogether, some 1,000 delegates from more than 500 companies and organizations spanning approximately 30 countries attended. FAIR was represented by the In-Kind and Procurement team (David Urner and Sonia Utermann) and FAIR Legal (Felix Arndt). Among the other Big Science facilities attending were e.g. CERN, ESA, the European XFEL and DESY.

David Urner presented FAIR to an audience of potential suppliers and in-kind procurement experts from other Big Science facilities. His presentation marked the launch of FAIR’s new in-kind procurement portal, that gives potential bidders access to FAIR tenders. Several new industrial FAIR liaison officers (ILOs) have been nominated to offer the best – and simplest – communication between FAIR and industrial partners, a route that has proven so successful for CERN, ESS and ESA.

The FAIR delegation met potential new providers of cryogenic systems, vacuum chambers and magnets. In private meetings with delegates from ITER, ESS, European XFEL and CERN, they were able to exchange tips, legal texts and experiences in in-kind procurement in order to learn from each other and further improve the work at FAIR. They learned from potential suppliers how to make it more attractive for them to provide their services to FAIR; not just by expanding on our procurement portal and strengthening our network of ILOs, but also, for example, by encouraging syndication amongst small and medium-sized enterprises. The FAIR delegations looks forward to putting the new knowledge into practice.

Further information:
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news-3205 Thu, 08 Mar 2018 14:13:42 +0100 Magnet tests for FAIR: GSI and CERN conclude cooperation agreement https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////magnet_tests_for_fair_gsi_and_cern_conclude_cooperation_agreement.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=d574a4d69e8199a8d7bb0fd8e474535c Many of the key components for the future particle accelerator facility FAIR are currently under development or in production. However, production isn't the only decisive step, because the testing of the individual parts' quality is also crucial. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, where FAIR is currently being built, have now concluded a cooperation agreement for the reliable testing of magnets weighing more than 50 tons each and destined for use in the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super-FRS), which will be part of the FAIR facility. Many of the key components for the future particle accelerator facility FAIR are currently under development or in production. However, production isn’t the only decisive step, because the testing of the individual parts’ quality is also crucial. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, where FAIR is currently being built, have now concluded a cooperation agreement for the reliable testing of magnets weighing more than 50 tons each and destined for use in the Superconducting Fragment Separator (Super-FRS), which will be part of the FAIR facility.

As part of the collaboration, the partners have created a test facility containing three magnet test rigs. The first tests are scheduled to begin in 1st half of the year 2018. The facility will conduct intense endurance tests of multiplets, which are superconducting magnet units with corrective lenses, and then examine if they behave flawlessly in accordance with high quality standards during operation. Unlike the usual copper cables, superconducting systems don’t pose any resistance to electric currents. To achieve superconductivity, the units are cooled to around -270 degrees Celsius during operation.

The multiplets, which weigh up to 60 tons each, will later be used for beam correction in the Super-FRS at FAIR to achieve a high-precision particle beam. This part of the future accelerator center FAIR will be used for experiments on the fundamental structure of extremely rare exotic nuclei. For these experiments, ions of the heaviest elements will be shot at a target, where they will shatter upon impact. The resulting fragments will include exotic nuclei that the Super-FRS can supply to scientists for their experiments. The Super-FRS will enable researchers to produce exotic nuclei up to uranium at relativistic energies and separate them into pure isotopes. Because this process lasts for only a few hundred nanoseconds, it provides researchers access to very short-lived nuclei.

The multiplets, which were manufactured in Genoa, Italy, are an important in-kind contribution from GSI to the FAIR project, as is the subsequent testing process. GSI is the German shareholder of the international FAIR GmbH.  All of the superconducting magnets that will be needed for the Super-FRS will be tested in the new test facility at CERN. The magnets will initially consist of a total of 33 multiplet units, which will be followed by 24 superconducting dipole magnets that will be needed for deflecting the particle beam. (BP) 

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news-3190 Mon, 05 Mar 2018 09:24:00 +0100 Transformer station goes into operation at the FAIR construction site https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////transformer_station_goes_into_operation_at_the_fair_construction_site.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ea338f7ea4a94cdba8f604eb3427011d At the end of February the first of two transformer stations went into operation at the construction site of the future FAIR accelerator facility. It is the first system at FAIR to go into operation. The station provides the energy supply to the existing SIS18 ring accelerator and will also do so for the future SIS100 ring accelerator. The transformer station will supply the SIS18 particle accelerator with electricity as early as the experimentation phase scheduled to take place this summer. At the end of February the first of two transformer stations went into operation at the construction site of the future FAIR accelerator facility. It is the first system at FAIR to go into operation. The station provides the energy supply to the existing SIS18 ring accelerator and will also do so for the future SIS100 ring accelerator. The transformer station will supply the SIS18 particle accelerator with electricity as early as the experimentation phase scheduled to take place this summer.

Two transformers at FAIR’s North Transformer Station were recently switched through to GSI in order to supply parts of the facility with electricity. Until then, GSI had been supplied with power exclusively through the transformer station at Leonhardstanne. The new transformers will improve the performance of the pulse load supply, which will be needed in the future for the operation of the SIS18 and SIS100 particle accelerators.

The transformers were delivered to the FAIR construction site in the fall of 2017. They were then installed and have been put into operation as planned. The second transformer station, FAIR South, is expected to go into operation in the second quarter of 2018. The new transformers convert the 110 kV high-voltage electricity that arrives at GSI and FAIR through underground high-voltage cables to 20 kV so that the current reaches the various consumers on the campus in line with their needs.

The new transformer station will be needed for the facility’s next beam time, which is scheduled for the summer of 2018. In addition to the GSI accelerators UNILAC, SIS18, and ESR, as well as the current experiments, scientists will also be able to use components of FAIR, such as the CRYRING storage ring, for the planned FAIR Phase 0 experimentation program. The experiments using this beam time will involve scientists from all over the world.

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news-3198 Fri, 02 Mar 2018 09:45:46 +0100 Dr. Yusuke Tsunoda receives FAIR GENCO Award for young scientists https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////dr_yusuke_tsunoda_receives_fair_genco_award_for_young_scientists.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=65b5c9cbe8c8fbd808c5d5cc42a8e9f3 This year, Dr. Yusuke Tsunoda from the Center for Nuclear Study at the University of Tokyo received the FAIR GENCO Award for young scientists. The award is sponsored by the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. The bestowal by GENCO president Professor Christoph Scheidenberger and vice-president Professor Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki took place on Thursday, March 1, 2017 in a special colloquium in the framework of the yearly GENCO meeting at FAIR and GSI. This year, Dr. Yusuke Tsunoda from the Center for Nuclear Study at the University of Tokyo received the FAIR GENCO Award for young scientists. The award is sponsored by the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. The bestowal by GENCO president Professor Christoph Scheidenberger and vice-president Professor Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki took place on Thursday, March 1, 2017 in a special colloquium in the framework of the yearly GENCO meeting at FAIR and GSI. Every year, the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) presents its Young Scientist Award to a young researcher at the beginning of their scientific career. The international GENCO jury, composed of seven renowned nuclear scientists, elects the winner in a competitive procedure, where several candidates, working in theory or experiment, are evaluated. Furthermore five scientists were honoured with a GENCO Membership Award.

Dr. Yusuke Tsunoda receives the Young Scientist Award for the invention of the so-called T-Plot method. This visualization method is the key for understanding and grasping the essence of complex many-body quantum systems like atomic nuclei. He developed this method to display mathematical solutions that can be assigned to different states and shapes of atomic nuclei. It helps to interpret and understand experimental results and is becoming a standard method in the study of the structure of exotic nuclei. The T-Plot method attracts great attention in the scientific community worldwide.

The five scientists assigned with the GENCO Membership Award are:

  • Professor Angela Bracco (INFN Milano) for her important contributions to the study of collective pygmy excitations and for her leadership role in NuPECC in Europe.

  • Professor Paolo Giubellino (GSI and FAIR) for outstanding contributions to the strategic development of the high-level physics program of GSI and to the ALICE experiment at CERN, which is an important asset of the GSI research portfolio.

  • Professor Thomas Glasmacher (MSU - FRIB) for exploring rare isotopes with new experimental techniques involving gamma-rays and for opening new horizons with design and construction of the FRIB facility.

  • Professor Olof Tengblad (CSIC Madrid) for advancing the nuclear-reaction program using relativistic radioactive beams and for remarkable findings in the reaction mechanisms and structure of drip-line nuclei.

  • Professor Remco Zegers (MSU – FRIB) for excellent achievements on charge-exchange reactions in connection with Giant Monopole and Giant Dipole Resonances, respectively, and the development of new techniques to study and disentangle these resonances using radioactive beams.
Further information
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news-3152 Tue, 20 Feb 2018 11:00:00 +0100 Spectacular low temperature: Research team measures liquid water with a temperature of -42.6 degrees Celsius https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////spectacular_low_temperature_research_team_measures_liquid_water_with_a_temperature_of_426_degrees.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=48bfb54360a369df7f63759dc9bdca05 It is a spectacular low temperature: A research team headed by Robert Grisenti from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung has successfully detected liquid water at a temperature far below the freezing point: -42.6 degrees Celsius. This discovery is the result of development work on experiments for the future accelerator center FAIR, but it could also enable us to make great progress in our understanding of the earth’s climate. It is a spectacular low temperature: A research team headed by Robert Grisenti from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung has successfully detected liquid water at a temperature far below the freezing point: -42.6 degrees Celsius. This discovery is the result of development work on experiments for the future accelerator center FAIR, but it could also enable us to make great progress in our understanding of the earth’s climate.

Although it has long been known that water can remain liquid far below 0 degrees Celsius without freezing, the result depends on the volume of the sample used. The fast evaporative cooling of tiny water droplets in a vacuum gives scientists a good means of analyzing supercooled water, i.e. water that is still liquid even though its temperature is below freezing. However, it’s difficult to get a reliable value for the droplet temperature under such extreme experimental conditions. Because this value is of crucial importance for further studies, the reliable and exact measurement of the temperature of supercooled water is a great challenge.

In their research, the scientists demonstrated a new technology that achieves an unparalleled level of precision when measuring the temperature of extremely small droplets of water. The system does this by determining the temperature of a droplet on the basis of its diameter. In this process, uniform droplets of warm ultrapure water that are only a few thousandths of a millimeter wide are sprayed in a targeted jet of liquid into a vacuum chamber. The upper layers of the droplets evaporate and the inner layers cool off greatly, so the droplets shrink. This shrinkage can be precisely measured with optical methods, and the result is used to determine the droplets’ temperature. A key element for such high-precision measurements is the unique instrumentation available at GSI for Raman spectroscopy, in which the droplets are illuminated with a laser beam. The spectrum and form of the scattered light enable scientists to determine the diameter of the droplets.

In its research, the team can build on the expertise gathered over many years at GSI and at the international FAIR accelerator center, which is currently under construction. This expertise especially benefits the development of targets for atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Inside the accelerator facility, the particle beams are guided to the experimental stations, where they hit the targets made of the material samples. Targets that consist of tiny jets of liquids also have to be specially developed for such studies in the target hall and in the experimental storage rings at GSI and FAIR. FAIR will be a unique accelerator center with great knowledge potential. As a result, the current research with supercooled water for the development of targets for FAIR is also an example of the innovation potential at FAIR.  

Droplets of supercooled water can also be found in nature — in the upper layers of the earth’s atmosphere, where they exist under conditions that are similar to those created experimentally by the research team. That’s why the work being conducted by the scientists under the direction of Robert Grisenti can also improve our understanding of ice formation in the atmosphere. It is thus an important step on the path toward the development of reliable climate models. (BP)

More Information

Publication in Physical Review Letters 120

Report in Nature - Research Highlights

Report in Physics World

 

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news-3175 Wed, 14 Feb 2018 13:00:00 +0100 The Universe in the Laboratory: ESA and FAIR form partnership for researching cosmic radiation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////the_universe_in_the_laboratory_esa_and_fair_form_partnership_for_researching_cosmic_radiation.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6559fd62af20951ca62dfdef131f7aa4 One of the key questions that need to be addressed regarding the future of human spaceflight as well as robotic exploration programs is how cosmic radiation affects human beings, electronics, and materials. The detailed investigation of this topic is one of the main tasks that must be accomplished in order to provide astronauts and space systems with effective protection. To achieve this goal, the European Space Agency (ESA) will be cooperating closely in the future with the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. On Wednesday, February 14, 2018, the two partners signed a corresponding cooperation agreement at the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt. One of the key questions that need to be addressed regarding the future of human spaceflight as well as robotic exploration programs is how cosmic radiation affects human beings, electronics, and materials. The detailed investigation of this topic is one of the main tasks that must be accomplished in order to provide astronauts and space systems with effective protection. To achieve this goal, the European Space Agency (ESA) will be cooperating closely in the future with the international accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. On Wednesday, February 14, 2018, the two partners signed a corresponding cooperation agreement at the GSI and FAIR campus in Darmstadt.

By signing the agreement, ESA Director General Professor Johann-Dietrich Wörner and the FAIR Management Board, consisting of the Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich, and the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock, sealed an international partnership that will open up far-reaching opportunities for new scientific findings. For example radiation is a showstopper for human missions to the Moon and Mars as well as for scientific missions to the depths of space. Also present was ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter, one of the initiators of the cooperation.

Unique research opportunities

“The partnership between FAIR and ESA will open up unique opportunities for carrying out outstanding research in the area of cosmic radiation and its effects,” said Professor Paolo Giubellino. “FAIR will be an institute that is unique in the world. It will enable researchers to reproduce the diversity of the universe in the laboratory, so to speak, in order to investigate fundamental questions such as how the chemical elements came into existence in the cosmos, gain knowledge about the effect of radiation on cells and solid objects, and forge ahead with practical applications in areas such as biophysics and materials research. We are eagerly looking forward to closer cooperation with the ESA.”

Professor Johann-Dietrich Wörner also emphasized the significance of the new partnership between the two international institutes: „GSI is the only facility in Europe capable of simulating high-energy heavy nuclei occurring in cosmic radiation.  With FAIR, experiments with an even wider range of particle energies and intensities will soon be possible. This reproduction of the cosmic radiation environment can support us in many areas, from materials research for satellite missions to radiobiology, which deals with the effects of cosmic radiation on the human organism, and is an important preparation for long-term astronautical missions to the moon and beyond.“

When they move beyond the Earth’s protective atmosphere and its magnetic field, astronauts, satellites, and space probes are exposed to cosmic rays. An essential component of cosmic rays are fast particles that are ejected into space during stellar explosions or emitted by the sun and by distant galaxies. What effects would radiation have on human beings and spacecraft during a long space journey, for example to Mars? What would happen to the sensitive electronics on board? What materials, in which thicknesses, would be suitable protective shields to mitigate these effects? Can radiation-resistant materials and electronic components be developed in a targeted manner? These are some of the basic questions that are crucial to the implementation of such space missions. The aim is to provide the best possible conditions for human beings and materials in space and to minimize the risks to health.

In the future, researchers at the FAIR accelerator facility will be able to generate the kinds of radiation that exist in space and make them available to scientists for their experiments. For example, researchers will be able to investigate how cells and human DNA are altered or damaged by exposure to cosmic radiation and how well microchips stand up to the extreme conditions in space.

The central points of the cooperation agreement between ESA and FAIR include the research fields of radiation biology, electronic components, materials research, shielding materials, and instrument calibration. The research will be conducted at the future FAIR facility as well as the existing accelerator facilities at GSI, which are currently being improved through major upgrading measures and prepared for their future use as preaccelerators for FAIR. The two partners have also agreed to cooperate on technology and software developments and on additional joint activities in areas such as innovation management.

Particle accelerator will enable broad range of radiation research

The new partnership is building on a very successful and reliable foundation of cooperation that has been formed between ESA and GSI over many years in several research projects. For example, the IBER (Investigations into Biological Effects of Radiation) research project has been running since 2008 and is currently entering a new round with the allocation of beam time. The project enables research groups to investigate the biological effects of space radiation at the existing accelerator facilities of GSI.

The GSI accelerator facility is the only one in Europe that can generate all of the ion beams that occur in our solar system, which range from the lightest one, hydrogen, to the heaviest, uranium. The research opportunities will be expanded even further by the future FAIR accelerator center. Thanks to its centerpiece, the ring accelerator SIS100 with a circumference of 1,100 meters, FAIR will enable researchers to conduct experiments with an even wider spectrum of particle energies and intensities, and to simulate the composition of cosmic radiation with a precision that no other accelerator facility will be able to match.

The fundamental research issues are being investigated against a background of complex relationships. There are many different kinds of cosmic rays, and they can have very different effects on spacecraft and their occupants, depending on the kinds of particles, the particles’ energies, and the duration of the exposure. In addition, cosmic rays’ interactions with matter, such as their impact on a protective shield, produce secondary cosmic rays that have very different effects. These secondary rays can do even more damage to biological tissue and sensitive electronics than the original primary cosmic radiation.

Optimized instruments, advantages for mission planning

The objective of the new partnership is to precisely identify these complex relationships and investigate them in even greater depth. For example, new findings could help scientists adapt sensitive instruments specifically for utilization in space. Such research projects are also of interest to the ESA´s European Space Operations Centre ESOC in Darmstadt. This is where satellite missions are controlled and their trajectories are calculated. Detailed knowledge of the radiation sources and effects is helpful for mission planning. It can help researchers select flight variants that will minimize the total radiation load. Both FAIR and ESOC very much look forward to the opportunities of enhanced collaboration between these two Darmstadt-based institutions, which contribute to strengthen Darmstadt as an internationally established City of Science.

Benefits for life on earth

The results of the new partnership will provide future-oriented information not only for space travel but also for life on earth. For example, data from the experiments can provide more detailed insights into radiation risks on earth. They can also help to optimize radiation protection measures and improve radiation therapies for treating cancer. (BP/IP)

Further Information

ESA Website

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news-3166 Fri, 09 Feb 2018 15:02:13 +0100 Visit to Azerbaijan: Scientific cooperation to be intensified https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////visit_to_azerbaijan_scientific_cooperation_to_be_intensified.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=892db4b259cada261eb9941eb63d2207 Perspectives and opportunities for future cooperation were the focus of a visit by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, to the Republic of Azerbaijan. The aim is to intensify the scientific exchange between German and Azerbaijani researchers. In order to promote scientific and technological cooperation between FAIR and Azerbaijani research institutions, a “Memorandum of Understanding“ (MoU) has now been signed in the capital Baku on the Caspian Sea. Perspectives and opportunities for future cooperation were the focus of a visit by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Director of FAIR and GSI, to the Republic of Azerbaijan. The aim is to intensify the scientific exchange between German and Azerbaijani researchers. In order to promote scientific and technological cooperation between FAIR and Azerbaijani research institutions, a “Memorandum of Understanding“ (MoU) has now been signed in the capital Baku on the Caspian Sea.

Paolo Giubellino held very productive discussions with, among others, Minister Mr. Ramin Guluzade of the Ministry of Transport, Communication and High Technologies (MTCHT) of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Professor Abel Maharramov, Rector of the Baku State University (BSU), one of the largest universities in the country. During his visit, he also learned about current research and infrastructure in Azerbaijan.

The Memorandum of Understanding provides for scientific and technological cooperation and joint projects between scientists from BSU, MTCHT and FAIR. Among other things, the MoU encompasses a variety of opportunities for collaboration and information sharing, such as seminars, symposia, and science meetings. The memorandum will also promote cooperation by means of joint research projects and exchange activities between professors and scientists — particularly young scientists, and university students. The activities are coordinated by Professor Paolo Giubellino and Dr. Anar Rustamov, Deputy Director at the Institute for Physical Problems of BSU.

“FAIR will become a world-leading accelerator facility and a driver of innovation in many areas," said Paolo Giubellino. “In addition to scientific excellence, it is also an important task to promote relations with the scientific communities in countries around the world. We are looking forward to working with the Azerbaijani researchers in the future."

University Rector Abel Maharramov also emphasized the importance of cooperation in science and technology to strengthen links between the scientific communities of both countries. Minister Ramin Guluzade moreover announced that a roadmap for Azerbaijan's possible accession to the international FAIR GmbH would be developed. (BP)

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news-3158 Thu, 08 Feb 2018 16:15:57 +0100 Start-up Class 5 Photonics wins PRISM AWARD https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////start_up_class_5_photonics_wins_prism_award.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=aa5c51c2b67e21fb5940a90ea44d9d4b Class 5 Photonics, a spin-off from Helmholtz-Institut Jena, a branch of GSI, and from Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY specialized in high-performance laser technology, is the proud winner of the PRISM AWARDS 2018 in the category lasers. SuperNova OPCPA is the Class 5 Photonics flagship product, which took the trophy home. The SuperNova OPCPA enables researchers to perform experiments ten times faster than with conventional lasers.

“We are delighted to win this prestigious award and being recognized as the premier laser technology partner for the most advanced R&D labs and institutions worldwide,” said Class 5 Photonics CEO and co-founder Robert Riedel. “With our products we aim to enable cutting-edge research to gain new insights in processes, building blocks and interactions in physics, chemistry and bio sciences.”

The PRISM AWARDS are the premier worldwide event in the photonics industry and awarded annually during the SPIE Photonics West conference and tradeshow in San Francisco. More than 150 applicants entered the competition in ten categories this year. With its high-performance laser SuperNova OPCPA Class 5 Photonics convinced the jury.

The spin-off company was founded in 2014 in Hamburg. The scientists from Helmholtz Institute Jena and DESY is developing high power lasers with pulses in the femtosecond range. One femtosecond is a quadrillionth of a second. Shorter laser pulses allow more precise working of materials, for instance. Also, such short laser pulses open up new innovative applications like 3D nanostructuring. For science, the technology is of great importance.

Further information 

 

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news-3144 Fri, 02 Feb 2018 16:30:00 +0100 French High-Commissioner for Atomic Energy Yves Bréchet visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////french_high_commissioner_for_atomic_energy_yves_brechet_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c61987dadbce8cb6f17f8c016aa77886 Professor Yves Bréchet, the High-Commissioner for Atomic Energy, visited the FAIR and GSI research facilities in January. In an introductory talk he was informed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, about the on-going research activities at the existing facility and the planning of the FAIR project. Professor Yves Bréchet, the High-Commissioner for Atomic Energy, visited the FAIR and GSI research facilities in January. In an introductory talk he was informed by Professor Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, about the on-going research activities at the existing facility and the planning of the FAIR project.

Subsequently the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, showed him the current progress of the SIS100 tunnel construction and the further construction activities in a bus tour of the FAIR construction site. In a guided tour through the existing accelerator facility he visited the materials research, the experimental site for the discovery of superheavy elements SHIP, the PHELIX laser, the therapy site for tumor treatments with carbon ions, the FAIR storage ring CRYRING and also the large-scale experiment R3B, which houses a French contribution to FAIR, the so-called GLAD magnet.

Yves Bréchet is the Government Scientific Advisor for the missions of the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA, Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives). The governmental institution is subordinate to the French ministries for research, energy, armed forces, and industry. Together with the French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) the CEA holds half of the French shares of FAIR.

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news-3138 Wed, 24 Jan 2018 11:50:34 +0100 "target" magazine issue 16 published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////target_magazine_issue_16_published.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b1af280c875f4f63fb2aedd68c960350 In the 16th issue of our magazine "target" we report the groundbreaking for FAIR as well as our Open House which enabled approx. 11,000 visitors to gain insight into our research. The detection of heavy elements in a merger of neutron stars has confirmed important predictions of our scientists. And you learn more about the work of our Technology Transfer who aims to convey utilizable developments from research into industry. In the 16th issue of our magazine "target" we report the groundbreaking for FAIR as well as our Open House which enabled approx. 11,000 visitors to gain insight into our research. The detection of heavy elements in a merger of neutron stars has confirmed important predictions of our scientists. And you learn more about the work of our Technology Transfer who aims to convey utilizable developments from research into industry.

Download of "target" – Issue 16, January 2018 (PDF, 6,5 MB)

Further information:

Registration and target archive

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news-3129 Tue, 23 Jan 2018 10:34:35 +0100 Deep learning as a tool for heavy ion physics https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////deep_learning_as_a_tool_for_heavy_ion_physics.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=38e94f5592d8b9734eff2836061270d8 A group of scientists from GSI, FIAS and the university Frankfurt used deep learning techniques to develop a tool for better understanding heavy ion collisions. The present study is a proof of principle study where Long-Gang Pang, Kai Zhou, Nan Su, Hannah Petersen, Horst Stöcker, former Scientific Director of GSI, and Xin-Nian Wang (University of California in Berkeley, USA) used more than 20,000 pictures from relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of heavy ion collisions, as they also occour in experiments with the GSI accelerators and the future FAIR accelerators, in a convolution neural network (CNN) to classify two regions in the phase diagram. This news is based an a press release by the Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies from 18 January 2018

A group of scientists from GSI, FIAS and the university Frankfurt used deep learning techniques to develop a tool for better understanding heavy ion collisions. The present study is a proof of principle study where Long-Gang Pang, Kai Zhou, Nan Su, Hannah Petersen, Horst Stöcker, former Scientific Director of GSI, and Xin-Nian Wang (University of California in Berkeley, USA) used more than 20,000 pictures from relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of heavy ion collisions, as they also occour in experiments with the GSI accelerators and the future FAIR accelerators, in a convolution neural network (CNN)  to classify two regions in the phase diagram. 

"We started the project when a human professional was defeated in the game of Go against AlphaGo designed by Google Deepmind. The news ignited our enthusiasm and we discussed a lot on whether artificial intelligence can assist scientists to tackle challenging unsolved scientific problems." explains Long-Gang Pang, a former FIAS postdoc from Hannah Petersens group, who is now at the University of California in Berkeley, USA.

Further information:
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news-3089 Thu, 30 Nov 2017 14:35:36 +0100 GSI and FAIR to present themselves at “Wissenswerte” in Darmstadt https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gsi_and_fair_to_present_themselves_at_wissenswerte_in_darmstadt.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=37f49a449cecc6c5d32bbd535e9c1b28 The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future particle accelerator center FAIR will present cutting-edge research in the area of particle acceleration physics at the “Wissenswerte” (Worth Knowing) dialogue-oriented forum, which will be held at the Darmstadtium congress center in Darmstadt from December 4 to 6. Several hundred specialized journalists, science communicators, and researchers will attend the forum, which is Germany’s most important conference for science journalism. GSI and FAIR representatives will make specialized contributions to the conference program, host a major excursion, and staff an exhibition stand of their own. Not only the specialists but also the general public will have an opportunity to visit the GSI and FAIR stand on the second afternoon of the forum. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future particle accelerator center FAIR will present cutting-edge research in the area of particle acceleration physics at the “Wissenswerte” (Worth Knowing) dialogue-oriented forum, which will be held at the Darmstadtium congress center in Darmstadt from December 4 to 6. About 400 specialized journalists, science communicators, and researchers will attend the forum, which is Germany’s most important conference for science journalism. GSI and FAIR representatives will make specialized contributions to the conference program, host a major excursion, and staff an exhibition stand of their own. Not only the specialists but also the general public will have an opportunity to visit the GSI and FAIR stand on the second afternoon of the forum.

The city of Darmstadt is organizing an event called “Wissenswerte Digitalstadt” (a digital city worth knowing) that will be open to all from 3 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Tuesday, December 5. It will be followed by the “Wissenscampus” (knowledge campus) exhibition, which will include the GSI and FAIR stand and will be open to the public until 6:30 p.m. Among other things, GSI and FAIR will present the research opportunities that will be offered at the FAIR particle accelerator center now being constructed at GSI, as well as the construction project itself. The highlights of the presentation will include the best-known results of the scientific research at GSI, such as the development of an innovative cancer therapy using ions and the discovery of six new chemical elements in the periodic table. Visitors to the stand will also be able to simulate the creation of an element in a large-format model — and thus to understand how the new element called “Darmstadtium” was born at GSI. The venue of the “Wissenswerte” forum was named the Darmstadtium after this element.

GSI and FAIR will also play a major role in the conference program, which will give the participating specialists from all over Germany insights into the latest findings of current scientific research. In a moderated discussion, GSI Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke and the physicist Dr. Ingo Peter will present the topic “The Universe in the Laboratory — Creating Cosmic Matter in Accelerators.” At the Forum for Young Researchers, the leading young researcher Professor Tetyana Galatyuk will offer insights into the scientific work she is doing at the large-scale detector HADES at GSI.

Finally, on the third day of the event GSI and FAIR will host an excursion for the specialized visitors at “Wissenswerte.” It will include a walking tour of the research campus and a bus tour of the 20-hectare construction site of the new FAIR accelerator facility. This is one of the world’s biggest construction projects for a basic research facility, and it is currently one of the most exciting construction sites in the region. In the future, about 3,000 scientists from all over the world will conduct cutting-edge experiments at FAIR in order to gain new fundamental knowledge about the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

Further Information

"Wissenswerte" 2017

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news-3082 Sat, 25 Nov 2017 13:16:00 +0100 Physics for breakfast – Saturday Morning Physics at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////physics_for_breakfast_saturday_morning_physics_at_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c4b4cfb5168c3e831b7a082d17cd7eba It is a success story with tradition and at the same time an anniversary: On Saturday, 25 November, for the 20th time 260 high-school students from all over the state of Hesse had the opportunity to gain an insight into current physical research at FAIR and GSI. During tours of the research facilities they explored the accelerators and experiments on the GSI and FAIR campus and learned about the construction of the international FAIR facility. At the beginning they joined for a traditional small breakfast. It is a success story with tradition and at the same time an anniversary: On Saturday, 25 November, for the 20th time 260 high-school students from all over the state of Hesse had the opportunity to gain an insight into current physical research at FAIR and GSI. During tours of the research facilities they explored the accelerators and experiments on the GSI and FAIR campus and learned about the construction of the international FAIR facility. At the beginning they joined for a traditional small breakfast.

"Saturday Morning Physics" is a project of the physics department of the TU Darmstadt. The series of lectures is held annually and aims to increase the interest of young people in physics. In lectures and experiments on six consecutive Saturdays the high-school students learn about the latest developments in physical research at the university. Those who take part in all six courses receive the "Saturday Morning Physics" diploma. The visit to FAIR and GSI takes place as an excursion within the series. GSI has been one of the sponsors and supporters of this project since the start.

More Information

Website of Saturday Morning Physics

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news-3046 Thu, 23 Nov 2017 09:47:00 +0100 Radon therapy research to continue https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////radon_therapy_research_to_continue.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b858dc084c5319227dfc3926146b43b6 A multi-year research project led by the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung has been investigating the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effect, as well as the risks, of treatment with the inert gas radon. The project has now received a green light for continuing this research. A total of €4 million will be available to it in the coming four years, with €1.9 million of that amount going to the groups working at GSI. A multi-year research project led by the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung has been investigating the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effect, as well as the risks, of treatment with the inert gas radon. The project has now received a green light for continuing this research. A total of €4 million will be available to it in the coming four years, with €1.9 million of that amount going to the groups working at GSI.

The project funding will come from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The new project, GREWIS alpha, is the successor of the project called GREWIS, a German acronym that stands for “the genetic risks and anti-inflammatory effect of ionizing radiation.” The word “alpha” stands for the strongly ionizing alpha particles that are emitted when radon and its daughter nuclei decay. The Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino, was pleased with the research funding: "The decision shows that the wealth of experience regarding biophysical und biological radiation research here at GSI has a very promising potential for the future. We will continue to conduct research in this area to gain fundamental insights, but also to enable optimal treatment options and targeted prevention. Biophysics is also an important part of our strategic long-term plans for the future accelerator facility FAIR."

The radiation biologist Professor Claudia Fournier from the Biophysics Department of GSI is the overall coordinator of this joint project, in which GSI is cooperating with TU Darmstadt, Goethe University Frankfurt, and the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. A total of seven work groups from four institutions are working on this research project. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is the project’s sponsor. A recent kick-off meeting on the GSI campus in Darmstadt marked the beginning of the new project. It was attended by over 30 participants from TU Darmstadt (Department of Biology), Goethe University Frankfurt (Centre for Radiotherapy), the University Clinic Erlangen, and the biophysics department at GSI, as well as representatives of KIT.

The radioactive element radon is used in the form of baths or inhalations in healing caves and baths to treat many patients, and it has met with success. The pain-relieving effects of low-dose radon therapies for patients with painful chronic inflammatory illnesses have been known for centuries on the basis of experience. These therapies are used for diseases of the locomotor system such as rheumatism and arthrosis, as well as diseases of the respiratory system and the skin, including neurodermatitis and psoriasis. But even though it is nowadays assumed that low doses of radiation can mitigate chronic inflammation, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action that underlie the observed pain relief, especially in the case of a radon therapy, are still largely unknown. As a result, the objective of the GREWIS researchers is to investigate with increasing precision the potentially helpful aspects as well as the risks of low-dose exposure to radon and to put this therapy on a solid scientific foundation.

“We now have a good basis on which we can build and refine the questions we are asking,” says Project Lead Claudia Fournier regarding the new joint project. The cooperative work in the GREWIS project, which was launched in 2012, has been very successful so far. The researchers were able to clarify key questions regarding the physical and biological effect of the treatment and to demonstrate the resulting cellular changes. One of the aims of the first project was to create a radon chamber on the GSI campus. Experiments in this chamber have generated new insights, primarily through targeted examinations of tissue. For example, these experiments provided the first indications of the extent of DNA damage in organs such as the liver, lungs, kidneys, and heart after exposure to radon. A great deal of further research is still needed in this area. The researchers aim to use such insights to evaluate the risks and long-term effects of this radiation more reliably and to control the dosage of a radon therapy more effectively. These insights can also help medical personnel to decide whether a certain healing cave or therapeutic bath would be more appropriate for an individual patient, or whether a completely different therapy should be used.

Investigations conducted as part of the GREWIS project have also provided insights into the concrete mechanism by which radon therapy works. It was surmised that the activation of the patient’s immune system plays a central role in radon’s effects. However, the immune system responds to many stimuli, including warmth. As a result, it’s necessary to find out whether a warm radon bath has positive effects on pain relief or the alleviation of arthritis because of the heat or because of the radon. The scientists are therefore also trying to decode radon therapy’s underlying mechanisms in particular. In a new study that was published this year, the clinically observable pain-relieving effect of a radon therapy was associated for the first time with concrete changes in certain types of immune cell. For the first time, the study revealed a modulation of the immune cells of peripheral blood (the blood circulating through the blood vessels) after a standard radon bath therapy. These modulations could be connected with the suppression of inflammations. “We’re seeing a reduction of inflammatory factors in the serum of patients undergoing radon therapy. This reduction gives us indications of a suppression of an existing inflammatory immune reaction. In addition, in the patients’ serum we’re seeing a reduction of markers that indicate bone loss. Trials in irradiated cells have shown that the number and activity of bone-absorbing cells is decreasing. Both of these factors indicate that the bone loss is slowing down,” explains Professor Fournier.

The objective of GREWIS alpha is to add concrete details to such insights and to do even deeper research — for example, to go one step further in determining organ doses and also the long-term genetic risk — and to find out whether it’s really the radiation that causes the described effects of a radon therapy. The researchers also want to investigate, in greater detail than before, the molecular mechanisms that could depend on an interplay between the immune system and bone metabolism, according to the findings gained so far. They also want to investigate whether radon binds to the pain receptors in the body and thus changes the patient’s perception of pain.

Further information

Publication in Autoimmunity

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news-3070 Mon, 20 Nov 2017 11:38:57 +0100 Gerhard Kraft named Honorary President of ERRS https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gerhard_kraft_named_honorary_president_of_errs.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=dc968a9ccd27c91b7600b51f5239d9b1 Professor Gerhard Kraft, the former Head of the Biophysics department of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, has been named the Honorary President of the European Radiation Research Society (ERRS). Gerhard Kraft initiated the use of ion beams for cancer treatment and founded the biophysical research department at GSI. He was named to this honorary position in recognition of his outstanding achievements, particularly in the fields of cancer research and heavy ion therapy. Professor Gerhard Kraft, the former Head of the Biophysics department of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, has been named the Honorary President of the European Radiation Research Society (ERRS). Gerhard Kraft initiated the use of ion beams for cancer treatment and founded the biophysical research department at GSI. He was named to this honorary position in recognition of his outstanding achievements, particularly in the fields of cancer research and heavy ion therapy.

The ERRS (formerly known as the European Society of Radiation Biology) is a European nonprofit organization for the promotion of radiation resarch. It was founded in 1959 in order to promote communication between scientists, especially in Europe. It does this by putting scientists into personal contact and holding annual conferences, which created networks throughout Europe even during the Cold War. The ERRS is an important platform for the discussion of new findings and processes in the field of radiation research.

Within about 20 years, the researchers at GSI in Darmstadt developed Kraft’s ion beam cancer treatment method from the basic physical and biological research to the stage of clinical application. This technique effectively destroys cancer cells while leaving healthy tissue untouched.

Gerhard Kraft created GSI’s biophysical research department in the early 1980s and was its director from 1981 to 2008. His vision was to develop an extremely precise irradiation technique that would fully bring to bear the advantages of ion beams: their precision and their intense biological effect. Between 1997 and 2008, GSI used ion beams to treat more than 440 patients for tumors of the head and throat with great success. The insights gained during the pilot project were directly incorporated into the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). Since 2009, the center has been using the technique developed at GSI to treat approximately 800 patients annually. In 2015 an ion-beam therapy facility also went into operation in Marburg.

Gerhard Kraft was involved in many initiatives for the development and adoption of ion beam therapy throughout Europe. He is also a founding member of the ion beam therapy initiative European Network for Research in Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) at CERN. He has received many honors for his achievements, including the Helmholtz Association’s Erwin Schrödinger Prize in 1999 and the Officer’s Cross of Germany’s Order of Merit in 2008. He is also a recipient of the Bacq and Alexander Award, which is presented annually by the ERRS to an outstanding European scientist in order to honor achievements in the field of radiation research. Gerhard Kraft received this renowned award in 2006.

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news-3065 Fri, 17 Nov 2017 09:30:22 +0100 Three scientists honored with the Christoph Schmelzer Award 2017 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////three_scientists_honored_with_the_christoph_schmelzer_award_2017.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=7c735f17406e5eee059d44dfce17c070 This year’s Christoph Schmelzer Award has been granted to three young scientists. Lennart Volz from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Dr. Johannes Petzoldt from the IBA Group in Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium), and Dr. Kristjan Anderle from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt were presented with the award on November 16 at the GSI campus in Darmstadt. The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions presents this award annually in recognition of outstanding master’s and doctoral theses in the field of tumor therapy with heavy ions. This year’s Christoph Schmelzer Award has been granted to three young scientists. Lennart Volz from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Dr. Johannes Petzoldt from the IBA Group in Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium), and Dr. Kristjan Anderle from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt were presented with the award on November 16 at the GSI campus in Darmstadt. The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions presents this award annually in recognition of outstanding master’s and doctoral theses in the field of tumor therapy with heavy ions.

Helmut Zeitträger, a former Administrative Director of GSI, gave a welcoming address commemorating the association’s 20th anniversary. The participants had previously been greeted by the chairman of the association, Dr. Dieter Schardt. A talk celebrating the anniversary, titled “Particle Therapy: from a Niche Existence to a Clinical Routine?”, was delivered by Prof. Eugen B. Hug, Chief Medical Officer and Managing Director of MedAustron GmbH.

In his master’s thesis at Heidelberg University, Lennart Volz addressed the feasibility of using ion beams for the imaging of patients. In this process, ion beams with low intensity but high energy are used to penetrate the patient’s body in order to assess the retardant behavior of various tissue types at diverse locations in the bodies of individual patients. If the individual behavior of these tissue types is known, the precision of the subsequent ion beam therapy can be improved. Volz developed a formal process for describing the trajectory of ions in matter, and in an experiment he was able to demonstrate that helium ions would be very suitable for this imaging technique.

Dr. Johannes Petzoldt’s dissertation at TU Dresden addresses the measurement of the ion beam during tumor treatment. A new procedure called “prompt gamma timing” could be used for this purpose. In this procedure, the gamma radiation generated by nuclear reactions of the ions used for tumor treatment are evaluated along their course toward the target volume. Petzoldt systematically used this procedure to find the detector material that is best suited for measuring the gamma radiation in this type of treatment. He also investigated the degree to which fluctuations of the parameters of the treatment beam influence the measurement procedure, as well as the methods for determining these fluctuations. Finally, he demonstrated the clinical feasibility of prompt gamma timing by creating a prototype of a measurement setup.

In his dissertation at TU Darmstadt, Dr. Kristjan Anderle improved the frequently used TRiP software for planning treatments with ion beams. The software is now able to quickly and efficiently carry out computations in complex cases involving large tumors or several tumors and numerous high-risk organs. He also conducted studies of radiation therapy planning for cases of lung tumors. Thanks to the tremendous technical progress in the fields of radiation technology and imaging in conventional radiation technology with photons, it is now possible to effectively irradiate small lung tumors at high doses in a few sessions. However, in the case of larger tumors and more complex situations with nearby high-risk organs, effective irradiation is often not possible because it puts too much strain on the healthy surrounding tissue. Anderle was able to demonstrate that irradiation with ions could also be used in a large proportion of these cases and that significantly more patients could thus be treated effectively.

The prize money amounts to €750 for the master’s thesis and €1,500 for each of the doctoral dissertations. The awards, which were presented this year for the 19th time, are named after Professor Christoph Schmelzer, the co-founder and first Scientific Director of GSI. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, where heavy ion therapy was developed in Germany to the clinical use stage in the 1990s, traditionally offers an appropriate setting for the annual presentation ceremony.

The Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy supports activities conducted within the research project Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions at GSI, with the goal of improving tumor treatment by refining the system and making it available for general use in patient care. During a pilot project conducted at the accelerator facility at GSI from 1997 to 2008, more than 400 patients with tumors in the head and neck were treated with ion beams. The cure rate of this method has been more than 90 percent in some categories, and the side effects are very slight. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), patients have routinely been treated with heavy ions since 2009. Germany’s second major therapy facility using 12C ions and protons, the Marburger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum (MIT), was opened in Marburg in 2015.

Further Information:

Verein zur Förderung der Tumortherapie mit schweren Ionen e.V.

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news-3060 Thu, 16 Nov 2017 14:24:18 +0100 The Universe in the Laboratory — New FAIR science film published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////the_universe_in_the_laboratory_new_fair_science_film_published.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ed747acfa532a98daf512d7932d138b9 Matter: the stuff the world is made of. Matter was created in the universe, but how exactly did it come into being? What are its properties? And how can we use the future particle accelerator FAIR, which is currently under construction at GSI, to give answers to these questions? Matter: the stuff the world is made of. Matter was created in the universe, but how exactly did it come into being? What are its properties? And how can we use the future particle accelerator FAIR, which is currently under construction at GSI, to give answers to these questions?

Our new film "FAIR — The Universe in the Laboratory" introduces the FAIR facility and shows in a comprehensible fashion which scientific questions will be addressed with FAIR. Furthermore, we explain, which technologies will be used and why our location is the right place for the construction of the facility.

More information:
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news-3038 Thu, 02 Nov 2017 16:49:52 +0100 GSI and FAIR calendar 2018 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gsi_and_fair_calendar_2018.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c4b6c3680a3ec80730c6df3575f847a6 Our calendar 2018 is now available. Update: calendars for shipping are out of stock. GSI and FAIR employees can get a copy at the foyer or the storage. Our calendar 2018 is now available.

Update: calendars for shipping are out of stock.

If you want to order the DIN A2 sized calendar, please contact Kalender(at)gsi.de directly and we will immediately send the calendar to you by post. Be sure to mention the following information: your name, your address and the number of calendars you wish to order (3 max.). GSI and FAIR employees can get a copy at the foyer or the storage.

Please understand that because of the limited edition you can only request a maximum of three calendars (while supplies last) per order.

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news-3030 Fri, 27 Oct 2017 11:17:59 +0200 Delegation from San Antonio visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////delegation_from_san_antonio_visits_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8e0af43760e0b7ba774e378d0fc6e311 Current research and future developments at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) were main topics during the visit of a delegation from Darmstadt's new sister city San Antonio in Texas. The programme of the high-ranking delegation from the US-American metropolis, which is visiting Darmstadt to finalize signing of the sister city agreement, included after the greeting by Joint Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke a visit to the research facilities on campus. The guests also had the opportunity to find out about the current status of the unique FAIR accelerator facility, which at the present is being built at GSI. Current research and future developments at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) were main topics during the visit of a delegation from Darmstadt's new sister city San Antonio in Texas. The programme of the high-ranking delegation from the US-American metropolis, which is visiting Darmstadt to finalize signing of the sister city agreement, included after the greeting by Joint Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke a visit to the research facilities on campus. The guests also had the opportunity to find out about the current status of the unique FAIR accelerator facility, which at present is being built at GSI.

Among the members of the delegation visiting GSI and FAIR were representatives of the political committees of the city of San Antonio, its scientific institutions and the Chamber of Commerce as well as representatives of the city of Darmstadt. Hightech, research and development were among the leading themes of the programme for the American guests during their stay in Darmstadt.

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news-3021 Mon, 23 Oct 2017 09:00:00 +0200 Arrival of the first main magnet for the new large FAIR ring accelerator: Start of series delivery of 110 magnets https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////arrival_of_the_first_main_magnet_for_the_new_large_fair_ring_accelerator_start_of_series_delivery_o.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=049628985dcce742b1f7b5d93da8cb49 Big progress is being made in the production of the components of the new FAIR particle accelerator facility at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. At the heart of the future facility will be the 1.1-kilometer ring accelerator SIS100, which is very challenging from a technological point of view. An important step has now been taken in the accelerator’s creation. It consists of the delivery of the first series-production main magnet for the new heavy-ion ring accelerator. The manufacture of magnets weighting several tons requires high-precision mechanical processing and analysis methods. Big progress is being made in the production of the components of the new FAIR particle accelerator facility at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. At the heart of the future facility will be the 1.1-kilometer ring accelerator SIS100, which is very challenging from a technological point of view. An important step has now been taken in the accelerator’s creation. It consists of the delivery of the first series-production main magnet for the new heavy-ion ring accelerator. The manufacture of magnets weighting several tons requires high-precision mechanical processing and analysis methods.

Special electromagnets and a special vacuum chamber are used to generate the magnetic field that forces the beams along a circular path. Both of these components are being produced by German manufacturers. The dipole magnets are being made by the company Babcock Noell (BNG) in Würzburg, while the vacuum chamber is being produced at the company PINK in nearby Wertheim. During operation, the dipole magnets are cooled to a temperature of -270 degrees Celsius in order to make the associated magnet coil superconducting. Unlike conventional copper cables, superconductors enable electricity to flow through them without any resistance. This allows the magnets to be made very compact and limits the amount of electrical pulse power that is needed for the accelerator facility.

Moreover, the magnets that are cooled to near absolute zero will enable the integration of a similarly cold vacuum chamber through which accelerated ion beams will travel. To accelerate intense beams of heavy ions, the interior of the beam pipe needs to have vacuum conditions that are very close to those found in outer space. The vacuum chamber acts like a superpump on whose walls the gas particles that are not eliminated by conventional vacuum pumps freeze.

The magnets are technologically challenging not only with regard to their superconductivity, but also with respect to the level of mechanical precision that has to be achieved in the interior. To achieve optimal results, each of the two magnetic poles have to be positioned parallel to one another with a precision of ±50 micrometers.

BNG, which was awarded to contract for manufacturing the 110 dipole magnets that are required for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS100, was able to demonstrate that it has the production technology needed to do the job with the first of series (FOS) magnet. This first dipole magnet, which has already been delivered to GSI in Darmstadt, was cooled to near absolute zero at the series test facility that was especially created for this purpose and then operated at the high electric currents that are needed in accelerator operation. In this test, about 17,000 amperes of current flowed through a superconducting wire approximately one-centimeter in diameter. By way of comparison, a household circuit breaker generally trips at 25 amperes. High precision is crucial here as well. At such high currents, imprecise manufacturing could cause the wire to lose its superconductivity. The FOS dipole magnet achieved all of the specified properties during testing at GSI. After the acceptance tests were completed, GSI approved the magnets’ series production. BNG has equipped a new assembly hall specifically for this purpose.

The first dipole magnet to be completed after series-production approval was recently delivered to GSI following a successful factory acceptance test (FAT). Superconducting dipole magnets will be regularly delivered to GSI from now on. A total of 110 magnets will be supplied by 2019. Each magnet undergoes four weeks of testing after it arrives at GSI. Magnets that successfully pass these tests will be stored until the new accelerator tunnel is completed. The magnets will be installed into the tunnel beginning in 2021. The assembled particle accelerator is scheduled to be cooled to its operating temperature of -270 degrees Celsius for the first time in 2023. Soon thereafter, it will generate the first beam for experiments at the FAIR research facility.

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news-3014 Thu, 19 Oct 2017 13:06:00 +0200 Riddle of matter remains unsolved: Proton and antiproton share fundamental properties https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////riddle_of_matter_remains_unsolved_proton_and_antiproton_share_fundamental_properties.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=2078b035230fd26d6ba7ba53d3f45a2d The search goes on. No difference in protons and antiprotons have yet been found which would help to potentially explain the existence of matter in our universe. However, physicists in the BASE collaboration at the CERN research center have been able to measure the magnetic force of antiprotons with almost unbelievable precision. Nevertheless, the data do not provide any information about how matter formed in the early universe as particles and antiparticles would have had to completely destroy one another. The most recent BASE measurements revealed instead a large overlap between protons and antiprotons, thus confirming the Standard Model of particle physics. Around the world, scientists are using a variety of methods to find some difference, regardless of how small. The matter-antimatter imbalance in the universe is one of the hot topics of modern physics. The search goes on. No difference in protons and antiprotons have yet been found which would help to potentially explain the existence of matter in our universe. However, physicists in the BASE collaboration at the CERN research center have been able to measure the magnetic force of antiprotons with almost unbelievable precision. Nevertheless, the data do not provide any information about how matter formed in the early universe as particles and antiparticles would have had to completely destroy one another. The most recent BASE measurements revealed instead a large overlap between protons and antiprotons, thus confirming the Standard Model of particle physics. Around the world, scientists are using a variety of methods to find some difference, regardless of how small. The matter-antimatter imbalance in the universe is one of the hot topics of modern physics.

The multinational BASE collaboration at the European research center CERN brings together scientists from the RIKEN research center in Japan, the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the University of Tokyo, GSI Darmstadt, Leibniz Universität Hannover, and the German National Metrology Institute (PTB) in Braunschweig. They compare the magnetic properties of protons and antiprotons with great precision. The magnetic moment is an essential component of particles and can be depicted as roughly equivalent to that of a miniature bar magnet. The so-called g-factor measures the strength of the magnetic field. "At its core, the question is whether the antiproton has the same magnetism as a proton," explained Stefan Ulmer, spokesperson of the BASE group. "This is the riddle we need to solve.“

The BASE collaboration published high-precision measurements of the antiproton g-factor back in January 2017 but the current ones are far more precise. The current high-precision measurement determined the g-factor down to nine significant digits. This is the equivalent of measuring the circumference of the earth to a precision of four centimeters. The value of 2.7928473441(42) is 350 times more precise than the results published in January. "This tremenduous increase in such a short period of time was only possible thanks to completely new methods," said Ulmer. The process involved scientists using two antiprotons for the first time and analyzing them with two Penning traps.

Antiprotons stored a year before analysis

Antiprotons are artificially generated at CERN and researchers store them in a reservoir trap for experiments. The antiprotons for the current experiment were isolated in 2015 and measured between August and December 2016, which is a small sensation as this was the longest storage period for antimatter ever documented. Antiprotons are usually quickly annihilated when they come into contact with matter, such as in air. Storage was demonstrated for 405 days in a vacuum, which contains ten times fewer particles than interstellar space. A total of 16 antiprotons were used and some of them were cooled to approximately absolute zero or minus 273 degrees Celsius.

The new principle uses the interaction of two Penning traps. The traps use electrical and magnetic fields to capture the antiprotons. Previous measurements were severely limited by an ultra-strong magnetic inhomogeneity in the Penning trap. In order to overcome this barrier, the scientists added a second trap with a highly homogeneous magnetic field. "We thus used a method developed at Mainz University that created higher precision in the measurements," explained Ulmer. "The measurement of antiprotons was extremely difficult and we had been working on it for ten years. The final breakthrough came with the revolutionary idea of performing the measurement with two particles." The larmor frequency and the cyclotron frequency were measured; taken together they form the g-factor.

The g-factor ascertained for the antiproton was then compared to the g-factor for the proton, which BASE researchers had measured with the greatest prior precision already in 2014. In the end, however, they could not find any difference between the two. This consistency is a confirmation of the CPT symmetry, which states that the universe is composed of a fundamental symmetry between particles and antiparticles. "All of our observations find a complete symmetry between matter and antimatter, which is why the universe should not actually exist," explained Christian Smorra, first author of the study. "An asymmetry must exist here somewhere but we simply do not understand where the difference is. What is the source of the symmetry break?“

The BASE scientists now want to use even higher precision measurements of the proton and antiproton properties to find an answer to this question. The BASE collaboration plans to develop further innovative methods over the next few year and improve on the current results.

Nature Publication:

A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment; Nature, 19. Oktober 2017

Further Information:

BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment
 Ulmer Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory
press release "Magnetic moment of a single antiproton determined with greatest precision ever" (19 Jan. 2017)
 press release "Magnetic moment of the proton measured with unprecedented precision" (6 June 2014)
 press release "Quantum leap: Magnetic properties of a single proton directly observed for the first time" (21 June 2011)

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news-2999 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 18:01:32 +0200 Predictions by GSI scientists now confirmed: Heavy elements in neutron star mergers detected https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////predictions_by_gsi_scientists_now_confirmed_heavy_elements_in_neutron_star_mergers_detected.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a8f835502bf5a9eaa79b4a806c7687b7 Central predictions by GSI scientists on the formation of heavy elements such as gold and platinum in the universe have now been observed astrophysically. For the first time gravitational waves of merging neutron stars were detected. This also puts further focus on the future accelerator facility FAIR, as conditions for further research on neutron stars can be simulated there. Central predictions by GSI scientists on the formation of heavy elements such as gold and platinum in the universe have now been observed astrophysically. For the first time gravitational waves of merging neutron stars were detected. This also puts further focus on the future accelerator facility FAIR, as conditions for further research on neutron stars can be simulated there.

On October 16 a team of scientists, including members from the LIGO and Virgo collaborations and several astronomical groups, announced the detection of both gravitational and electromagnetic waves, originating from the merger of two neutron stars. These mergers have been speculated as the yet unknown production site of heavy elements including Gold, Platinum and Uranium in the Universe. In 2010 an international collaboration led by Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and Technische Universität Darmstadt) and Brian Metzger (Columbia University) pointed out that the heavy element synthesis in the merger process leads to a unique electromagnetic wave emission pattern.

The electromagnetic signal observed from the merging neutron stars indeed shows this pattern and confirms that the site for the heavy element production in the Universe is finally found, solving one of the 11 most important question in physics, as named by the US National Academies in 2003. This breakthrough puts even further focus on the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), which is currently being built in Darmstadt and at which the short-lived and very neutron-rich nuclei which drive the observed electromagnetic signal will be produced and studied for the first time.

60 years ago the main processes responsible for the production of elements in the Cosmos were outlined. Since then, it has been possible to identify the astrophysical sites for most of those processes except for the so called r process that is responsible for producing half of the elements heavier than Iron. It requires an environment with extreme neutron densities, permitting neutron captures on nuclei to proceed much faster than beta-decays. „Identifying the site of the astrophysical origin of elements heavier than Iron is viewed as one of the Millenium problems in physics" says Friedrich-Karl Thielemann, Professor at the University of Basel and now also member of the GSI theory group, who in 1999 performed the first nucleosynthesis study showing that the r-process can operate in material ejected during the coalescence of two merging neutron stars.

Almost simultaneously, it was suggested that the radioactive decay of the freshly synthesized nuclei will trigger an electromagnetic transient. The first realistic modeling of the electromagnetic signal was performed in 2010 by an international  team led by Gabriel Martinez-Pinedo and Brian Metzger, including Almudena Arcones, GSI and Technische Universität Darmstadt, and key experimental guidance from GSI scientists Aleksandra Kelic-Heil and Karl-Heinz Schmidt. They predicted that such an event will be a thousand times brighter than a nova and will reach its maximum on timescales of a day. It was named "kilonova". This picture has been confirmed by the recent observation of an optical/infrared counterpart associated with GW170817. „This represents a unique case in nuclear astrophysics, as usually astronomers observe a new phenomenon which is much later explained by theorists. In the present case we anticipated a novel astronomical signal without the benefit of observational guidance much before it was confirmed by observations“, says Gabriel Martinez-Pinedo.

Several signatures point to the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei to explain the observations. The time dependence of the signal corresponds to what is expected assuming that the energy is produced from the decay of a large ensemble of radioactive nuclei. Furthermore, the evolution in color of the signal shows that a broad range of r-process nuclei has been produced from the lighter elements with Z ~ 50 to the heavier with Z ~ 82. It has been estimated that GW170817 produced around 0.06 solar masses of r-process ejecta with over ten times Earth's mass in Gold and Uranium.

The LIGO and Virgo collaborations predict that once the gravitational wave detectors reach the design sensitivity in 2019 we may be able to detect neutron star mergers as frequently as once per week. This will represent a complete change of paradigm in our understanding of heavy element nucleosynthesis demanding high precision nuclear data, in particular of heavy neutron-rich nuclei  to reproduce the observations.

It is very fortunate that with FAIR the facility needed to provide these data is already under construction in  Darmstadt. First results are expected from experiments performed in the FAIR phase-0 starting 2018. Once FAIR reaches its complete potential in 2025, it will offer unique physics opportunities to determine the properties of heavy  neutron-rich nuclei of relevance to r-process nucleosynthesis. In the meantime, it is the aim of the GSI theory group to identify key nuclear information to fully characterize the variety of electromagnetic transients expected from neutron star mergers.

Further information

Publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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news-3007 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 14:00:00 +0200 GET_INvolved Programme: Initiating Bilateral Cooperation between IIT Ropar, India, and FAIR/GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////get_involved_programme_initiating_bilateral_cooperation_between_iit_ropar_india_and_fairgsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=58652c6032b4d75661c268feec7d859a The FAIR/GSI received recently a delegation from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Ropar. The delegation from IIT Ropar included scientists, faculty members and members of international affairs. The visit to FAIR and GSI included a warm welcome by the NUSTAR collaboration followed by a roundtable meeting with Joint Scientific Managing Director Prof. Paolo Giubellino and Joint Research Director Prof. Karlheinz Langanke and a delegation of heads of several departments at FAIR/GSI. The FAIR/GSI received recently a delegation from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Ropar. The delegation from IIT Ropar included scientists, faculty members and members of international affairs. The visit to FAIR and GSI included a warm welcome by the NUSTAR collaboration followed by a roundtable meeting with Joint Scientific Managing Director Prof. Paolo Giubellino and Joint Research Director Prof. Karlheinz Langanke and a delegation of heads of several departments at FAIR/GSI.

Professor Giubellino informed the delegation about the current and future research program of FAIR/GSI along with opportunities where both parties can strengthen their collaboration with the NUSTAR Collaboration and also expand by participating in the GET_INvolved Programme. Professor Munjal on behalf of the IIT Ropar’s delegation put forward the interest to participate in the active training of young students and researchers of the IIT Ropar and also an exchange of the scientific staff from both institutes strengthening their relationship. The delegation also had an active session with the heads of different research pillars. The delegation expressed their keen interest in formulating a Memorandum of Understanding for joint areas of cooperation and a dedicated agreement for student training and exchange programme of research staff.

IIT Ropar

IIT Ropar is an advanced technical institute located in the north-west of India in the state of Punjab (approximately 300 km drive north of New Delhi). IIT Ropar is already a member of NUSTAR Collaboration with several researchers and students working actively on optimisation and development of Gamma camera (a patented technology manufactured and developed in GSI). The institute is also involved in the testing of the components for the DEGAS detector (NUSTAR) at IIT Ropar.

GET_INvolved Programme

GET_INvolved Programme is an initiative by the FAIR/GSI management to provide international students and early stage researchers with opportunities to perform Internships or Traineeships and early research experience in order to GET_INvolved in the FAIR project while receiving scientific and technical training. This programme is also creating synergies between collaborating universities and advanced technical institutes in shareholder and partner countries by offering mobility opportunities for young students and researchers and contribute to the project in research and development. For more information contact the programme coordinator at International@fair-center.eu or International@gsi.de.

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news-2988 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 11:00:00 +0200 Very dynamic trade fair presentation: FAIR draws positive balance after Expo Real https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////very_dynamic_trade_fair_presentation_fair_draws_positive_balance_after_expo_real.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e01184af60b568f96b380e4e04c55c75 Dynamic developments and lots of news concerning the construction status of the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) sparked considerable interest at the international real estate trade fair Expo Real in Munich. Over a period of three days at Expo Real, FAIR provided an in-depth presentation of the construction planning and the next development steps of the mammoth building project. This year, the focus was primarily on the technical building equipment and the next construction tasks. Dynamic developments and lots of news concerning the construction status of the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) sparked considerable interest at the international real estate trade fair Expo Real in Munich. Over a period of three days at Expo Real, FAIR provided an in-depth presentation of the construction planning and the next development steps of the mammoth building project. This year, the focus was primarily on the technical building equipment and the next construction tasks.

Following the trade fair, Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of FAIR GmbH and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, expressed his satisfaction with the event’s positive results. “We continued to very successfully showcase FAIR as an attractive construction project and to present our detailed, market-oriented contracting plans for the various services needed for the FAIR project,” he said. At Expo Real, FAIR also presented the underlying project organization, especially that of the construction unit, which has increased its workforce.

Trade fair visitors and potential contractors were able to gain comprehensive information about the FAIR construction project and the opportunities for participating in it. Questions about the latest developments and the next steps were answered in detail. The numerous one-on-one discussions and in-depth talks at the trade fair stand once again showed that such a scientific megaproject is extremely attractive for a construction company’s portfolio, said Blaurock. “We were able to conduct important talks in a very focused manner and promote our strategy,” he added. “Many companies were impressed by the project’s dynamism. The market continues to be greatly interested in realizing the project, and we have made many valuable contacts with experts.”

Because many decision-makers and important players from the construction sector were present, the trade fair provided an outstanding platform on which FAIR could describe the huge progress that has been made in recent months and actively present the next steps in awarding further contracts to the construction industry. The construction of the FAIR particle accelerator facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt began a few weeks ago. The groundbreaking ceremony for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS 100 was an important step for the project. The gigantic FAIR construction project is progressing as planned, with work being carried out on drainage, excavation, and shoring measures.

In the next phases of the ongoing construction activities, numerous separate systems will be integrated with one another. One of the biggest measures and the current focus of the activities is the technical building equipment, which includes heating, air conditioning, ventilation, and power supply. FAIR will begin to call for bids for the technical building equipment in the summer of 2018. The contracts will be awarded in 2019. The complex construction project is divided into contracting units that are appropriate for the market. As a result, the presentation of the new Project Director FAIR Site & Buildings Michael Ossendorf at a special Expo Real event could not have come at a better time, especially given that Ossendorf’s focus is on the technical building equipment.

FAIR’s partnership with Darmstadt as a science city once again paid off this year with regard to trade fairs. More specifically, the FAIR project had its own presentation at the Darmstadt stand, which was featured as part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main metropolitan area. The Expo Real trade fair attracts around 40,000 visitors each year and is one of Europe’s most important get-togethers for the real estate, construction, and location marketing sectors.

About FAIR

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centerpiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas, – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. Alongside Germany, FAIR's shareholders are the countries Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Slovenia. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.

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news-2992 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 10:23:59 +0200 Chinese Professorship for Peter Senger https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////chinese_professorship_for_peter_senger.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a6dfa57708adb2d7109b445f8eb0494c Prof Dr. Peter Senger was appointed Professor of Physics at the Central China Normal University in Wuhan. The letter of appointment was presented by the vice-president of CCNU, Prof. NanSheng Peng. Prof. Dr. Peter Senger was appointed Professor of Physics at the Central China Normal University in Wuhan. The letter of appointment was presented by the vice-president of CCNU, Prof. NanSheng Peng. Since 2015 Peter Senger is Co-Director of the FAIR Centre of International Collaboration (FCIC) at CCNU Wuhan, which aims at the coordination of FAIR related activities in China, the development and construction of modern detectors and read-out electronics for FAIR experiments, the organization of workshops and seminars on FAIR topics, and the support of young scientists who participate in FAIR experiments. The FCIC has a budget of 8 million Euro over 8 years, part of which is used to build high-rate time-of-flight detectors for the CBM experiment.

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news-2983 Fri, 29 Sep 2017 09:40:24 +0200 Markus Steck receives Dieter Möhl Medal https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////markus_steck_receives_dieter_moehl_medal.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=35315b71c3ba69b438e30faee7c7ec3d This year's Dieter Möhl Medal for achievements in and contributions to the field of beam cooling and applications goes to Dr. Markus Steck, head of the GSI department "Storage Rings". He received the award for his leading role in the systematic studies of electron and stochastic cooling at GSI leading to the first experimental observation of ordering in an ion beam. The medal was handed over by the chairman of the programme committee, GerardTranquille of the European research centre CERN, on September 22, 2017 in the framework of the COOL17 conference in Bonn, Germany. Takeshi Katayama of Nihon University, Japan, also received the award. This year's Dieter Möhl Medal for achievements in and contributions to the field of beam cooling and applications goes to Dr. Markus Steck, head of the GSI department "Storage Rings". He received the award for his leading role in the systematic studies of electron and stochastic cooling at GSI leading to the first experimental observation of ordering in an ion beam. The medal was handed over by the chairman of the programme committee, GerardTranquille of the European research centre CERN, on September 22, 2017 in the framework of the COOL17 conference in Bonn, Germany. Takeshi Katayama of Nihon University, Japan, also received the award.

The medal was sponsored after the death of Dieter Möhl in 2012 by CERN. The awardee is chosen by a selection committee. The medal is awarded every two years during the COOL conference. Name patron Dieter Möhl supported the planning of new accelerator facilities at GSI in committees and as advisor for many years. After his retirement he provided important contributions to the planning of the FAIR storage rings and especially the design of their beam cooling systems with his counsel.

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news-2976 Wed, 27 Sep 2017 14:09:00 +0200 The FAIR presentation at Expo Real: Next steps in the construction https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////the_fair_presentation_at_expo_real_next_steps_in_the_construction.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=39d030278ad9d015ad8b52d6df69a8ed Lots of news about the construction status of the future particle accelerator center FAIR will be presented at the renowned international real estate trade fair Expo Real in Munich. FAIR is a unique facility that is currently being built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. After the successful premiere presentation of the FAIR project last year, which attracted great interest, the focus at Expo Real will mainly be on the technical building equipment and other construction work. Expo Real will be held from October 4 to 6, 2017. Lots of news about the construction status of the future particle accelerator center FAIR will be presented at the renowned international real estate trade fair Expo Real in Munich. FAIR is a unique facility that is currently being built at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. After the successful premiere presentation of the FAIR project last year, which attracted great interest, the focus at Expo Real will mainly be on the technical building equipment and other construction work. Expo Real will be held from October 4 to 6, 2017.

The research center construction project is extraordinary in both scientific and technical terms. It requires customized solutions in many areas and is continually growing. In Munich, trade fair visitors and potential contractors will be able to gain comprehensive information about the FAIR construction project and the opportunities for participating in it. The FAIR project will be presented at the stand that showcases the “science city” Darmstadt (stand number C1 331). In addition, the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, will report on current developments and the next steps of the project at the FAIR event beginning at 1:45 p.m. on October 4 in the Metropolarena at Expo Real. The title will be “A Megaproject under Construction — the FAIR Particle Accelerator Research Facility at Darmstadt.”

In the next phases of the ongoing construction activities, numerous separate systems will be integrated with one another. Building construction, civil engineering, accelerator development and construction, and scientific experiments are closely coordinated with one another in an integrated overall plan. The complex construction project is divided into manageable contract award packages. One of the biggest areas is the technical building equipment, which includes heating, air conditioning, ventilation, and power supply. The total amount of the contract award packages for the technical building equipment lies in the nine-digit range. These contracts are also divided into contract award units that are appropriate for the market. The contract awarding calendar for this package, from the call for tenders to the contract award, will last from summer 2018 until summer 2019. In addition, plans call for the contract for the shell construction on the North building site to be awarded in the last quarter of 2017. This is in line with the detailed contract awarding plan for FAIR. One year later, in the fourth quarter of 2018, it will be followed by the shell construction on the South building site. The contracts for construction logistics, crane systems, and lifts will be awarded by spring 2018.

The construction of the unique FAIR particle accelerator facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt began a few weeks ago. The groundbreaking ceremony for the FAIR ring accelerator SIS 100, which attracted great media interest all over Germany, was an important step for the project. It marked the start of the building construction and civil engineering work. A further milestone for the construction activities is the ongoing work to connect the existing accelerator systems of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum to the new international FAIR center.

FAIR at the Expo Real

International Trade Fair for Property and Investment, October 4 - 6, 2017, Munich

FAIR Stand No.: C1 331

FAIR event (in German):  Metropolarena, Stand No.: C1 334
Wednesday, 4. Oktober 2017, 13.45-14.15 Uhr
„Megaprojekt in der Realisierung – Der Forschungsbeschleuniger FAIR in Darmstadt“

Jörg Blaurock, Technischer Geschäftsführer FAIR und GSI
Thomas Burkhard, Project Director (ad interim) FAIR Site and Buildings
Moderation: Klaus Ringsleben, Chair FAIR Building Advisory Committee

About FAIR

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centerpiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas, – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. Alongside Germany, FAIR's shareholders are the countries Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Slovenia. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.

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news-2968 Tue, 26 Sep 2017 10:09:00 +0200 ESA and GSI to offer experimentation opportunities for studying cosmic radiation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////esa_and_gsi_to_offer_experimentation_opportunities_for_studying_cosmic_radiation.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b0443ca087998be3af47744888b3415e Cosmic radiation poses a major threat to the health of astronauts exploring outer space. In order to study in more detail the biological effects of cosmic radiation and find out solutions for effective radiation protection measures in space, the European Space Agency (ESA) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have been cooperating on the research project IBER (Investigations into Biological Effects of Radiation) for almost ten years. The project enables groups of researchers to use the GSI accelerator facilities to study the biological effects of cosmic radiation. Now, scientists will have a further opportunity to study this topic at GSI and utilize beam time. Cosmic radiation poses a major threat to the health of astronauts exploring outer space. In order to study in more detail the biological effects of cosmic radiation and find out solutions for effective radiation protection measures in space, the European Space Agency (ESA) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have been cooperating on the research project IBER (Investigations into Biological Effects of Radiation) for almost ten years. The project enables groups of researchers to use the GSI accelerator facilities to study the biological effects of cosmic radiation. Now, scientists will have a further opportunity to study this topic at GSI and utilize beam time. On September 26, an information workshop will be held at the GSI Campus to prepare researchers to use the facility.

Last summer the ESA called on scientists to submit ideas for experiments that would help to improve the risk assessment of cosmic radiation doses or enable protective countermeasures that would make safe manned space travel possible. Out in space, the crews of spacecraft can be subjected to a variety of doses and types of radiation that can impair their health.

The results of such studies will not only serve future space travel but also provide information for a better life on earth. For example, data from the experiments can provide insights about the radiation risks on earth and help improve radiation therapies for treating cancer.

At the workshop, the participants will discuss the various project ideas and their feasibility. Researchers will then be able to submit detailed proposals, which a committee of experts will decide on by the end of the year. Scientists from GSI will assist the committee in evaluating the proposals. After the committee has made its evaluations, GSI will set aside a total of 160 hours of beam time in 2018 and 2019 for the selected proposals. To conduct their experiments, the researchers will use the GSI accelerator facilities. These have already been vastly improved and will be further upgraded technically for their future use as preaccelerators for the unique accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI.

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news-2961 Fri, 22 Sep 2017 13:22:37 +0200 PANDA Collaboration honors PhD: Prize for Dr. Erik Etzelmüller https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////panda_collaboration_honors_phd_prize_for_dr_erik_etzelmueller.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f0bc0f7dc77248963506eef72053eb7a Dr. Erik Etzelmüller has received the PANDA PhD Prize 2017 for his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Justus Liebig University in Gießen. The award was presented by the spokesman of the Panda Collaboration, Klaus Peters from GSI, at the most recent Panda Collaboration meeting at the BINP in Novosibirsk. Dr. Erik Etzelmüller has received the PANDA PhD Prize 2017 for his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Justus Liebig University in Gießen. The award was presented by the spokesman of the Panda Collaboration, Klaus Peters from GSI, at the most recent Panda Collaboration meeting at the BINP in Novosibirsk.

Physicist Erik Etzelmüller, 30, received the prize of €200 and a certificate for his dissertation titled “Developments towards the technical design and prototype of the PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC“. His doctoral advisor was Professor Dr. Michael Düren from the Justus Liebig University in Gießen. The Panda Collaboration has awarded the PhD Prize once per year since 2013 in order to honor the best dissertation written in connection with the Panda Experiment. Panda will be one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR. The experiment focuses on antimatter research as well as on various topics related to the weak and the strong force, exotic states of matter, and the structure of hadrons. More than 500 scientists from 17 countries currently work in the Panda Collaboration.

In his dissertation, Dr. Etzelmüller studied the Endcap Disc DIRC, a Cherenkov detector that forms one of the main components of the charged particle identification of the Panda detector, which is being built at the FAIR accelerator facility.

Candidates for the PhD Prize are nominated by their doctoral advisors. In addition to being directly related to the Panda Experiment, the nominees’ doctoral degrees must have received a rating of “very good” or better. Up to three candidates are shortlisted for the award and can present their dissertations at the Panda Collaboration meeting. The winner is chosen by a committee that is appointed for this task by the Panda Collaboration. The Panda Collaboration awards the PhD Prize to specifically honor students’ contributions to the Panda project.

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news-2949 Wed, 20 Sep 2017 09:40:45 +0200 Transformers delivered for FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////transformers_delivered_for_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=892f5f64a58c4f572e7d54550355b516 Three high-performance transformers that will be needed for the future particle accelerator facility FAIR were delivered to the FAIR construction site in Darmstadt. Together with a fourth transformer that was already on site, the approximately eight-meter-long devices will connect FAIR to the regional power grid. Three high-performance transformers that will be needed for the future particle accelerator facility FAIR were delivered to the FAIR construction site in Darmstadt. Together with a fourth transformer that was already on site, the approximately eight-meter-long devices will connect FAIR to the regional power grid.

The transformers were manufactured in Turkey and transported by ship from Izmir to Rotterdam. From there, they were carried by 30-meter-long lowboys to Darmstadt-Wixhausen. “Thanks to our foresighted planning, everything went well despite the long distances and the lengthy approval process for obtaining a special road transport permit,” says transformer specialist Udo Zerb from e-netz Südhessen.

In the next step, the transformers will be installed into the North and South Transformer Stations, which are currently under construction. Each transformer will weigh 114 tons when it is in operation. “The transformers will convert the 110 kV high-voltage electricity that arrives at GSI and FAIR through underground high-voltage cables to 20 kV so that the current reaches the various consumers on our campus in line with their needs,” says Karl-Heinz Trumm, Head of the Electric Power Systems department at FAIR and GSI. FAIR will need up to 90 megawatts of electricity for its powerful electromagnets, infrastructure, cooling purposes, and other needs. The South Transformer Station will ensure that FAIR is supplied with enough electricity to meet its normal needs. The North Transformer Station is being built to supply energy to the SIS18 and SIS100 ring accelerators, because the special mode of operation of the normally conducting and superconducting magnets puts extreme demands on the quality of the electricity supply system. The North Transformer Station is scheduled to go into operation in December 2017, while the South Transformer Station is expected to go on line in spring 2018.

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news-2943 Fri, 15 Sep 2017 09:34:39 +0200 GET_INvolved — new internship and training programme at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////get_involved_new_internship_and_training_programme_at_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=afe5673dbe3b1b5977709eb6eebbe2dc It has been a few weeks since the first participants of the GET_INvolved programme have arrived at GSI and FAIR. The new initiative is intended to give international students and young scientists a chance to do an internship and/or a training at GSI and FAIR — a special opportunity to get to know the research institute and life in Germany! Read more in the interview with the three participants Anushka Tibrewal, Jayati Vijaywargiya and Mateusz Sewiolo. Information on applications for GET_INvolved (see below). It has been  a few weeks since the first participants of the GET_INvolved programme have arrived at GSI and FAIR. The new initiative is intended to give international students and young scientists a chance to do an internship and/or a training at GSI and FAIR — a special opportunity to get to know the research institute and life in Germany! Read more in the interview with the three participants Anushka Tibrewal, Jayati Vijaywargiya and Mateusz Sewiolo. Information on applications for GET_INvolved (see below).

 

Where do you come from and what are you studying?

Anushka: I’m studying Bachelor of Engineering with focus on Computer Science in North West India.

Jayati: Me too. We both are studying at Mody University. I’m writing my bachelor’s thesis at the Department for Superconducting Magnets.

Mateusz: I’m doing my bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering at Technical University of Bialystok in Poland.

 

How did you learn about the GET_INvolved programme?

J: I learned about GSI already in my first year because some of our senior students were here before. I can say that it was my goal to come here from the beginning, which is one reason why I studied so hard. Earlier this year one of my professors asked me if I was interested to do an internship here.

A: I got to know about GET_INvolved through my professor, too. I took the chance at once!

M: I was chosen for this programme because I stood out in the skills that are involved in my tasks here. I guess I was considered a good representative of my university.

 

What makes GET_INvolved special for you?

M: I’m working on a dedicated software for calibrations of precise measurement devices. It's great to be part of a project which is important for so many detectors!

A: It's the first time that I work on my own project and that I can apply the knowledge I learned at university on a theoretical level. I create a database for the fragment separator group which allows for a better sorting of data. I have the feeling that I already learned an incredible lot and could evolve personally and intellectually in a very short period of time.

J: It's great that we have three months here and are supported by a dedicated mentor.  With the support, we could realize our own ideas after getting familiar with the surroundings. To get to know Germany and Europe a bit is also very interesting! I visited Paris, Heidelberg and was in a beer garden for the first time in Darmstadt.

 

Which experiences did you have at GSI and FAIR so far?

A: The tasks and challenges I faced here made me more independent. In the beginning I was quite shy but by now I dare to be more extroverted.

J: I’m impressed by the motivation and passion of the people who work here. Sometimes it is just more important to solve a problem than to have “Feierabend” (editor: see below). I have the feeling that one enjoys more freedom in individual organisation and execution of tasks here. That gives me more room for creativity.

M: I noticed that as well. This freedom makes working here enjoyable.

 

What would you tell your fellow students about the GET_INvolved programme?

A: I would very much recommend my fellow students to apply for this programme. I am in Europe for the first time — in the beginning it wasn’t easy because I was a bit homesick — but now I would love to stay longer. I made friends and really like it here!

M: I think that the programme would be interesting for many students at my university because there are many projects in coding and about measuring technique. It is important though to be able to speak English well.

J: If you get the chance you should really do an internship here. Many questions and doubts I had in university were clarified because I got to know how Computer Science gets implemented in the scientific field of research.

 

Do you have plans for the future?

M: I like what I am doing here. I would be happy to come back.

A: When I complete my bachelor I would like to do my master in Europe. Maybe I could come to GSI and FAIR for my PhD or Postdoc.

J: I would like to continue working in physics for my master — preferably in Germany!

More information on GET_INvolved

The GET_INvolved Programme welcomes applications throughout the year. The available positions depend on the applicants’ interests and profile.

Participants benefit from multiple forms of support. Accommodation and travel expenses can be funded. Scholarships from European or national funds, fellowship programmes and enterprise funding to sponsorship by GSI/FAIR are available for prospective participants to apply. Participants are also extensively supported in administrative processes.

Interested in participating in the GET_INvolved programme? Apply by sending your CV and a motivation letter indicating you research interest, in particular, how it corresponds to the topics or projects at GSI. Successful applicants will be able to demonstrate the relevance of their research interest to existing projects at GSI, and how they can contribute to the projects. Applications can be sent to the Office of International Student Programme at international(at)gsi.de or international(at)fair-center.eu. There is no deadline.

Footnote: Feierabend = a German word referring to getting off work, and literally means ‘evening celebration’

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news-2935 Fri, 08 Sep 2017 10:53:24 +0200 40 years of cooperation with the Institute of Modern Physics in China https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////40_years_of_cooperation_with_the_institute_of_modern_physics_in_china.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=acd2169a2b1b9e4cb9cceb12db5d2146 The collaboration between GSI and the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in Lanzhou, China, celebrates its 40th anniversary this year. On this occasion, a commemorative event was held on 4 September 2017 in Beijing, China, followed by a workshop for storage ring physics and accelerator technologies. Speakers at the ceremonial act were the head of the IMP, Professor Guoqing Xiao, as well as the Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino. The collaboration between GSI and the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in Lanzhou, China, celebrates its 40th anniversary this year. On this occasion, a commemorative event was held on 4 September 2017 in Beijing, China, followed by a workshop for storage ring physics and accelerator technologies. Speakers at the ceremonial act were the head of the IMP, Professor Guoqing Xiao, as well as the Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Professor Paolo Giubellino.

The cooperation between GSI and Chinese research facilities can look back on a long tradition. The starting points were personal contacts between Professor Yang Chengzhong, the founding director of IMP, and Professor Rudolf Bock, member of the founding directorate and for many years head of the former Nuclear Physics I department of GSI, at the International Nuclear Physics Conference at Caen in 1976, and during mutual visits to GSI and Beijing in 1977. At that time, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched a program in heavy-ion physics, aiming for the construction of a heavy-ion accelerator at the IMP. In 1979, the first three guest scientists from China visited GSI in the framework of the Humboldt fellow program and worked in the field of nuclear reactions for about two years. A regular exchange program was established in the following years with stays of Chinese researchers at GSI and visits of GSI scientists to Lanzhou, which is still on-going. Contacts with other CAS institutes were also established during that time.

Scientific exchange and cooperation with China has since prospered into many areas ranging from hadron, nuclear and atomic physics to plasma research, radiation-biology, radiation safety, accelerator physics and vacuum technology. In particular with the start of the Chinese Cooler-Storage Ring project (CSR) in 1998 in Lanzhou and FAIR and the Chinese accelerator project HIAF lately, scientific and technical cooperation has been further intensified. Due to the good and efficient cooperation the International Cooperation Award in 2002 and the Friendship Award for Foreign Experts of China in 2006 were conferred to Dr. Nobert Angert and the ‘Dunhuang award’ for international cooperation of Gansu local government in 2004 was granted to Dr. Otto Klepper, both GSI experts. A Helmholtz-CAS Joint Research Group has been established, which facilitated exchange of students and young postdocs between both institutions. The group has produced approx. 100 peer-reviewed scientific publications so far. Several GSI/FAIR scientists hold IMP guest professorship awards, are members of Chinese programme advisory committees or collaborate on R&D work for both GSI and the IMP.

The course for a continuation of this valuable collaboration has already been set. In spring 2017 the agreement of collaboration between IMP and GSI has been prolonged for another five years and also the FAIR GmbH has been added as a partner.

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news-2925 Tue, 05 Sep 2017 08:53:00 +0200 Yuri Litvinov is adjunct professor at the university of Heidelberg https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////yuri_litvinov_is_adjunct_professor_at_the_university_of_heidelberg.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3e7aa12e26510f22f4c65b637a54db4e GSI and FAIR researcher Dr. Yuri Litvinov was awarded with an adjunct (German: außerplanmäßige or APL) professorship at the Ruprecht-Karls-University in Heidelberg. Already in 2011 Litvinov had completed his habilitation and was teaching atomic- and – since the last year – also accelerator physics as a so-called Privatdozent. His achievements in teaching and research were honoured by the nomination for an APL professorship. This took place in January 2017, and the evaluation process was now completed: The faculty and the senate of the university approved the appointment. GSI and FAIR researcher Dr. Yuri Litvinov was awarded with an adjunct (German: außerplanmäßige or APL) professorship at the Ruprecht-Karls-University in Heidelberg. Already in 2011 Litvinov had completed his habilitation and was teaching atomic- and – since the last year – also accelerator physics as a so-called Privatdozent. His achievements in teaching and research were honoured by the nomination for an APL professorship. This took place in January 2017, and the evaluation process was now completed: The faculty and the senate of the university approved the appointment. The certificate of the adjunct professorship has been handed to Dr. Litvinov by the vice-president of the University of Heidelberg, Professor Beatrix Busse, on 29 August 2017.

Litvinov studied physics in St. Petersburg and is a GSI researcher since 1999. In 2003 he defended with distinction his PhD thesis at the university of Gießen (doctoral supervisor Professor Hans Geissel). Starting in 2009 he spent two years at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg for his habilitation. Since then Litvinov is actively involved in the APPA/SPARC research activities led by Professor Thomas Stöhlker. Among other tasks at GSI he is the coordinator of the experiments at the experimental storage ring ESR, and since 2012 he is the head of the SPARC Detectors department, which has now moved to the Atomic Physics division. Since 2016, Litvinov is the principal investigator of the ERC Consolidator Grant „ASTRUm“ funded by the EU.

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news-2915 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:35:38 +0200 In the roadshow “33 Stories – One State-of-the-art Treatment,” patients tell their stories. One of them is about tumor therapy at GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////in_the_roadshow_33_stories_one_state_of_the_art_treatment_patients_tell_their_stories_on.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b0e3b9eb07e0baf6eb85844aaf5c60e6 When he was six years old, Pascal was diagnosed with a malignant bone tumor. He received heavy-ion radiation treatment at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt, where this therapy was developed. And he recovered. Today Pascal is 18 years old, and he’s one of the ambassadors of the traveling exhibition “33 Stories – One State-of-the-art Treatment.” This roadshow, which was organized by the German Association of University Clinics, is currently touring university hospitals all over Germany. It will open at the University Medical Center Mainz on September 4. When he was six years old, Pascal was diagnosed with a malignant bone tumor. He received heavy-ion radiation treatment at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum in Darmstadt, where this therapy was developed. And he recovered. Today Pascal is 18 years old, and he’s one of the ambassadors of the traveling exhibition “33 Stories – One State-of-the-art Treatment.” This roadshow, which was organized by the German Association of University Clinics, is currently touring university hospitals all over Germany. It will open at the University Medical Center Mainz on September 4.

In the exhibition, patients tell their stories, briefly or at length, on life-sized photo posters. There are 33 stories altogether, told directly from 33 German university clinics. They are representative of the millions of people in Germany who place their trust in the top performance of German university medicine day after day. The stories are moving, because they offer personal insights into the patients’ lives. The exhibition will run from September 4 to 13 in the foyer of the Clinic and Polyclinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Building 102, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz.

Pascal’s story will also be told there. He was one of the patients for whom the new ion-beam cancer therapy was considered viable. From 1997 to 2008, more than 440 patients with tumors of the head and neck were treated very successfully with ion beams at GSI’s accelerator facility as part of a pilot project. The advantage of this new therapy is that the ion beam selectively destroys tumors while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. The pilot project, which is now over, was conducted by GSI together with the Radiation Oncology Center at Heidelberg University Hospital, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. Since 2009, patients have routinely been treated with heavy ions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). In November 2015 a second large treatment center for 12C ions and protons began operating in Germany with the opening of the Marburg Ion-Beam Therapy Center. On the basis of these very positive results, this form of therapy is now an accepted medical procedure. Further research will focus on applying the new treatment method to other tumors as well.

“Thanks to this therapy, I can lead a completely normal life today,” Pascal says. You can read his story here.

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news-2894 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 14:35:57 +0200 In Neptune, it’s raining diamonds: International team of researchers with GSI participation uncovers the inner workings of cosmic ice giants https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////in_neptune_its_raining_diamonds_international_team_of_researchers_with_gsi_participation_uncove.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=755cbf679f98adbef29356db1c78d515 In cooperation with colleagues from Germany and the United States, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have managed to demonstrate ‘diamond showers’ forming in the ice giants of our solar system. Using the ultra-strong X-ray laser and other facilities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, they simulated the conditions inside the cosmic giants. For the first time ever, they were able to observe the fission of hydrocarbon and the conversion of carbon into diamonds in real time. One GSI scientist participated in the experiments. The results were published in the journal “Nature Astronomy”. Press release of the Helmholtz-Zentrums Dresden-Rossendorf from 21 August 2017

In cooperation with colleagues from Germany and the United States, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have managed to demonstrate ‘diamond showers’ forming in the ice giants of our solar system. Using the ultra-strong X-ray laser and other facilities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, they simulated the conditions inside the cosmic giants. For the first time ever, they were able to observe the fission of hydrocarbon and the conversion of carbon into diamonds in real time. One GSI scientist participated in the experiments. The results were published in the journal “Nature Astronomy”.

The interior of planets like Neptune or Uranus consists of a solid core swathed in thick layers of “ice”, which is mostly made up of hydrocarbons, water and ammonia. For a long time, astrophysicists have been speculating that the extreme pressure that reigns more than 10,000 kilometers beneath the surface of these planets splits the hydrocarbons causing diamonds to form, which then sink deeper into the planet’s interior. “So far, no one has been able to directly observe these sparkling showers in an experimental setting,” says Dr. Dominik Kraus, who is the head of a Helmholtz Young Investigator Group at HZDR. That was precisely the breakthrough Kraus and his international team have now achieved: “In our experiment, we exposed a special kind of plastic – polystyrene, which also consists of a mix of carbon and hydrogen – to conditions similar to those inside Neptune or Uranus.”

Shock waves charging through the sample

They did this by driving two shock waves through the samples, triggered by an extremely powerful optical laser in combination with the X-ray source Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. At a pressure of about 150 gigapascal and temperatures of about 5,000 degrees Celsius, they compressed the plastic. “The first smaller, slower wave is overtaken by another stronger second wave,” Dominik Kraus explains. “Most diamonds form the moment both waves overlap.” And since this process takes only a fraction of a second, the researchers used ultrafast X-ray diffraction to take snapshots of the diamonds’ creation and the chemical processes involved. “Our experiments show that nearly all the carbon atoms compact into nanometer-sized diamonds,” the Dresden researcher summarizes.

Based on these results, the authors of the study assume that the diamonds on Neptune and Uranus are much larger structures and likely sink down to the planet core over a period of thousands of years. “Our experiments are also providing us with better insights into the structure of exoplanets,” Kraus anticipates. Researchers can measure two main metrics in these cosmic giants outside of our solar system: The first one is mass, based on positional changes of the mother star; and the other is its radius, derived from the shadow that is cast as the planet passes a star. The relation between these two metrics offers clues about the planet’s chemical make-up, for instance, whether it consists of light or heavy elements.

“And, for their part, these chemical processes inside the planet tell us something about its vital properties,” Dominik Kraus continues. “This allows us to improve planetary models. As our studies show, previous simulations have not been accurate.” In addition to astrophysical insights, these experiments also hold potential for practical application. The nano-diamonds created in the experiments can be used in electronic instruments, medical procedures, or as cutting  materials in industrial production. Current production of such diamonds is mainly done by blasting. Laser-based production could mean a cleaner and more controllable process.

The researchers from HZDR and SLAC were joined by scientists from the University of California in Berkeley, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, the Osaka University, the TU Darmstadt, the European XFEL, the University of Michigan and the University of Warwick.

Weitere Informationen
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news-2874 Mon, 14 Aug 2017 10:43:00 +0200 Successful demonstration of a new superconducting RF cavity design with beam https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////successful_demonstration_of_a_new_superconducting_rf_cavity_design_with_beam.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=cbfc7e8e0987a51fe5157fbf67cf766d In cooperation with GSI, physicists and engineers from the Helmholtz Institute Mainz and the Goethe University Frankfurt have performed the first successful test of the novel design of crossbar (CH) superconducting RF cavity with beam. This is one of the main milestones for the proposed superconducting continuous wave (cw) linac, which can open up new research opportunities at GSI and FAIR with its a continuous beam of particles. Among other things, this makes the accelerator particularly well suited for the creation of new chemical elements. In cooperation with GSI, physicists and engineers from the Helmholtz Institute Mainz and the Goethe University Frankfurt have performed the first successful test of the novel design of crossbar (CH) superconducting RF cavity with beam. This is one of the main milestones for the proposed superconducting continuous wave (cw) linac, which can open up new research opportunities at GSI and FAIR with its a continuous beam of particles. Among other things, this makes the accelerator particularly well suited for the creation of new chemical elements.

The cw-linac demonstrator that consists of one CH-cavity was studied with beam for the first time in June and July 2017, using a beam of heavy ions at a test facility of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. In this test, argon ions were injected into this innovative system and accelerated. “The continuous wave linac demonstrator achieved full particle transmission and reached the target beam energy,” says Dr. Winfried Barth, who heads the cw-linac development team. “The cw-linac demonstrator used an acceleration voltage of 1.6 megavolts to accelerate a heavy-ion beam with an intensity of 1.5 particle microamperes to the target energy over a distance of just 70 cm,” said Barth, describing the success of the test. The result confirms the effectiveness and capabilities of the novel design of CH-cavity, whose development was largely funded by the Helmholtz Institute Mainz through the Acceleraor R&D programme "Matter and Technologies" by the Helmholtz Association.

Because the proposed cw-linac is to generate a continuous beam of particles, it is particularly useful for the creation and examination of super-heavy elements, which is one of the traditional fields of research at GSI, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, and the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. At GSI, scientists have discovered a total of six new elements and investigated their chemical and physical properties. The proposed cw-linac’s continuous beam will not only benefit the heavy element programme, but also experiments in the field of materials research.

“A normally conducting accelerator would have to be much longer than the proposed superconducting cw-linac. Moreover, it would need huge amounts of energy to create such strong electromagnetic fields and it would also have to be strongly cooled,” says Dr. Florian Dziuba, who designed, developed, and commissioned the CH-cavity, a radio-frequency accelerator structure that is the key component of the continuous wave linac. Dziuba performed this work as part of his doctoral thesis at Goethe University in Frankfurt.

Because of its compact structure, the superconducting continuous wave linac will be able to save space and conserve considerable amounts of resources in the future. The linac is expected to accelerate ions to as much as 10% of the speed of light over a distance of 13 meters. “The system’s multicellular structure, which is being used here for the first time, is the most complex superconducting radio-frequency structure to have ever been built for use with an ion beam,” says Dziuba, who is now employed at the Helmholtz Institute Mainz.

The current test module of the cw-linac is approximately 2.20 m long and has a diameter of 1.10 m. In order to become superconducting, the accelerator’s interior, which is made of niobium, is cooled down to -269°C. “The fact that the demonstrator achieves the expected performance is a big success for the whole team and shows that the new design of the CH-cavity is groundbreaking”, says Barth.

About the Helmholtz Institute Mainz

GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, and Johannes Gutenberg University (JGU), Mainz, jointly established the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) in 2009 in order to further strengthen their partnership, which has existed for many years. At its location in Mainz, the HIM conducts experiments and theoretical investigations concerning the structure, symmetry, and stability of matter and antimatter. The institute receives its basic funding from the German federal government and the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. JGU supports the HIM by providing it with infrastructure.

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news-2859 Thu, 10 Aug 2017 10:43:05 +0200 Funding for quantum dynamics research at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////funding_for_quantum_dynamics_research_at_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1edd0b09f7238d69a76f58bd4cc1362d FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, will open up outstanding possibilities for experimentation. These possibilities are already attracting a great deal of interest from the scientific community. That’s because the planned FAIR accelerator facility has a huge potential to provide us with new insights. This view is also shared by the German Research Foundation (DFG), which has now approved around €168,000 in German funding for a research project that combines the activities of two world-renowned research groups (one from Germany, the other from Russia) and focuses on the research that will be conducted at GSI and FAIR in the future. Russia will provide an equivalent amount in funding for the Russian group.  FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, will open up outstanding possibilities for experimentation. These possibilities are already attracting a great deal of interest from the scientific community. That’s because the planned FAIR accelerator facility has a huge potential to provide us with new insights. This view is also shared by the German Research Foundation (DFG), which has now approved around €168,000 in German funding for a research project that combines the activities of two world-renowned research groups (one from Germany, the other from Russia) and focuses on the research that will be conducted at GSI and FAIR in the future. Russia will provide an equivalent amount in funding for the Russian group.

Among other things, the money will be used to provide two years of funding for a postdoc position for studying the theory and experiments at GSI and FAIR. This research will focus on the PHELIX high-energy laser system, the CRYRING storage ring (FAIR’s first ion storage ring), and the ESR experimental storage ring. More specifically, the research will address the preconditions for investigating relativistic quantum dynamics in experiments at the GSI and FAIR research facilities. The DFG funding proposal was made in response to a joint German-Russian application submitted by Professor Thomas Stöhlker, Head of the Atomic Physics Division at GSI, Director of the Helmholtz Institute Jena, an outstation of GSI in Jena (HIJ), and holder of the Chair at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Optics and Quantum Electronics, and by Professor Vladimir Shabaev, Head of the Quantum Mechanics Division at St. Petersburg State University. Moreover, Dr. Angela Bräuning-Demian and Dr. Alexandre Gumberidze from the Atomic Physics Division of GSI Darmstadt are also extensively involved in the project.

Collisions of heavy ions play a key role in researching the relativistic quantum dynamics of electrons in very strong electromagnetic fields. The implementation of the FAIR project will open up new opportunities for investigating the collisions of super-heavy ions and atoms at low energies. Experimental investigations of such collisions are being planned at GSI and FAIR, and the associated theoretical studies are urgently needed. “This will be addressed by our research project, which is why it is coming at precisely the right time,” state Stöhlker and Shabaev, who also emphasize how important this work will be for the understanding of additional experimental findings at GSI/FAIR in Darmstadt.

Another important aspect is the collaboration between the two groups. While Russia covers the costs of the Russian group, Germany does the same for the German group. “It’s a very effective way for promoting international cooperation between the groups,” say Stöhlker and Shabaev.

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news-2847 Wed, 26 Jul 2017 09:25:00 +0200 Welcome Summer Students! https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////welcome_summer_students.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6e21c43581528dc277f77b271121617a 36 students from 17 countries take part in this year’s Summer Student Programme at GSI and FAIR. They spend eight weeks on the campus. During their stay they participate actively in GSI and FAIR experiments and get to know the everyday life at an accelerator institute. 36 students from 17 countries take part in this year’s Summer Student Programme at GSI and FAIR. They spend eight weeks on the campus. During their stay they participate actively in GSI and FAIR experiments and get to know the everyday life at an accelerator institute.

Every summer student gets the chance to work on his own research project within the current GSI and FAIR experiments. The topics range from accelerator science to tumour therapy and astrophysics. In public lectures, which are part of the programme, the summer students learn about GSI and FAIR research and scientific results.

For many of the students, who come mainly from European but also from more distant countries like Mexico, China, India or South Africa, the Summer Student Programme is the first step to a masters or doctorates thesis at GSI. The Summer Student Programme, which takes place for the 37th time, is organised together with the graduate school HGS-HIRe. Apart from the scientific programme there are also social events like cooking together or exploring the region.

The public lectures are in English and are open to everyone. Lecture Programme

More Information

Summer Student Programme of GSI and FAIR

Programme, lectures and more

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news-2826 Wed, 19 Jul 2017 15:23:10 +0200 Collaboration of CNAO and GSI to develop a next generation ion beam therapy system https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////collaboration_of_cnao_and_gsi_to_develop_a_next_generation_ion_beam_therapy_system.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1439e1fac81fe1bba0b325ed2433b9f3 The Italian National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy “Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica” (CNAO) and the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research signed a contract to improve the technology of cancer therapy with heavy ions. Within the collaboration the established CNAO control system will be installed and further developed at GSI in Darmstadt. The Italian National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy “Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica” (CNAO) and the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research signed a contract to improve the technology of cancer therapy with heavy ions. Within the collaboration the established CNAO control system will be installed and further developed at GSI in Darmstadt.

Ion beam therapy has been established as cutting edge technology in the fight against cancer permitting a more precise irradiation in comparison to conventional therapy with high doses to the tumour while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. CNAO in Italy is one of the facilities in Europe where this radiation modality is available for therapy; it uses the raster scan technology that has been developed at GSI. To enhance this technique the irradiation control system of CNAO will now be installed at GSI. “The control system developed at CNAO has the advantage of flexibility and easy maintenance because it is based on modern industrial components”, explains Michael Scholz, head of the GSI Biophysics department. “This facilitates rapid implementation of the new developments planned at GSI.”

The main goals of these improvements are to reduce the irradiation time and to integrate motion management techniques, allowing a more precise treatment of tumors that move with breathing. The transfer of these upgrades to the clinical environment for the benefit of patients is then largely facilitated thanks to the close collaboration with CNAO. “We expect this collaboration to offer great advantages for the future treatment of patients with moving tumoral targets, such as liver or lung cancer”, says Sandro Rossi, General Director of CNAO. First test irradiations with the new control system at the GSI therapy cave are planned for 2018.

CNAO and GSI have been collaborating successfully for many years. For the therapy center in Italy GSI for example developed, installed and launched parts of the injector linear accelerator as well as of the beam diagnostics system.

CNAO as Italian National Center for oncological Hadrontherapy  is in operation since 2011 and has treated more than 1300 patients. Besides tremendous clinical experience, CNAO also developed the center’s technology in large parts and also licensed it for medical use. This includes a so-called dose delivery system, the real-time computers and detectors controlling the precise irradiation of patients with scanned ion beams. This system is in operation in two centers, both at CNAO and at the new Austrian therapy center MedAustron.

GSI played a pioneering role in the establishment of heavy ion therapy in Europe, with a pilot project treating 440 patients with carbon ion beams from 1997 to 2008. The raster scanning technique was developed here which is now established as state of the art in modern particle therapy centers. GSI also has a long standing experience in the therapy development of moving targets such as lung cancer. Several new technologies such as beam tracking or 4D-optimization were pioneered and experimentally tested here.

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news-2815 Wed, 12 Jul 2017 09:00:00 +0200 A nano view of DNA repair https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////a_nano_view_of_dna_repair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6013124dc5485e63460d44f6ca261f6e Cells use sophisticated repair mechanisms to deal with damaged genetic material. In cooperation with scientists from Munich and Berlin, researchers from Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, recently identified one of the elementary structural units of this repair mechanism. They reported their findings in the renowned scientific journal Nature Communications. Press release of the Technical University Darmstadt on 16.06.2017

Cells use sophisticated repair mechanisms to deal with damaged genetic material. In cooperation with scientists from Munich and Berlin, researchers from Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, recently identified one of the elementary structural units of this repair mechanism. They reported their findings in the renowned scientific journal Nature Communications.

Genetic material can be damaged during DNA replication and as a result of X-rays and other influences. In most cases, a cell’s DNA repair mechanism responds to damage quickly and effectively. “The spatial organization of the genetic information in the cell nucleus plays a key role in repairing damage,” says M. Cristina Cardoso, Professor of Cell Biology and Epigenetics at the Department of Biology of TU Darmstadt. In the cell nucleus, the thread-like DNA double helixes are clustered closely together with proteins. Areas containing active genes are rather loosely structured, while inactive genetic material is densely packed.

To conduct the studies that the team headed by Cardoso has now published in Nature Communications, the researchers subjected human cells to X-rays in order to induce DNA double-strand breaks. Such breaks are among the most dramatic DNA defects, as they can cause cancer and other severe illnesses.

One of the first steps of the cellular repair process is the phosphorylation of a protein that is involved in the packing of DNA in the cell nucleus. Using super-resolution optical microscopy, the researchers discovered clusters composed of phosphorylated proteins and subunits of DNA clusters. These clusters, which measure only a few hundred nanometers, form tiny units, each one capable of the repair of a DNA double-strand break. When the scientists analyzed the temporal distribution of the clusters in cell nuclei, they noticed that loosely packed DNA is repaired faster than densely packed DNA. Repairs can be made more easily if the clusters of DNA strands are loosened.

The researchers also found out that the protein CTCF, which controls the spatial distribution of the DNA in the cell nucleus, plays a key role in the repair mechanism. Cells with a low CTCF content are bad at making repairs. CTCF probably stabilizes the genetic material in a form that enables it to be easily repaired.

Although the DNA in a cell nucleus may seem to be a chaotic cluster, it is actually governed by sophisticated packing and unpacking mechanisms. “It’s surprising that we fully understand the molecular structure of DNA, but don’t know very much about its spatial organization inside the cell nucleus,” says Cardoso. That’s why the current study examines not only DNA repair but also the fundamental questions regarding the arrangement of the genetic material within cell nuclei. In this way the research highlights a previously underestimated factor that has a big impact on our health.

In addition to scientists from TU Darmstadt, researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt were involved in the study.

Further information
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news-2796 Tue, 04 Jul 2017 14:00:00 +0200 An important milestone: Groundbreaking ceremony for the FAIR accelerator facility https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////an_important_milestone_groundbreaking_ceremony_for_the_fair_accelerator_facility.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=68867d05d9b81a07626d090377265088 The construction of the international accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) has begun. The start of building construction and civil engineering work is a crucial moment for one of the largest construction projects for scientific research worldwide. On July 4, 2017, the groundbreaking ceremony was held for the large ring accelerator SIS 100, which will be the key component of the future accelerator facility FAIR. The construction site is located to the northeast of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. The construction of the international accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) has begun. The start of building construction and civil engineering work is a crucial moment for one of the largest construction projects for scientific research worldwide. On July 4, 2017, the groundbreaking ceremony was held for the large ring accelerator SIS 100, which will be the key component of the future accelerator facility FAIR. The construction site is located to the northeast of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.

FAIR will be a unique particle accelerator facility with an investment volume of more than €1 billion. The facility is being constructed by nine partner countries and is scheduled to go into full operation in 2025. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will work at FAIR, where they will gain groundbreaking insights into the structure of matter and the development of the universe. The key component of FAIR will be an underground ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters. Connected to it is a complex system of storage rings and experimental stations.

Over the past few weeks and months, extensive preparations have been made for the huge construction project. For example, work is already under way to connect the existing accelerator facilities of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum to the new FAIR complex. Retaining walls are being built and contracts have been awarded for the excavation and installation of the ring tunnel following a successful call for bids. These were important preparatory steps for the large-scale work on the FAIR infrastructure, which has now begun with the groundbreaking ceremony for the SIS 100 ring accelerator. The cutting-edge accelerator and experiment facilities will be installed after the new buildings are completed.

At the ceremony, government officials and scientists from Germany and abroad extended greetings and symbolically broke the ground with a shovel. This crucial milestone was attended by representatives from all nine partner countries.

Georg Schütte, Chair of the FAIR Council and State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, said, “The beginning of the civil construction of FAIR marks a new phase in the project. FAIR is a highly complex large research project at the limits of scientific and technical feasibility. This project and its diverse challenges can only be managed in close alliance with our international partners. We expect FAIR to become a driver of innovation in many areas, ranging from fundamental research and application-oriented developments to technical building solutions.”

The Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Professor Paolo Giubellino, emphasized the great potential that FAIR offers for scientific research: “FAIR will create unique opportunities for cutting-edge research, with enormous discovery potential. Scientists will be able to study the universe in the lab: FAIR will address fundamental problems such as the origin of heavy elements in the universe or the structure of neutron stars, but also applications from material sciences to medicine. Through the close cooperation with researchers from all over the world FAIR will not only expand our knowledge but also be a motor for technological innovation while developing the next generation of scientists and engineers.”

The Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, added, “FAIR is an unusual construction project from both a scientific and a technological point of view. It requires customized solutions and the interplay of a wide variety of different trades. That’s why building construction, civil engineering, accelerator development and construction, and scientific experiments are closely coordinated with one another in our integrated overall plan. The complex construction project is divided into manageable packages. Today’s groundbreaking ceremony is the reward for precise preparatory work and shows that this is the right strategy for FAIR.”

Ursula Weyrich, the Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, said, “We worked hard on developing the focus and the framework of the FAIR project and created an overall structure that organically links GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH with FAIR GmbH. This rearrangement of the overall organizational structure is an important precondition for the further implementation of the FAIR project. That’s why today is also a success for the entire workforce and the result of outstanding and fruitful cooperation.”

Eric Seng, Deputy State Secretary at the Hessian Ministry for Higher Education, Research and the Arts said, “The FAIR project is the further development of a Hessian idea almost 50 years old: GSI was founded in 1969 by an initihttps://www.gsi.de/ative of Hessian universities. GSI and FAIR have a world-wide appeal. As the hosting federal state we will do everything in our power for the international scientific community to not only feel welcome but enable them to perform cutting-edge research.“

In line with the groundbreaking ceremony, FAIR also began FAIR Phase 0 of its experimentation program in order to harmonize research operations with the progress of construction. Beam times are already being scheduled for researchers at existing GSI facilities and at components for FAIR. To conduct this research, scientists are using the GSI accelerator facilities, which have been substantially enhanced for their later use as preaccelerators for FAIR and will have their technology further upgraded in the future. Moreover, parts of FAIR can already be used, including the CRYRING storage ring.

„The scientific community looks forward to the mega project FAIR entering a crucial phase with today’s groundbreaking“, said the Indian professor Sibaji Raha, the Chair of the Joint Scientific Council of FAIR and GSI. „Already now scientists all over the world work on the research programme and the technical implementation of this facility unique in the world. FAIR will be the international showcase for hadron and nuclear physics in the coming decades and offer outstanding research opportunities.“

About FAIR:

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centerpiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters. Connected to it is a complex system of storage rings and experimental stations. The existing GSI accelerators will serve as preaccelerators. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnerships to advance new technological developments in a number of areas, such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. Alongside Germany, the partner countries of FAIR GmbH are Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Slovenia. The United Kingdom is an associate partner.

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news-2802 Mon, 03 Jul 2017 10:00:00 +0200 Thai princess visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////thai_princess_visits_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=239436f8eb3e496892edf29910946b19 A royal visitor from Thailand: Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand recently visited GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt. During her tour, the princess learned about the latest research activities, the various infrastructures, and the future FAIR accelerator center. A memorandum of understanding (MoU) was also signed during the visit in order to promote scientific and technological cooperation between the research institutes of the two countries. A royal visitor from Thailand: Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand recently visited GSI and FAIR in Darmstadt. During her tour, the princess learned about the latest research activities, the various infrastructures, and the future FAIR accelerator center. A memorandum of understanding (MoU) was also signed during the visit in order to promote scientific and technological cooperation between the research institutes of the two countries.

The management of GSI and FAIR welcomed the princess along with the delegation from Thailand, which included representatives of the country’s scientific and diplomatic communities. After listening to a presentation about GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) accelerator center, the visitors toured the GSI campus and the FAIR construction site. During the tour, the visitors made stops at the Green IT Cube, one of the most modern and efficient high-performance computer centers in the world, the HADES large-scale detector, and the facility for ion-based cancer treatments that have been developed at GSI. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and the Thai delegation then learned about the international FAIR project, one of the world’s biggest construction projects for scientific research, and viewed the work that is currently being performed on the 20-hectare construction site next to the GSI campus.

The visit concluded with the signing of a memorandum of understanding concerning the establishment of a scientific and technological partnership between five Thai universities and scientific institutes on the one hand and GSI and FAIR on the other. Among other things, the MoU encompasses a variety of opportunities for collaboration and information-sharing such as seminars, symposiums, and science meetings. The memorandum will also promote cooperation by means of joint research projects and exchange activities between professors and scientists — particularly young scientists, postdocs, and university students.

Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn is working to promote humanitarian projects and improve education in the Kingdom of Thailand and around the world. She is widely known for her strong interest in science and technology. She has also won numerous awards in Thailand and abroad for her commitment to improving international relations.

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news-2740 Tue, 16 May 2017 14:02:08 +0200 Interaction between the atomic nucleus and the electron on trial https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////interaction_between_the_atomic_nucleus_and_the_electron_on_trial.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=069bf5076a197b4bad15020adb839e40 For the first time, a team of researchers under the leadership of TU Darmstadt and with the participation of scientists from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt has succeeded in measuring the transition between energy levels of the lithium-like ions of bismuth with such precision that it has become possible to reassess underlying theories. This has led to a surprising result. The scientists have now published this result in "Nature Communications": the understanding of the interaction between an electron and an atomic nucleus that we have had until now might be erroneous. For the first time, a team of researchers under the leadership of TU Darmstadt and with the participation of scientists from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt has succeeded in measuring the transition between energy levels of the lithium-like ions of bismuth with such precision that it has become possible to reassess underlying theories. This has led to a surprising result. The scientists have now published this result in "Nature Communications": the understanding of the interaction between an electron and an atomic nucleus that we have had until now might be erroneous.

At the surface of the nuclei of bismuth atoms, magnetic fields exist which are otherwise only present at the surface of massive neutron stars. The behavior of electrons in these fields has been investigated by a group of researchers under the leadership of the Technische Universität Darmstadt. Only recently have they achieved a breakthrough by observing for the first time a special transition in lithium-like ions of this element.

They have now succeeded in measuring this transition at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt with such precision that it was possible for the first time to reassess the underlying theory convincingly. In the latest issue of the specialist journal "Nature Communications", the scientists give an account of their surprising result: the discrepancy between the theory and the experiment is striking. It suggests an error in our understanding of how an electron interacts with the complex inner structure of a nucleus.

Simple atoms consisting of a single nucleus and one or a few electrons are ideal systems to check our understanding of the underlying physical forces at stake. We have a better grasp of the theory of the atom's electron shell based on quantum electrodynamics (QED) than of the actual structure of the atomic nucleus. QED allows the properties of the electrons and the states in which the atom can exist to be calculated with great accuracy. These calculations are then checked by means of precision measurements. To date, QED has passed all these tests with flying colors.

When using heavy nuclei, the scientists are mainly interested in the influence of the gigantic electric and magnetic fields on the electrons bound in the shell. Only very few experimental verifications of this theory have been carried out under these extreme conditions, and they do not – by far – exhibit the same accuracy as the experiments performed with light nuclei. The strong fields make the theoretical calculations much more difficult. In addition, the complex inner structure of the nuclei is not know with sufficient precision although it has a strong influence on the atomic shell.

In order to by-pass this difficulty, theoreticians calculate certain differences for systems with different numbers of electrons, but with the same atomic nucleus. These so-called "specific differences" are of such a nature that the contributions of the nucleus' structure should eliminate themselves almost exactly and that they can be used by the researchers as a starting point to check the QED calculations with more precision. The results that have now been published, however, seem to question the concept of specific difference.

In its experiment, the team first generated hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth ions. These ions were injected into the experimental storage ring (ESR) at the GSI accelerator facility which has a circumference of 108 m and is equipped with two straight sections where experiments can be carried out. In one of those sections, an electron beam of defined energy is superimposed with the ion beam. After a few seconds, the ions' speed adjusts to that of the electrons. In this section, a pulsed laser beam is, in addition, superimposed with the ion beam. The laser's wavelength is then modified in tiny increments. When the laser reaches exactly the wavelength of the transition of the ion to be investigated, the ions absorb light particles (photons) – and thus energy – from the laser beam. Ions that are excited in this way release this energy after a short while, thereby emitting a very small number of photons.

This small number of photons was efficiently detected by means of a special mirror and single-photon detection system which was developed at the University of Münster. Due to the high speed, the wavelength of the laser is compressed or stretched by a factor of approx. 2.4, for a counterpropagating or a copropagating laser, respectively. This factor depends on the accelerating voltage of the electrons. To measure this high voltage of approx. 214,000 volts with an accuracy on the order of 1 V, a high-voltage divider developed at PTB in Braunschweig was used. Scientists from TU Darmstadt were responsible, among other things for the data acquisition and the time-dependent synchronization of the laser pulses, which only last a few billionths of a second (nanoseconds) with the revolution of the ions inside the storage ring. They also analyzed the data.

The specific difference in the transition wavelengths measured in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth does not agree with the theoretical prediction, even when taking all known sources of systematic errors into consideration. The cause for this deviation is not known yet and is to be investigated within the scope of further measurements with other isotopes of bismuth. These isotopes are, however, radioactive and must therefore be produced before being injected into the storage ring. These possibilities are available at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum. The new accelerator facility, FAIR, whose construction in Darmstadt will soon begin, will provide new possibilities for further investigations of this subject.

The results published in "Nature Communications" are based on a cooperation project between the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, PTB Braunschweig, the Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, and the Helmholtz-Institut Jena as well as other institutions under the leadership of the Institut für Kernphysik (Institute of Nuclear Physics) of the Technische Universität Darmstadt.

Further Informations

Report in Nature Communications

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news-2735 Tue, 09 May 2017 13:59:47 +0200 Almost 11 000 visitors at Open House of GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////almost_11_000_visitors_at_open_house_of_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1dbd086ca91f8837effd227381e1fd4b Visitors received an opportunity to be researchers and discoverers for a day on Sunday, May 7, at the Open House event of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR accelerator center. Finally GSI and FAIR had a positive assessment of the event. Almost 11 000 visitors came to the campus in Darmstadt to view the research stations, laboratories, and experimental setups. GSI and FAIR had opened their doors to guests for eight hours, and thousands of curious visitors, including many families, took advantage of this very well organized event to take a look behind the scenes of one of the leading particle accelerator centers for fundamental research in physics. Visitors received an opportunity to be researchers and discoverers for a day on Sunday, May 7, at the Open House event of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR accelerator center. Finally GSI and FAIR had a positive assessment of the event. Almost 11 000 visitors came to the campus in Darmstadt to view the research stations, laboratories, and experimental setups. GSI and FAIR had opened their doors to guests for eight hours, and thousands of curious visitors, including many families, took advantage of this very well organized event to take a look behind the scenes of one of the leading particle accelerator centers for fundamental research in physics.

The visitors were treated to an extremely varied program. At more than 30 stations and in the course of five different tours, they were able to conduct hands-on experiments and gain insights into the research using ion beams that is being done at the center. Visitors of all ages were enthusiastic about the center’s world-leading research and the exciting scientific stations, which ranged from a stand demonstrating the ion-beam cancer therapy that was developed in Darmstadt to a 120-meter-long linear accelerator to the FAIR Forum with information about the new particle accelerator center or the impressively staged large-scale detector Hades.

The motto of the Open House was “The Universe in the Laboratory.” The employees at GSI and FAIR had made special preparations to the research operation so that visitors could gain an understanding of as many topics as possible. More than 400 volunteers were on hand during the Open House. They made sure the guests had an interesting and informative day, tirelessly answered their questions, and helped the guests to explore the GSI complex. Also for the physical well-being was well taken care.

The members of the GSI and FAIR management team were also exceptionally satisfied with the event. Ursula Weyrich, the Administrative Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, said, “We are excited about the visitor’s overwhelming interest in our work. The day has shown that research consists not only of fascinating technology, but also lives on dedicated and inspired employees.“ Professor Paolo Giubellino, the Scientific Managing Director of GSI, added, “We succeeded in raising excitement and curiosity for science. We are glad that so many young people came. Science needs interested junior researchers and many clever minds employing their talents for research.” Jörg Blaurock, the Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, also judged the event to be a great success. “Our Open House highlights the fascination carried by research. We were able to demonstrate in a direct dialogue what our world-wide unique FAIR project ecompasses, which guarantees a promising future trend for the location Darmstadt.”

Jochen Partsch, the Mayor of Darmstadt, a “City of Science,” also came to the Open House and officially opened the event together with the management team of GSI and FAIR. Partsch said, "I am extremly pleased that GSI has opened its doors to the citizens of Darmstadt in the anniversary year ,20 years City of Science‘. It was a unique opportunity to get to know cutting edge research right in front of the doorstep. The fact that so many people have used this opportunity shows how deeply connected the inhabitants of Darmstadt are with the City of Science and how exciting it is for them to ‚explore‘ the GSI on their own. We live in a city which ist eponym of a chemical element discovered at GSI. Here, breakthroughs in cancer therapy have been achieved and with the FAIR project a new particle accelerator is currently being built which will set a new standard worldwide. Therefore, excellent research does not take place anywhere in the ivory tower but can rather be experienced by everyone thanks to an open house day. Furthermore you should not forget, that in addition to new knowledge, research also creates important jobs and shapes the life in our city. "

More pictures of the Open House

Photo album at facebook

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news-2706 Tue, 02 May 2017 15:38:25 +0200 Journeys of discovery: Open House will offer a wide range of information and entertainment https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////journeys_of_discovery_open_house_will_offer_a_wide_range_of_information_and_entertainment.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=effd6b9c1dade3b4be3fff73a9bdccba Offering a first-hand experience of the fascinating world of research — that’s the purpose of the Open House at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR accelerator center in Darmstadt on Sunday, May 7, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. (admission until 5 p.m.). Visitors can look forward to an exciting program of information and entertainment at numerous locations that will give them an introduction to the research with ion beams that is conducted at the center. On this day, they will have access to particle accelerators, experimental setups, workshops, laboratories, and the data processing center. The official opening ceremony, which will feature Mayor Jochen Partsch of Darmstadt and the management of FAIR/GSI, will begin at 11 a.m. on the Seebühne stage. Offering a first-hand experience the fascinating world of research — that’s the purpose of the Open House at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future FAIR accelerator center in Darmstadt on Sunday, May 7, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. (admission until 5 p.m.). Visitors can look forward to an exciting program of information and entertainment at numerous locations that will give them an introduction to the research with ion beams that is conducted at the center. On this day, they will have access to particle accelerators, experimental setups, workshops, laboratories, and the data processing center. The official opening ceremony, which will feature Mayor Jochen Partsch of Darmstadt and the management of FAIR/GSI, will begin at 11 a.m. on the Seebühne stage.

The motto of the Open House will be “The Universe in the Laboratory.” The employees at GSI and FAIR have made special preparations so that visitors will be able to get an idea of as many topics as possible. For example, guests will be able to individually explore 30 separate stations on five different journeys of discovery conceived as round tours of the research campus. Contact persons stationed throughout the center will offer tours and be available to answer questions and engage in discussions. Bus tours will take visitors to the construction site of the future FAIR particle accelerator, which will be unequaled anywhere else in the world. The specially designed FAIR Forum will offer a wealth of information about this fascinating science project, whose impact can be felt throughout the campus.

The information on offer at the Market of Possibilities will include a survey of the many job opportunities available at GSI and FAIR and the chance for visitors drop in to “Seltzer with an Expert” and talk with experts from the fields of science and industry. Visitors young and old will also have many opportunities to conduct hands-on experiments that explore physical phenomena such as the behavior of chocolate-covered marshmallows in a vacuum and the creation of chemical elements. The main auditorium will feature presentations focusing on FAIR and the hot-topic science show “Fire and Ice.”

The extensive entertainment program will focus on fun and excitement. Visitors will be able to test their knowledge of FAIR and GSI in a science quiz. The first prize will be an aerial tour of the FAIR/GSI site and the surrounding region, starting from the Egelsbach airfield. The same aerial tour will also be the first prize in the Science Selfie Contest. A number of Selfie Spots have been set up throughout the campus to serve as photogenic backgrounds for visitors’ selfies. The most beautiful self-portrait shot in one of these spots will be the winner. The youngest visitors will be able to participate in a rubber stamp collecting competition to gain the title of “Research Expert” with a certificate and a surprise gift.

There’ll also be lots going on along the way, such as visitors from outer space, courtesy of the “501 German Garrison” costume club, whose members will appear in costumes as characters from the Star Wars saga. Balloon artists, bouncy castles, and a chair-o-plane will also be available to young visitors. On this day, the research campus will also become an art campus. In the “Focus on Research” exhibit, large-format photographs will document the instruments of science, and several researchers from the center will showcase their works along the Art Walk. There will be music on the Seebühne stage and food and drink at various locations, including the “Hot Dense Matter” barbecue stand and the “Liquid Crystals” beverage stand. The organizers of Open House are making sure that at the end of the day their visitors will be able to take home a wealth of fascinating impressions and extraordinary insights.

You can find out more informations, for example how to get there on our special Web page for the Open House Day. Only a limited number of parking spaces are available on Planckstraße in front of the campus. We recommend that visitors come via local public transportation. A free shuttle service has been set up between the Wixhausen commuter train station and the Arheilgen/Dreieichweg streetcar terminus. Admission to all the features on the GSI and FAIR campus will be free of charge. The organizers expect that several thousand visitors will take advantage of this opportunity to experience the fascination of science at GSI and FAIR up close.

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news-2703 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 11:01:21 +0200 Schoolgirls find out about GSI and FAIR on Girls’Day https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////schoolgirls_find_out_about_gsi_and_fair_on_girlsday.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6dba9da70e862ae899f9fb65c8227305 On Girls’Day, 32 schoolgirls from Grades 5 through 10 had the opportunity to find out what it’s like to work at GSI and FAIR. They took advantage of this future-oriented day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far. On Girls’Day, 32 schoolgirls from Grades 5 through 10 had the opportunity to find out what it’s like to work at GSI and FAIR. They took advantage of this future-oriented day to gain an insight into the many activities that are pursued at an international research institution, especially in professions where women have seldom been represented so far.

For the participants, Girls’Day began with a welcoming address by Ursula Weyrich, the Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. This was followed by a tour of the particle accelerator and experiment facilities on the research campus, which made the girls curious and generated many questions: How big are atoms? Is it possible to see them? How is a detector put together?

After that, the girls could gain practical experiences in various technical and scientific working areas at workshops, technical laboratories, and research departments. Many departments had prepared for the girls’ visit by creating a special program, and they provided plenty of support for their young visitors. For example, the girls were able to try their hand at milling, soldering, and programming. They were also given a tour of the construction site of the future FAIR particle accelerator, which will be unequaled anywhere else in the world. Occupational safety was the focus of all of these experiences.

After all this, the girls could look back on an exciting day during which they had achieved many practical results. For example, they had milled pencil holders and buttons for themselves, created targets — the paper-thin foils that are used as targets for experiments, equipped a circuit board with LEDs and connected it, and created their own web page. One highlight of the day was the ice cream they made themselves with liquid nitrogen.

Girls’Day is a day of action all over Germany. On this day, businesses, factories, and universities all over Germany open their doors to schoolgirls from Grade 5 and above. There the girls learn about courses of study and professions that offer traineeships in the areas of IT, the skilled trades, the natural sciences, and technology — areas where women have seldom been active in the past.

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news-2686 Tue, 11 Apr 2017 17:09:40 +0200 FAIR and GSI support worldwide "March for Science" https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_and_gsi_support_worldwide_march_for_science.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=73e02ecdae0309ea3b9895b45732ceb3 The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Member of the Helmholtz Association, and the FAIR - Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH jointly support the worldwide initiative “March for Science” on April 22nd, 2017. The GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Member of the Helmholtz Association, and the FAIR - Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH jointly support the worldwide initiative “March for Science” on April 22nd, 2017.

All scientists and active, involved citizens are called upon to speak up for their conviction that facts established through scientific methods are indispensable for any public dialogue.

For this purpose, freedom of science, research and teaching as well as freedom of speech and tolerance towards those whose opinions are different need to be preserved as precious assets of our enlightened society. This also includes the free exchange between scientists of different nations.

We therefore would like to encourage you to participate in the “March for Science Event” in Frankfurt on 22nd April 2017 (or in a parallel event organized by the “March for Science Event” initiative).

Please follow this link to watch the speech of Helmholtz President Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Otmar Wiestler on YouTube.

 

Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director
Ursula Weyrich, Administrative Managing Director
Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director

GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
FAIR Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GmbH

More information

Website of Science March

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news-2665 Mon, 10 Apr 2017 09:00:00 +0200 CBM PhD Award for Dr. Maksym Zyzak https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////cbm_phd_award_for_dr_maksym_zyzak.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ebffcb7877806ab095707239a0985350 For the second time the CBM PhD Award was handed over in March. Dr. Maksym Zyzak of GSI received the award for his PhD thesis at the University of Frankfurt. The award was presented during the CBM Collaboration Meeting at GSI by the spokesperson of the award committee Dr. Andrej Kugler. The award is endowed with a prize money of 500 Euros. For the second time the CBM PhD Award was handed over in March. Dr. Maksym Zyzak of GSI received the award for his PhD thesis at the University of Frankfurt. The award was presented during the CBM Collaboration Meeting at GSI by the spokesperson of the award committee Dr. Andrej Kugler. The award is endowed with a prize money of 500 Euros.

In his PhD thesis "Online selection of short-lived particles on many-core computer architectures in the CBM experiment at FAIR" Zyzak developed software for the fast identification of short-lived particles produced in heavy ion collisions by their decay products. This is of great importance to the CBM experiments for the selection of rare events in real time. The software packet "KFParticleFinder" developed by the awardee analyses more than 100 different decay channels at the same time by employing parallel computing. Apart from its future use in CBM the packet is already in use by currently running experiments (STAR, ALICE).

Candidates for the award are nominated by their advisors. The selection is carried out by a committee appointed by the CBM collaboration. The criteria for the selection are originality and quality of the scientific work, scientific value, impact of the results on the field of research in general and on CBM in particular, as well as the presentation of the work in the dissertation. The award will is handed out to the best PhD thesis within the CBM experiment annually. The CBM collaboration especially wants to honour the contributions of students to the CBM project with the award.

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news-2678 Fri, 07 Apr 2017 14:04:34 +0200 Call for proposals for beam time in 2018/19 – Begin of FAIR-Phase-0 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////call_for_proposals_for_beam_time_in_201819_begin_of_fair_phase_0.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=99f1f6cb176424238c3aaeb1ee4c3a2c As of now and until May 31, 2017, it is possible to apply for beam time for the years 2018/19 at the GSI and FAIR facilities. This marks the start for the so-called "FAIR-Phase-0", the beginning of the FAIR experimental program. Apart from the GSI accelerators UNILAC, SIS18 and ESR and the existing experiments, also parts of the FAIR instrumentation can be used, e.g. the storage ring CRYRING. As of now and until May 31, 2017, it is possible to apply for beam time for the years 2018/19 at the GSI and FAIR facilities. This marks the start for the so-called "FAIR-Phase-0", the beginning of the FAIR experimental program. Apart from the GSI accelerators UNILAC, SIS18 and ESR and the existing experiments, also parts of the FAIR instrumentation can be used, e.g. the storage ring CRYRING.

Since during this period also major construction work for FAIR is going on, operation will be limited to approximately three month per year. In total about 600 8-hour-shifts at the UNILAC, 400 at the SIS18 and 170 at ESR and CRYRING are available in the coming two years. Additional running of CRYRING stand-alone is envisioned. For experiments at the PHELIX laser 170 shifts are available.

Proposals are to be submitted via web forms, further information can be found on the website of the Program Advisory Committee (G-PAC) at www.gsi.de/g-pac. Deadline for the proposal submission is May 31, 2017. Proposals will be presented to the G-PAC or the responsible sub-committee in short oral presentations of the spokespersons or research field representatives in a meeting at GSI in summer. After evaluations by the review committee beam time will be granted by the directorate.

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news-2648 Fri, 24 Mar 2017 09:33:18 +0100 Preparatory construction activities are making headway at GSI/FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////preparatory_construction_activities_are_making_headway_at_gsifair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=35de6ddad2c5b6143c9a7d6742aed62d The construction of the FAIR accelerator facility is picking up speed. The preparatory work has now commenced for linking the existing accelerator systems of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung to the new FAIR facility, which will take place later on. An important milestone here is the erection of two approximately 100-meter-long retaining walls that are up to eight meters tall. These walls are being built near GSI’s SIS18 accelerator ring, which will connect to the FAIR facility. The construction of the FAIR accelerator facility is picking up speed. The preparatory work has now commenced for linking the existing accelerator systems of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung to the new FAIR facility, which will take place later on. An important milestone here is the erection of two approximately 100-meter-long retaining walls that are up to eight meters tall. These walls are being built near GSI’s SIS18 accelerator ring, which will connect to the FAIR facility.

Eighty bored piles are currently being driven into the ground to create a solid foundation for the retaining walls to the north of the GSI facilities. The piles are driven up to 14 meters into the ground by a pile driver more than 25 meters tall. The poured concrete piles, which are up to 1.2 meters in diameter and strengthened by steel reinforcement cages, are there to stabilize the building site. The outer retaining wall will extend along the Prinzenschneise lane, which will be open to the public again after FAIR is completed. The inner retaining wall will protect the existing accelerator ring. A campus road will be built between them.

Preparations are also under way at the two transformer locations on the 20-hectare FAIR construction site (one in the north, the other in the south). The work also includes the building of construction site access roads, the setting up of additional construction site equipment, and the creation of a temporary storage facility for construction material and excavated earth.

The Technical Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, Jörg Blaurock, considers the current construction work to be an important step in the facility’s development. “We are now taking key preparatory measures before we soon begin with the building construction and civil engineering tasks for the future FAIR accelerator center,” he says. “It’s already apparent that the many different trades are working together extremely well. We are making very good progress in line with our integrated overall plan.”

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news-2630 Wed, 15 Mar 2017 11:00:00 +0100 The Universe in the Laboratory: Open House at GSI and FAIR on Sunday, May 7 https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////the_universe_in_the_laboratory_open_house_at_gsi_and_fair_on_sunday_may_7.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3e8d1f71d732a7e7b6d4fb99acc60f2d Unravel the secrets regarding the structure and development of the universe. Visit the experimentation facility that was the first to create the new element darmstadtium, which is named after the city of Darmstadt. See the accelerator experts in the main control room at work and have talks with international scientists. Examine the treatment place where a new radiation treatment was developed to combat cancer. Explore the construction site, where the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) will be built. These are just a few of the highlights that GSI Helmholtzzentrum and the future accelerator center FAIR will present at the location in Darmstadt when they open their doors to the public for Open House Day from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Sunday, May 7 (last admission at 5 p.m.). Unravel the secrets regarding the structure and development of the universe. Visit the experimentation facility that was the first to create the new element darmstadtium, which is named after the city of Darmstadt. See the accelerator experts in the main control room at work and have talks with international scientists. Examine the treatment place where a new radiation treatment was developed to combat cancer. Explore the construction site, where the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) will be built. These are just a few of the highlights that GSI Helmholtzzentrum and the future accelerator center FAIR will present at the location in Darmstadt when they open their doors to the public for Open House Day from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Sunday, May 7 (last admission at 5 p.m.). 

On this day, researchers, engineers, and mechanics will be inviting visitors into their accelerator and experimentation facilities, workshops, computing center, and labs. They will provide tours, answer questions, and hold discussions with visitors at around 30 stations. This will enable visitors to explore the research campus on their own and to go on an exciting voyage of discovery into the world of GSI and FAIR.

Fascinating accelerators and detectors

The Open House Day will provide the public with a wide range of opportunities to get in touch with the science world: It extends from the accelerator facilities through which ions fly at around 270,000 kilometers per second during research operation to the large-scale experiments’ detectors that are up to six meter high and which provide the scientists with evidence of hundreds of reaction products at the same time. Among the other highlights of the day are unique infrastructure facilities such as the target lab, which produces extremely thin films that serve as targets for experiments, and a six-story high-performance computing center known as the Green IT Cube.

Tour of the FAIR construction site

On Open House Day, the general public will, for the first time, also be able to get a close-up view of the construction site of the FAIR facility. At the approximately 20-hectare site northeast of the GSI campus, builders are currently constructing a fascinating scientific facility that will encompass accelerator and storage rings, high-tech infrastructure, and experimentation opportunities for around 3,000 scientists from all over the world, who plan to create and investigate cosmic matter right in the laboratory. Guided bus tours will enable visitors to examine the construction site where preparatory building activities are already under way. The first high-tech systems for FAIR can also be viewed in Darmstadt, where experts will explain the construction plans. In addition, a huge 3D model of FAIR will provide visitors with a vivid impression of one of Europe’s largest research projects.

Experiments for children and teenagers

On Open House Day, GSI and FAIR will also offer a special program aimed primarily at younger visitors. It will enable them to satisfy their curiosity during exciting science shows devoted to “fire and ice” or to become active themselves by participating in experiments that reveal the nature of physical phenomena. Children will also be able to enjoy bouncy castles and additional animations.

People who would one day like to work at one of the fascinating research facilities can obtain information about the wide variety of job opportunities at GSI and FAIR: From traineeships and jobs in scientific, technical, and administrative areas to construction work and academic careers. The big exhibition tent will house presentations by the human resources department, trainees, and the Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research (HGS Hire), which coordinates the training of doctoral candidates for scientific professions at GSI and FAIR. The works council and the equal opportunities office will also be on hand to present their work.

To the “Zum schnellen Ioni” restaurant

The open house day will be rounded out by an extensive supporting program, featuring outdoor music performances at the pond, various exhibitions, and a science quiz. A diverse range of food and beverages will be offered at the “Zum schnellen Ioni” restaurant, the “Quark-Teilchen” coffee bar, and various stands throughout the grounds.

Information about Open House Day 2017 and how to get there can be found at the special Web page www.gsi.de/open-house. Admission is free of charge to all of the features on the GSI and FAIR campuses. The organizer expects that thousands of visitors will take advantage of this opportunity to experience the fascination of science up close at GSI and FAIR.

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news-2633 Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:00:00 +0100 FAIR presentation at the leading trade fair for the building services sector https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_presentation_at_the_leading_trade_fair_for_the_building_services_sector.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=2b4c21556fc5b79d6aca25f51d378175 The new accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, is not only an extraordinary research project for the scientific community worldwide but also a major challenge for construction and technical building services equipment. The Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, recently presented the project at ISH, the world’s leading trade fair for innovative technical building services equipment, in Frankfurt. Blaurock’s presentation was devoted to "FAIR — the Universe in the Laboratory" as a mega-project for the construction industry and the suppliers of technical building services equipment in the Rhine-Main area. In his presentation, Blaurock introduced the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at the trade fair’s Building Forum. The new accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, is not only an extraordinary research project for the scientific community worldwide but also a major challenge for construction and technical building services equipment. The Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, recently presented the project at ISH, the world’s leading trade fair for innovative technical building services equipment, in Frankfurt. Blaurock’s presentation was devoted to "FAIR — the Universe in the Laboratory" as a mega-project for the construction industry and the suppliers of technical building services equipment in the Rhine-Main area. In his presentation, Blaurock introduced the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at the trade fair’s Building Forum.

The Building Forum is part of the trade fair program. It is organized by the German Industrial Association for Building Services and Technical Installations (BTGA) in cooperation with the Association for Automation and Management of Homes and Buildings in the Federation of German Mechanical Engineering Industry Association (VDMA), the German Property Federation (ZIA), and Messe Frankfurt. The Building Forum is supplemented by the Real Estate Forum of the BTGA, which is held at ISH in a special area. The Building Forum showcases innovative solutions for the professional design and realization of buildings and real estate and for their energy-efficient operation. One of Blaurock’s key aims was to make the FAIR project better known in this market and the technical building services community. “A major part of the construction contracts for FAIR relate to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry as well as the electricity supply sector,” says Blaurock. “The trade fair provides us with a great platform on which to establish contacts with these sectors.”

In addition, the trade fair enables potential contractors to obtain information about the construction project and the possibilities of becoming involved in it. “FAIR doesn’t require standard equipment, but rather customized solutions that are cost-effective and efficient. Because this is quite a challenge, we cooperate closely with the overall planning team to divide the complex construction project into manageable packages,” says Blaurock. Karl-Walter Schuster, the official in charge of European issues at the German Industrial Association for Building Services and Technical Installations (BTGA) and President of the European umbrella organization for installers of technical building services equipment (GCP Europe), is also very interested in the development of the 20-hectare construction site of FAIR and GSI in Darmstadt. “The FAIR project is not only one of the most exciting projects for the scientific community but also for the technical building services equipment sector. That’s why the sector will be greatly interested in the construction measures,” he says.

ISH is held every two years in Frankfurt. It is the world’s biggest showcase for energy efficient heating, air-conditioning, and technical building services equipment, renewable energies and innovative bathroom design. At the fair, around 2,400 domestic and international exhibitors present their products and services on more than 250,000 square meters of exhibition space. The range of offers at ISH covers all aspects of future-oriented building solutions.

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news-2623 Tue, 14 Mar 2017 16:22:34 +0100 Key contracts signed for the CR storage ring at the FAIR accelerator facility https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////key_contracts_signed_for_the_cr_storage_ring_at_the_fair_accelerator_facility.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1170036ccc321f109597cb0f2af2b33e The preparations for the development and construction of the Collector Ring (CR) at the future FAIR accelerator center are making decisive progress. To this end, a delegation of officials from FAIR/GSI and the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) signed several contracts during a visit to Novosibirsk, Russia. The delegation included the technical managing director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, and the overall head of the FAIR project, Dr. Jürgen Henschel. The preparations for the development and construction of the Collector Ring (CR) at the future FAIR accelerator center are making decisive progress. To this end, a delegation of officials from FAIR/GSI and the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) signed several contracts during a visit to Novosibirsk, Russia. The delegation included the technical managing director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock, and the overall head of the FAIR project, Dr. Jürgen Henschel.

At the FAIR facility, the CR will store particle beams from a variety of sources and cool the stored particles. It will be possible to use the cooled particle beams to conduct additional experiments directly in the CR or in the linked High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR). A large part of the CR is being developed under the direction of the Budker Institute as Russia’s contribution to FAIR. The Budker Institute also bears the main responsibility for the Collector Ring.

BINP is supplying all of the magnets, for example, as well as the vacuum and energy supply systems. One of the recently signed contracts governs the provision of 26 dipole magnets, each of which weighs almost 50 tons. “They will be among the biggest magnets that we’ll be using at FAIR,” explains Dr. Jürgen Henschel, who manages the overall project. “The contract we’ve just concluded with the Budker Institute is the key contract for the Collector Ring.”

Another development contract that was also signed at the recent meeting in Novosibirsk stipulates how topics related to the technologically demanding Collector Ring will be addressed at the same time as the facility is built.

The key contracts for all of the rings at FAIR — from the 1.1 kilometer long SIS100 ring accelerator to the High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) — have now been signed.

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news-2618 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:14 +0100 Dr. Yoshiki Tanaka receives FAIR-GENCO-Award for young scientists https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////dr_yoshiki_tanaka_receives_fair_genco_award_for_young_scientists.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e4f61634c045d1911d8778e28dbb2d47 This year's FAIR-GENCO Young Scientist Award goes to Dr. Yoshiki Tanaka from the University of Tokio. The award is sponsored by the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. The bestowal by GENCO president Professor Dr. Christoph Scheidenberger and vice-president Professor Dr. Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki took place on Thursday, March 2, 2017 in a special colloquium in the framework of the yearly GENCO meeting at FAIR and GSI. Furthermore five renowned scientists were honored with a GENCO Membership Award. The awardees were chosen in advance from a multitude of recommendations by a committee of nine international scientists. This year's FAIR-GENCO Young Scientist Award goes to Dr. Yoshiki Tanaka from the University of Tokio. The award is sponsored by the FAIR-GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. The bestowal by GENCO president Professor Dr. Christoph Scheidenberger and vice-president Professor Dr. Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki took place on Thursday, March 2, 2017 in a special colloquium in the framework of the yearly GENCO meeting at FAIR and GSI. Furthermore five renowned scientists were honored with a GENCO Membership Award. The awardees were chosen in advance from a multitude of recommendations by a committee of nine international scientists.

Dr. Tanaka searched for bound states of so-called Eta' mesons with carbon atoms in a novel experiment at the GSI fragment separator FRS. The existence of these bound states is theoretically predicted and already for many years experiments are conducted to find them. Although bound states were not observed in Dr. Tanakas experiment yet, by putting upper bounds on the formation cross section he succeeded for the first time to draw quantitative conclusions on the strength of the interaction of both particles and the binding forces taking effect in the process. This advance leads to an improvement of the theoretical understanding and gives target-oriented indications for the design of detectors and experiments for the further search. It is therefore perceived as an important milestone on the way to the discovery among the experts.

Scientists bestowed with the GENCO Membership Award are: Professor Dr. Maria Borge (University of Madrid, Spain) for her important contributions to the understanding of exotic nuclear systems, especially via beta-delayed particle emission studies; Professor Dr. Piet Van Duppen (University of Leuven, Belgium) for advancing laser-ionization techniques for production and post-acceleration of radioactive beams, and for nuclear structure and decay studies, in particular investigations of shape coexistence; Thomas Glasmacher (FRIB, USA) for exploring rare isotopes with new experimental techniques involving gamma-rays and for opening new horizons with design and construction of the FRIB facility; Professor Dr. Hendrik Schatz (MSU/NSCL, USA) for outstanding contributions to nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar events; as well as PD Dr. Peter Thirolf (LMU Munich) for his remarkable achievements in spectroscopy of strongly-deformed nuclei and new applications of laser-driven particle acceleration in nuclear and medical physics.

Further information:

GENCO Website

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news-2611 Fri, 03 Mar 2017 13:00:00 +0100 Inauguration of the New Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////inauguration_of_the_new_scientific_managing_director_of_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=9506b29908e51f556b2648e5bd5f6f14 At a ceremony held in Darmstadt, Professor Paolo Giubellino was inaugurated as the first joint Scientific Managing Director of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH). The festive inauguration ceremony was held at the Darmstadtium science and congress center. The guests included numerous politicians, university representatives, and partners from the organizations’ international scientific collaborations. At a ceremony held in Darmstadt, Professor Paolo Giubellino was inaugurated as the first joint Scientific Managing Director of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH). The festive inauguration ceremony was held at the Darmstadtium science and congress center. The guests included numerous politicians, university representatives, and partners from the organizations’ international scientific collaborations.

Greetings were delivered by Dr. Georg Schütte, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Chairman of the GSI Supervisory Board and FAIR Council, and Professor Otmar D. Wiestler, President of the Helmholtz Association. Words of greetings were also spoken by Dr. Rolf Bernhardt from the Hessen State Ministry for Higher Education, Research and the Arts , Jochen Partsch, Mayor of the City of Darmstadt, and Professor Angela Bracco, Chair of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) — an expert committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF).

In his role as Scientific Managing Director, the 56-year-old Italian physicist Paolo Giubellino succeeds Professor Boris Sharkov at FAIR and Professor Karlheinz Langanke at GSI. By taking up his new position, he completes the joint management team of GSI and FAIR. This doubling up of managerial responsibility is also the case with the Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich, who was appointed in late 2014, and the Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock, who was appointed in early 2016. The GSI Supervisory Board and the FAIR Council had announced their decision to appoint Paolo Giubellino in September 2016, and Giubellino took up his duties in January 2017.

Dr. Georg Schütte, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Chairman of the GSI Supervisory Board and FAIR Council, said, "Paolo Giubellino's appointment as Scientific Managing Director completes the joint management team of GSI and FAIR. It guarantees excellent future research at FAIR. The foundation for this is laid by GSI’s current scientific work. I wish the three directors Paolo Giubellino, Ursula Weyrich and Jörg Blaurock much success with their challenging task to realize FAIR in the framework agreed upon with the international partners.“

In his comments, Professor Otmar D. Wiestler, the President of the Helmholtz Association, emphasized the international significance of this appointment. "Because of his scientific achievements and his extraordinary talent at leading an international team, the presence of Paolo Giubellino is a great enrichment for our association and for Darmstadt as a center of scientific research. His appointment also testifies to the attractiveness of Helmholtz research to scientists all over the world. With the new management team, including Ursula Weyrich and Jörg Blaurock, GSI and FAIR are well positioned for their great future tasks.“

Paolo Giubellino is beginning his term of office at an extremely exciting time for GSI and FAIR. The construction of the FAIR facility is due to begin this year. This will be one of the biggest and most ambitious projects for worldwide research, and it will be realized through the cooperation of international partners. In addition, the further development of the research campus is forging ahead. The existing facility is being enhanced and equipped with cutting-edge technology to enable scientists from all over the world to participate in an outstanding research program.

The NuPECC-Chair Professor Angela Bracco said, "FAIR is the European flagship facility for hadron and nuclear physics in the coming decades. The world-wide unique FAIR facility will allow unprecedented  fore-front research in a broad spectrum of basic and applied research disciplines."

In his ceremonial address, Paolo Giubellino offered a glimpse of the future and expressed his enthusiasm about his new workplace. “Its research potential is unique,” he said. “An unprecedented variety of experiments will be possible at FAIR. Through them, physicists from all over the world can expect to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang until today. The FAIR project guarantees future-oriented further development, not only for the center in Darmstadt but also for fundamental research in all of Europe and beyond.” The new Scientific Managing Director’s vision of the future also includes up-and-coming young scientists. “Today we already need lots of bright young people — highly qualified young scientists who will contribute their talent and their know-how to the creation of FAIR,” he said. Giubellino concluded with a promise: “I will do everything I can to help ensure that we can work together to fully exploit the tremendous research potential of GSI and FAIR.”

Personal Data

Since January 2017 Paolo Giubellino is Scientific Managing Director of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research) and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH). Research focus of Paolo Giubellino is the physics of high-energy heavy ion collisions and the matter produced in them. After studying at Turin University and the University of California in Santa Cruz, he took part in many heavy-ion experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Switzerland. Since the early 1990s, he has held several senior positions at CERN’s ALICE experiment. In 2011 Giubellino was appointed Spokesperson of ALICE. He has also worked at the Torino section of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN) since 1985. For his work he has received numerous awards. Among other things, he received the Lise Meitner Prize of the European Physical Society in 2014 as well as the Enrico Fermi Prize, the highest award bestowed by the Italian Physical Society (2013). In 2012 the Italian president awarded him the title of "Commendatore della Repubblica Italiana" for his scientific achievements. In 2016 he was elected into the Academia Europae.

About FAIR

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centrepiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 metres. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.Alongside Germany, FAIR’s shareholders are the countries Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia and Sweden. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.

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news-2601 Thu, 02 Mar 2017 17:30:00 +0100 Masterclass 2017 – On the hunt for particles https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////masterclass_2017_on_the_hunt_for_particles.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3cb36a45523fc4b1b4a31eb5e64daa14 On Thursday, March2, 2017 the 7th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 14 high-school students were invited to become a scientist for a day and analyse data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning. On Thursday, March2, 2017 the 7th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 14 high-school students were invited to become a scientist for a day and analyse data from the ALICE experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and the scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning.

The young persons were asked to evaluate and interpret data of the ALICE experiment. Under professional supervision of scientists they autonomously analysed recent data recorded in proton-proton and lead collisions. In the lead collisions a so-called quark-gluon plasma is generated – a state of matter which existed in the universe shortly after the big bang. This plasma undergoes a phase transition back to normal matter in fractions of seconds. The particles produced in the process can give insight into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

In an introductory talk about quark-gluon plasma the pupils were informed about the analysis. Furthermore they visited the large-scale experiment HADES, one of the current experiments at the GSI accelerator facility that will also become a part of the future FAIR accelerator.

The basic idea of the programme is to allow the students to work in the same fashion as the scientists. This includes having a videoconference at the end of the day. In a conference connection with groups from the universities in Frankfurt, Münster, Copenhagen (Denmark) and Zagreb (Croatia) as well as CERN they presented and discussed their results.

This year 210 universities and research institutes from 52 countries particpate in the International Masterclasses. They are organised by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG). All events in Germany are held in cooperation with the "Netzwerk Teilchenwelt", a nationwide network committed to the communication of particle physics to youngsters and teachers. They aim to make particle physics accessible to a broader public.

ALICE is one of the four large international experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is the experiment specifically designed to investigate collisions of heavy nuclei at high energies. Scientists of GSI and of German universities were involved in the development of new detectors and in the scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning. The GSI computing centre is an inherent part of the computing grid for data analysis of ALICE.

Weitere Informationen:
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news-2592 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 10:46:32 +0100 Cooperation between FAIR and NICA: Test facility for superconducting accelerator magnets goes into operation in Russia https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////cooperation_between_fair_and_nica_test_facility_for_superconducting_accelerator_magnets_goes_into_o.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=abca1e0ad30c3925621803000ea7e9ff A facility for testing superconducting magnets for the two future accelerator centers FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) in Dubna, Russia has been put into operation with a festive ceremony. FAIR is currently being built in Darmstadt at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, while NICA is being constructed in Dubna at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The ceremony was attended by a delegation from FAIR, consisting of project manager Dr. Jürgen Henschel and the heads of the SIS100/SIS18 sub-project, Dr. Peter Spiller and Dr. Carsten Omet. Together with the management of the NICA project, the delegation members put the new facility into operation.  A facility for testing superconducting magnets for the two future accelerator centers FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) in Dubna, Russia has been put into operation with a festive ceremony. FAIR is currently being built in Darmstadt at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, while NICA is being constructed in Dubna at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The ceremony was attended by a delegation from FAIR, consisting of project manager Dr. Jürgen Henschel and the heads of the SIS100/SIS18 sub-project, Dr. Peter Spiller and Dr. Carsten Omet. Together with the management of the NICA project, the delegation members put the new facility into operation.

JINR and GSI shared the costs of building the facility. The new facility has three connections on each side for testing magnets at extremely low temperatures. The connections on one side are for the series of booster and collider magnets for NICA and those on the other are for the series of quadrupole units for the FAIR accelerator ring SIS100. The test facility can produce helium at a temperature of 4.5 K (i.e. 4.5 degrees Celsius above absolute zero at around -273 °C) and supply it to each individual test piece. German companies made a major contribution to the facility’s construction. Among them was the firm ILK from Dresden, which manufactured the satellite cooling units.

Considerable progress was also made in technical and administrative talks held after the ceremony regarding the construction of the SIS100 quadrupole units at JINR. In particular, they fully clarified the scope of the work for production-related activities and the cryogenic tests of the first two SIS100 quadrupole units. The decisions were incorporated into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) and an addendum to the existing contract for the test facility’s construction.

This specifies that the first two (“first of series” — FOS) of the SIS100 quadrupole units will be built, cryogenically tested, and delivered to GSI for incorporation into an FOS module by mid-2017. The first of these quadrupole magnets is almost finished and it was available for inspection by the GSI delegation. The contract also covers the construction of various measuring instruments that are needed for inspecting the magnetic field and the electrical and hydraulic properties of the quadrupole units. The associated technical coordination measures are very detailed and were continued over a period of several days. The GSI department for superconducting magnet technology also visited the Russian facility, where it was represented by a five-member team of experts headed by work package manager Dr. Egbert Fischer.

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news-2577 Mon, 13 Feb 2017 10:08:00 +0100 GSI Scientists Participate in Top 10 Discovery https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gsi_scientists_participate_in_top_10_discovery.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f1ab5e3eb1b21fa5db2f2533019d0eee Scientists from GSI are participants in one of the ten most important discoveries of 2016. A publication by a team of researchers led by the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) and including scientists and engineers from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), and the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) is among the most important breakthroughs in physics in 2016. The team’s work is featured as one of the “2016 Top Ten Breakthroughs of the Year” announced recently in Physics World — the magazine of the British Institute of Physics. The experiments in question lay one of the foundations for the development of a nuclear clock with previously unattained precision. Scientists from GSI are participants in one of the ten most important discoveries of 2016. A publication by a team of researchers led by the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) and including scientists and engineers from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), and the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) is among the most important breakthroughs in physics in 2016. The team’s work is featured as one of the “2016 Top Ten Breakthroughs of the Year” announced recently in Physics World — the magazine of the British Institute of Physics. The experiments in question lay one of the foundations for the development of a nuclear clock with previously unattained precision.

In the article, which was published in 2016, the researchers, some of whom come from the Super Heavy Elements departments at GSI and HIM, report on the first-ever direct detection of the exotic thorium isomer Th-229m. This is a decisive step that brings us closer to being able to build an ultra-precise nuclear clock based on this isomer. Atomic clocks are currently the most precise timekeepers in the world. The record is currently held by a clock that will keep time to within one second in 20 billion years. The team that has just been commended is led by PD Dr. Peter Thirolf and Lars von der Wense from the LMU München and has achieved the first experimental demonstration of an excited state of the thorium-229 isotope that had been sought worldwide for more than 40 years and could help improve the timekeeping precision by a factor of around ten. The researchers reported their findings in the scientific journal Nature. A nuclear clock features a multitude of potential applications, including the search for dark matter and gravitational waves. It would also provide ultra-high sensitivity to detect potential time variations of fundamental constants.

The ten most important “Breakthroughs of the Year” are selected by Physics World every year. The criteria for the list of the ten most important discoveries are the fundamental importance of the research result, a significant advance in knowledge, a strong connection between theory and experiment, and the discovery’s general interest for all physicists.

Further Informations:

 

 

 

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news-2584 Fri, 10 Feb 2017 16:55:30 +0100 Chinese delegation visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////chinese_delegation_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5d3068c12e03324c4457e018ec0638ee Perspectives and possibilities of future cooperations were primary focus during the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) delegation’s visit at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. Perspectives and possibilities of future cooperations were primary focus during the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) delegation’s visit at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. The scientific exchange was initiated already 40 years ago; by now the scientific and technical cooperations have developed successfully and intensified further on many research areas: from hadron physics to nuclear and atomic physics up to accelerator physics. Now the partners set course for the future.

On behalf of FAIR/GSI the Scientific Managing Director Professor Paolo Giubellino and the Research Director Professor Karlheinz Langanke as well as further representatives participated in the meeting. Members of the Chinese delegation were Professor Wenlong Zhan, President of the Chinese Physical Society, as well as representatives of the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of CAS, led by the IMP Deputy Director Dr. Hongwei Zhao.

During their stay in Darmstadt Professor Paolo Giubellino gave the guests an overview of the current state of the FAIR project. The Chinese visitors reported on the present status of the High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) projected in China. Important topic during the meeting was the further cooperation, e.g. in research and technical developments for FAIR and HIAF and in promoting of young scientists’ education and exchange. Based on the results of the discussions the existing Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between GSI and IMP will be extended to FAIR and expanded for another five Years, thematically widened by mutual accelerator developments. Following the discussions the guests did a guided tour on the site and visited several stations on the FAIR/GSI campus.

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news-2571 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:54:41 +0100 GSI researcher becomes Minister of Science of Montenegro https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gsi_researcher_becomes_minister_of_science_of_montenegro.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a7a59fb81304e8f3cbd1a87c75d71253 The physicist Dr. Sanja Damjanovic, who has had close ties to GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung since her time as a doctoral candidate, has been appointed the new Minister of Science of Montenegro. Prime Minister Duško Marković presented his cabinet after the parliamentary elections in October 2016. The physicist Dr. Sanja Damjanovic, who has had close ties to GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung since her time as a doctoral candidate, has been appointed the new Minister of Science of Montenegro. Prime Minister Duško Marković presented his cabinet after the parliamentary elections in October 2016.

The scientific managing director of GSI and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), Professor Paolo Giubellino, is delighted about the young physicist’s appointment. “We’re proud that a researcher from our ranks is now a minister of science, where she can work at the political level to contribute her expertise and international experience to the benefit of society. We wish her much success in her new position. Dr. Sanja Damjanovic will certainly benefit from the experience she gathered at GSI and the nuclear research center CERN,” he says.

Dr. Damjanovic, 44, has been working on international research teams at GSI and CERN since 1999. In 2007 she also played a key role in initiating the cooperation agreement between her homeland, Montenegro, and the nuclear research center CERN. In her new position as Minister of Science, Sanja Damjanovic will continue to be able to draw on this experience. “My work at GSI and CERN, both of which are world-famous international research centers, was certainly one of the reasons why I was chosen to perform this task for my homeland, Montenegro. The experience that I’ve collected will serve me well in my new position, where it will be a major asset.”

Sanja Damjanovic was born in Niksic, Montenegro. After studying physics in Belgrade, she earned her doctoral degree at Heidelberg University in Germany. The doctoral supervisor of her dissertation on “Electron-Pair Production in Pb-Au Collisions at 40 AGeV” was the former scientific managing director of GSI, Professor Hans J. Specht. After obtaining her doctoral degree, she took on a postdoc position at GSI and Heidelberg University. This was followed by a scholarship at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and project work at CERN and GSI.

In the area of basic research, Sanja Damjanovic focuses on the experimental physics of high-energy nuclear collisions. In applied research, her emphasis is on studies of the radiation fields created by high-energy particle beams. These aspects are of importance for the protection of accelerators, for example, as well as for beam diagnostics and the radiation protection of personnel. Sanja Damjanovic has worked in beam diagnostics at the Accelerator Department of GSI since 2014. For some of this time, she has also had an associate contract at CERN.

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news-2567 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:22:00 +0100 Accelerator and detector specialists meet at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////accelerator_and_detector_specialists_meet_at_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8df338f6b8410bd5563e5cad2ee08247 The third annual Matter and Technologies conference (“MT meeting”) is being held this week at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR in Darmstadt. Around 180 scientists from all over Germany are attending the event. The Matter and Technologies program was established by the Helmholtz Association in order to emphasize and enhance the key role that technological development plays for accelerators and detectors, and consolidate it in a specific program. Large research infrastructures such as accelerators, radiation sources, and detectors enable scientists from the research field Matter to study fundamental scientific questions regarding the origin and composition of matter. The third annual Matter and Technologies conference (“MT meeting”) is being held this week at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR in Darmstadt. Around 180 scientists from all over Germany are attending the event. The Matter and Technologies program was established by the Helmholtz Association in order to emphasize and enhance the key role that technological development plays for accelerators and detectors, and consolidate it in a specific program. Large research infrastructures such as accelerators, radiation sources, and detectors enable scientists from the research field Matter to study fundamental scientific questions regarding the origin and composition of matter.

One of the program’s main aims is to network the Helmholtz centers with one another and with universities. This goal is also be the focus of the meeting in Darmstadt, which includes a workshop and features opportunities for participation in topic-specific meetings and a poster session. The annual conference opened with a welcoming address by the Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Jörg Blaurock and a presentation about FAIR and GSI by the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, Professor Paolo Giubellino.

The Matter and Technologies program is divided into two sections: Accelerator Research and Development (ARD) and Detector Technologies and Systems (DTS). As an important effect the developments often lead to spinoffs in other fields. In detector technologies this is the case for example in medicine or in satellite-based astrophysics.

During the annual meeting at Darmstadt the young scientists associated with the program held the third MT Student Retreat in parallel with the meeting. This meeting enables doctoral candidates to get to know one another and discuss their ideas and possible solutions. More than 40 participants attend the retreat in order to get an impression of the diverse areas covered by the research work in the Matter and Technologies program.

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news-2539 Thu, 26 Jan 2017 08:20:00 +0100 European funding for research on evolution of the universe https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////european_funding_for_research_on_evolution_of_the_universe.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ee4b8424d231eb174338efdfe2cf0fe7 The European framework COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) has decided to fund an Action for research on the evolution of the universe by studying the production of chemical elements in stars and stellar explosions. The Action called ChETEC (Chemical Elements as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos) is currently supported by 44 proposers throughout 22 countries. Apart from main proposer professor Raphael Hirschi from Keele University in Great Britain also Gabriel Martinez Pinedo, researcher at FAIR and GSI and professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt, is among them. The Action will provide funding to bring European research, science and business together to further our understanding of nuclear processes in the universe. The European framework COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) has decided to fund an Action for research on the evolution of the universe by studying the production of chemical elements in stars and stellar explosions. The Action called ChETEC (Chemical Elements as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos) is currently supported by 44 proposers throughout 22 European countries. Apart from main proposer professor Raphael Hirschi from Keele University in Great Britain also Gabriel Martinez Pinedo, researcher at FAIR and GSI and professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt, is among them. The Action will provide funding to bring European research, science and business together to further our understanding of nuclear processes in the universe.

The Action will aim to maximise the scientific and innovative return of huge investments already made in experimental facilities located across Europe, including GANIL in France, the first underground laboratory for nuclear astrophysics LUNA in Italy, and the accelerator facility FAIR being constructed at GSI in Germany.

Approved by COST on 24 October 2016, the Action is one of 25 approved out of 478 eligible proposals collected earlier this year. The COST Action will provide funding for networking activities, including workshops, training schools and short-term scientific missions for four years, and will also train a new generation of European scientists, providing interdisciplinary expertise and knowledge-transfer skills.

COST is supported by the EU Framework Programme Horizon 2020.

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news-2557 Wed, 25 Jan 2017 08:18:00 +0100 New Spokesperson of the PANDA collaboration at FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////new_spokesperson_of_the_panda_collaboration_at_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=d587a2d56943086c5311929d6652cfa0 Hadron physicist Klaus Peters is the new Spokesperson of the PANDA collaboration at FAIR, one of the four scientific pillars of the future accelerator center FAIR. He follows James Ritman (Universität Bochum/Forschungszentrum Jülich), who was PANDA Spokesperson 2013-2016. Deputy Spokesperson is now Tord Johansson (Universität Uppsala) as the successor of Diego Bettoni (Istituto Nationale die Fisica Nucleare INFN Ferrara). Hadron physicist Klaus Peters is the new Spokesperson of the PANDA collaboration at FAIR, one of the four scientific pillars of the future accelerator center FAIR. He follows James Ritman (Universität Bochum/Forschungszentrum Jülich), who was PANDA Spokesperson 2013-2016. Deputy Spokesperson is now Tord Johansson (Universität Uppsala) as the successor of Diego Bettoni (Istituto Nationale die Fisica Nucleare INFN Ferrara).

Klaus Peters is full professor at the Goethe University Frankfurt since 2004 and Leading Scientist at GSI for hadron physics. He acted as Vice Research Director of GSI from 2011-13 and has an impressive record of important results in the spectroscopy of light and heavy hadrons. Moreover he is working in many international boards and has wide experience within many international collaborations. Klaus Peters is currently engaged in GlueX particle physics experiment at Jefferson Lab, Newport News (USA) and the BES3 Spectrometer collaboration at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider in China.

The PANDA collaboration comprises more than 50 institutes world-wide and about 500 scientists. “I look forward to the new assignment and I feel honored, it is an amazing challenge to conduct the construction of PANDA at FAIR for a great scientific success to come”, said Klaus Peters.

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news-2545 Thu, 19 Jan 2017 09:32:50 +0100 Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////ion_treatments_for_cardiac_arrhythmia.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1d8d526ccc4268c2353ea7387056d6be At the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research was developed and tested a new method for a future treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. The research was carried by a team of biophysicists from GSI and physicians from Heidelberg University and the Mayo Clinic in the United States. Beams of carbon ions are already used successfully to treat tumors and could represent a non-invasive alternative to the present treatment with cardiac catheters or drugs. At the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research was developed and tested a new method for a future treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. The research was carried by a team of biophysicists from GSI and physicians from Heidelberg University and the Mayo Clinic in the United States.  Beams of carbon ions are already used successfully to treat tumors and could represent a non-invasive alternative to the present treatment with cardiac catheters or drugs.

Approximately 350,000 patients in Germany suffer from various forms of cardiac arrhythmia. The condition can lead to permanent damage as a result of stroke, or it may cause sudden heart failure. In forms of arrhythmia like atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, the heart departs from the regular rhythm set by a natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node. This type of arrhythmia is often treated with drugs or with a “catheter ablation,” in which catheters are guided through blood vessels to the heart, and certain tissue there is selectively destroyed. Based on this principle, ions from the particle accelerator could one day be used to perform a treatment without catheters. Scientists have been able to show that high-energy carbon ions can be used in a non-invasive procedure to make specific changes to cardiac tissue that prevent the transmission of the electrical signal.

This procedure using carbon ions has now been studied for the first time in a feasibility study by scientists at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt in collaboration with physicians and scientists of the Mayo Clinic (Minnesota, U.S.), the Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Heidelberg University, the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center and the University of Trento (Italy). The researchers have published their results in the journal Scientific Reports from the publishers of Nature.

After prior tests on cardiac cell cultures and beating heart preparations yielded promising results, the scientists developed an animal study. “The new method is a big step into the future, because for the first time, it allows us to perform this treatment with pinpoint accuracy but without any catheters at all,” says Dr. H. Immo Lehmann, a physician and scientist at the Mayo Clinic and one of the authors of the study. “The study showed that the method can be successfully used to change cardiac tissue in such a way as to permanently interrupt the propagation of disruptive impulses. Further detailed studies are needed, however, before the method can start to benefit patients,” says Dr. Christian Graeff, head of the Medical Physics research group at GSI.

The irradiation of tissue with carbon ions promises to be gentler and potentially also more effective than treatment with catheters. When the method is technically mature, the procedure will take only a few minutes, in contrast to the sometimes hours-long catheter operations. One crucial advantage is that the ions can penetrate to any desired depth. By contrast, since the left ventricular wall of the heart is especially thick, it is often not possible to effectively destroy tissue there with catheters, although this is precisely the spot at which patients suffering from severe forms of ventricular tachycardia must be treated.

“It is exciting that the carbon beam could work with surgical precision in particularly sensitive areas of the body,” says Paolo Giubellino, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. “The wealth of experience regarding medical applications of ion beams here at GSI is the basis of this new, promising method of treatment. The knowledge regarding the biological effectiveness of carbon ions and the technological know-how for irradiating patients are indispensable for developing an idea like this to the point where it’s mature enough for a medical application. We’re proud that the first steps toward a new therapy have now been taken.”

In their study, the scientists were able to rely on many technologies originally developed for cancer treatment with scanned ions, which was carried out at GSI for the first time in 1997. This form of treatment has now become well established and has been used in thousands of patients worldwide. Further experiments are currently being planned so that the method can be put into practice at facilities such as the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center.

More information

Scientific publication in the journal "Nature – Scientific Reports"

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news-2521 Tue, 17 Jan 2017 08:07:00 +0100 "target" magazine issue 15 published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////target_magazine_issue_15_published.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=9833b33294ad05fa8c06c0e5c11d1460 In the 15th issue of our "target" magazine we report the arrivial of new magnets for the FAIR ring accelerator as well as other components for FAIR. Also FAIR has been progressing concerning the calls for tender for the construction works, and we have presented the project on the real estate fair Expo Real. In research there has been news about the development of nuclear clocks and the spectroscopy of heavy elements. Our interview covers Janina Krieg's work about topologic isolators in materials research, and in our section "GSI stellt sich vor" we inform you about our long-standing and very successful Summer Student Program.

In the 15th issue of our "target" magazine we report the arrivial of new magnets for the FAIR ring accelerator as well as other components for FAIR. Also FAIR has been progressing concerning the calls for tender for the construction works, and we have presented the project on the real estate fair Expo Real. In research there has been news about the development of nuclear clocks and the spectroscopy of heavy elements. Our interview covers Janina Krieg's work about topologic isolators in materials research, and in our section "GSI stellt sich vor" we inform you about our long-standing and very successful Summer Student Program.

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news-2527 Thu, 12 Jan 2017 11:39:19 +0100 Around 300 Nuclear Physicists Meet in Darmstadt — GSI and FAIR accelerator center play an outstanding role https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////around_300_nuclear_physicists_meet_in_darmstadt_gsi_and_fair_accelerator_center_play_an_outstand.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=416882524407e7566f802db201cfa494 Around 300 nuclear physicists from around the world are meeting in Darmstadt from January 11 to 13 for an international conference of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) — an expert committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). The three-day event — known as a Town Meeting — has been organized by GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The purpose of the conference is to set the long-term course and lay out the Long Range Plan for the future of European nuclear physics, thus marking a key milestone for the next decade. Around 300 nuclear physicists from around the world are meeting in Darmstadt from January 11 to 13 for an international conference of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) — an expert committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). The three-day event — known as a Town Meeting — has been organized by GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The purpose of the conference is to set the long-term course and lay out the Long Range Plan for the future of European nuclear physics, thus marking a key milestone for the next decade.

The Long Range Plan regularly establishes the perspectives and prospects of the European nuclear physics community for the next ten years and beyond. Its contents are presented to the European and national bodies for science funding as planning suggestions. “The Long Range Plan provides the community with an opportunity to formulate how Europe should position itself in order to remain a world leader and competitive in an international context,“ explained Professor Angela Bracco, NuPECC Chair. “GSI and the future FAIR accelerator center play an outstanding role in this effort.“ According to Bracco, the new possibilities for research in Darmstadt are unique and are expected to produce groundbreaking new insights for nuclear research.

Professor Paolo Giubellino, the new Scientific Managing Director of GSI and FAIR, since January 1, 2017, will also report on the FAIR project at the Town Meeting, emphasizing the outstanding role played by the Darmstadt location and FAIR/GSI in this area of science. “The FAIR project builds on the excellence of GSI and guarantees a promising future development with outstanding experimental facilities within European research.”

The members of NuPECC come from more than 20 European countries. They represent the European nuclear physics community and important research centers and funding agencies. The tasks of the renowned expert committee include providing the European Science Foundation and other bodies with suggestions and recommendations, and coordinating activities in the fields of nuclear and hadron physics within Europe.

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news-2514 Tue, 10 Jan 2017 14:22:06 +0100 Science and Industry explore connections – Successful HEPTech event covers nanotechnology https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////science_and_industry_explore_connections_successful_heptech_event_covers_nanotechnology.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=2f4265fb81f68d2a4c8e78e53fc6b51d In autumn 2016 the technology transfer network of high-energy physics HEPTech of CERN organized an academia-industry matching event on the topic of nanotechnology together with GSI on the FAIR/GSI campus. The 70 participants from eleven countries were for the first time given opportunity to exchange information in talks and discussions about potential collaboration in the application of nanotechnology in high-energy physics. In autumn 2016 the technology transfer network of high-energy physics HEPTech of CERN organized an academia-industry matching event on the topic of nanotechnology together with GSI on the FAIR/GSI campus. The 70 participants from eleven countries were for the first time given opportunity to exchange information in talks and discussions about potential collaboration in the application of nanotechnology in high-energy physics.

Research in nanomaterials and nanotechnology is quickly evolving worldwide and new discoveries are frequently reported in applications including nanoelectronics, sensor technologies, robotics, as well as in the energy and healthcare sector. GSI's contribution to the event highlighted the unique possibilities of heavy ions to modify materials' properties and to produce micro- and nanostructures. Examples are microfluidic systems and polymeric single-pore membranes for biosensor applications, as well as model systems for ion channels in biomembranes. Numerous other partners from science and industry reported about their results and offers during the event.

The event was organized by HEPTech and GSI in cooperation with Enterprise Europe Network Hessen. It was also supported by the transnational network NANORA.

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news-2501 Mon, 02 Jan 2017 09:44:07 +0100 Paolo Giubellino Takes Up New Position as Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////paolo_giubellino_takes_up_new_position_as_scientific_managing_director_of_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=bdeca1266dc2ccecdef4237dbda15d2b On January 1, 2017, Professor Paolo Giubellino became the first joint scientific managing director of Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt. In addition, he has taken over the position of spokesperson of the management of FAIR and GSI. In September, the FAIR Council and the GSI Supervisory Board announced their decision to appoint Giubellino. On January 1, 2017, Professor Paolo Giubellino became the first joint scientific managing director of Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt. In addition, he has taken over the position of spokesperson of the management of FAIR and GSI. In September, the FAIR Council and the GSI Supervisory Board announced their decision to appoint Giubellino.

The festive inauguration ceremony will be held at the Darmstadtium Congress Center in Darmstadt on March 3, 2017. The guests will include Dr. Georg Schütte, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Chairman of the GSI Supervisory Board and FAIR Council, Professor Otmar Wiestler, President of the Helmholtz Association, and various politicians, university representatives, and partners from the international scientific collaborations.

In his role as scientific managing director, the 56-year-old Italian physicist Professor Paolo Giubellino succeeds Professor Boris Sharkov at FAIR and Professor Karlheinz Langanke at GSI. By taking up his new position, Giubellino completes the joint management team of GSI and FAIR. Paolo Giubellino is performing his management tasks for GSI as well as FAIR. This is also the case with the administrative managing director Ursula Weyrich, who was appointed in late 2014, and the technical managing director Jörg Blaurock, who was appointed in early 2016. Weyrich and Blaurock look forward to working together with Giubellino. Their aim is to conduct cutting-edge research at the existing facility and to complete the future FAIR accelerator facility in an international collaboration.

After studying at Turin University and the University of California in Santa Cruz, Giubellino has worked, since 1985, at the Turin section of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN). His research activity has focused primarily on the physics of high-energy heavy ion collisions and the matter produced in them. He took part in many heavy-ion experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Switzerland. Since the early 1990s, he has held several senior positions at CERN’s ALICE experiment. In 2011 Giubellino was elected spokesperson of ALICE at CERN position he held until the end of 2016. He will also become a professor at TU Darmstadt.

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news-2484 Fri, 16 Dec 2016 11:35:23 +0100 First turn in FAIR’s first ring: Big step forward in installation of CRYRING ion storage ring https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////first_turn_in_fairs_first_ring_big_step_forward_in_installation_of_cryring_ion_storage_ring.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5dec5be7ee09c97467ebc45b46736085 Substantial progress has been made in the construction of the CRYRING ion storage ring. During this year, all of the ring’s segments have been installed and aligned, and all of the magnets are now in their final positions and fully wired. An ion beam recently made its first turn — its first complete circuit through the entire ring. The CRYRING is a very successful ion storage ring. It was used in Stockholm for many years, where it enabled research to make considerable progress in nuclear and molecular physics. The ring was transferred to Darmstadt in 2013 as a Swedish non-cash contribution to the FAIR program. The ring has been modernized and adapted to meet FAIR standards here, and was connected to the existing Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI in a project titled CRYRING@ESR. As a result, the two rings are now integrated in a single facility. Substantial progress has been made in the construction of the CRYRING ion storage ring. During this year, all of the ring’s segments have been installed and aligned, and all of the magnets are now in their final positions and fully wired. An ion beam recently made its first turn — its first complete circuit through the entire ring. The CRYRING is a very successful ion storage ring. It was used in Stockholm for many years, where it enabled research to make considerable progress in nuclear and molecular physics. The ring was transferred to Darmstadt in 2013 as a Swedish non-cash contribution to the FAIR program. The ring has been modernized and adapted to meet FAIR standards here, and was connected to the existing Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI in a project titled CRYRING@ESR. As a result, the two rings are now integrated in a single facility.

The local accelerator that enables the ring to run independently has now been completed, as has the beamline that extends from the ESR to the CRYRING. Moreover, both of these systems have successfully sent ion beams to the CRYRING’s first diagnostic stations. The commissioning of the ring began in the summer of 2016. In the first step of this process, a group of researchers from the GSI accelerator team, the GSI research department for atomic physics, and the SPARC experiment collaboration successfully tested the beam transport line from GSI’s ESR to the first FAIR storage ring, the CRYRING. During the previous beam time period at GSI, scientists extracted completely ionized carbon ions (C6+ ions) from the ESR. They then channeled these particles to the first diagnostic station at the CRYRING. The test showed that the adjusted beamline from the ESR to Cave B (the location of the CRYRING) and the new septum magnet in the CRYRING are fully functional. The researchers also tested the beam diagnosis equipment and the FAIR-standard control hardware and software in actual beam operation.

A second beam time period took place in October/November. During this phase, the local source supplied a beam of hydrogen gas ions (H2+) that was propelled into the ring at 300 keV/u. The diagnostic systems detected this beam after one turn in the ring. This brought the first turn to a successful conclusion and demonstrated that all of the key elements work properly.

In the next step, the researchers will prepare the necessary ultra-high vacuum. The remaining ring installations — the electron cooler, in particular — will be put into operation next year. When the GSI accelerators recommence operations in 2018, the CRYRING will be able to carry out its first experiments with slow highly charged ions. In cooperation with other FAIR collaborations, the SPARC experiment collaboration is preparing many new experiments that use slow highly charged ions to investigate processes in atoms and nuclei as well as conduct research in biomolecular physics and the materials sciences.

More information:

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news-2455 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 09:19:00 +0100 On the way to realize FAIR: International shareholders approve construction project execution plan https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////on_the_way_to_realize_fair_international_shareholders_approve_construction_project_execution_plan.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fb5e76487dc6decc89b8d3ce777282a3 The path from the scientific idea for the future accelerator centre FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) via the preparations for civil construction up to the realization of one of the most modern research facilities in the world is taking tangible shape. The international shareholders of FAIR as well as the supervisory board of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have agreed on significant benchmarks for the future project execution plan in their recent meetings in Darmstadt. The path from the scientific idea for the future accelerator centre FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) via the preparations for civil construction up to the realization of one of the most modern research facilities in the world is taking tangible shape. The international shareholders of FAIR as well as the supervisory board of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have agreed on significant benchmarks for the future project execution plan in their recent meetings in Darmstadt.

The integrated schedule for realization, in which civil engineering, accelerator development and construction, as well as the scientific experiments are closely coordinated, has met the approval of the shareholders. The plan foresees a full operation of the new accelerator facility, which is directly connected to the existing GSI campus, in the year 2025. The execution of civil works on the site shall start in summer 2017 and are expected to be substantially completed at the end of 2022. After the civil construction of the new buildings the installation of the state-of-the-art accelerator and experiment facilities will begin.

The nine partner countries funding the large-scale research infrastructure alongside Germany expressed their full support for the construction project execution plan as well as for the concrete elaboration of the scientific program planned for FAIR by the experiment collaborations. This also includes the progresses in the technical development and the realization of detector components for the experiments.

The FAIR Council and the GSI supervisory board had already recognized the reorganization and the establishment of a dedicated project structure as a milestone for the realization of FAIR in their previous meeting this July. Since then the management in Darmstadt has continued to work on the new orientation and the implementation of the FAIR project. Also the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) has approved proceedings for the start of construction works for the realization of the FAIR facility. Since September 2016 the first calls for tender for excavation and shoring have been made throughout Europe, since November also for the civil construction work of the large ring tunnel.

About FAIR

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centrepiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 metres. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.Alongside Germany, FAIR’s shareholders are the countries Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia and Sweden. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.

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news-2449 Sat, 03 Dec 2016 14:38:30 +0100 Saturday Morning Physics at FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////saturday_morning_physics_at_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=00bcd6e889d1710fd7d0ba8fcc5c25aa For the 19th time 260 high school students from all over the state of Hesse had the opportunity to visit FAIR and GSI on December 3, 2016 within the lecture series "Saturday Morning Physics" of the Technical University Darmstadt. They gained an insight into the current research at GSI and FAIR and explored the GSI accelerators and experiments in guided tours. For the 19th time 260 high school students from all over the state of Hesse had the opportunity to visit FAIR and GSI on December 3, 2016 within the lecture series "Saturday Morning Physics" of the Technical University Darmstadt. They gained an insight into the current research at GSI and FAIR and explored the GSI accelerators and experiments in guided tours. 

"Saturday Morning Physics" is hosted by the physics department of the Technical University. The series of lectures is held annually aims to further the interest of young people for physics. In talks and experiments on consecutive Saturdays the high school students learn about the current research at the university. The visit to FAIR and GSI is the only excursion. GSI, amongst many others, sponsors the project already from the start.

More information

Website of Saturday Morning Physics: http://www.satmorphy.de/

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news-2440 Thu, 01 Dec 2016 15:14:06 +0100 Slow and just the right strength: New six-pole magnets for the SIS100 accelerator ring https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////slow_and_just_the_right_strength_new_six_pole_magnets_for_the_sis100_accelerator_ring.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a3d914151568a2c4dbe73cd4abd0568e The centerpiece of the future FAIR accelerator facility will be the 1.1-kilometer-long SIS100 ring accelerator, which will especially stand out because of its intense high-energy ion beams. To use these accelerated beams for experiments, they first have to be extracted from the ring accelerator. Darmstadt has just received the first of a series of six-pole magnets that will play a crucial role in the slow extraction process at the SIS100. The centerpiece of the future FAIR accelerator facility will be the 1.1-kilometer-long SIS100 ring accelerator, which will especially stand out because of its intense high-energy ion beams. To use these accelerated beams for experiments, they first have to be extracted from the ring accelerator. Darmstadt has just received the first of a series of six-pole magnets that will play a crucial role in the slow extraction process at the SIS100.

Beams can be extracted either quickly or slowly. During fast extraction, a device known as a “kicker” propels the entire beam out of the ring within a millionth of a second so that it can be transferred to one of the downstream storage rings, for example. The slow extraction process, on the other hand, takes several seconds to extract the circulating ions and keeps the intensity as constant as possible during the process. This type of extraction is required for the R3B and CBM experiments at FAIR, for example.

The new resonance sextupole magnet was delivered by the Danish company Danfysik and will be followed by five more magnets of this type. Each magnet weighs around 1.6 tons, measures 70 centimeters in diameter by 80 centimeters in length, and has three north poles and three south poles. The six magnets will be installed into the accelerator ring’s six segments. They will enable the ion beam to be slowly and continuously extracted from the SIS100 by means of the process known as resonance extraction. Once the desired beam energy level has been reached, the particles circulating in the ring are stimulated to resonate in horizontal oscillations around their intended track. Among other things, this is achieved by non-linearly focusing the appropriately programmed six resonance sextupole magnets. “The oscillations grow in amplitude within just a few revolutions, enabling the electrostatic septum to extract the particles from the SIS100,” explains As Peter Spiller, a project area manager at GSI responsible, among other things, for the construction of the ring accelerator SIS100. In this way, the resonance sextupole magnets enable the particle beam to be peeled off, leading to the extraction of a seconds-long flow of particles for use in the experiments.

“The first resonance sextupole magnet has now finished testing at the magnetic field measurement station at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,” state work package directors Carsten Mühle and Peter Rottländer. As a result, the magnets can now be approved for series production. Peter Spiller hopes the remaining magnets will be delivered soon. “The resonance sextupole magnets are important components of the SIS100 ring and essential for conducting the FAIR research program,” he says.

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news-2430 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 15:19:08 +0100 Alexander Lorz, the Hessian Minister of Education, visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////alexander_lorz_the_hessian_minister_of_education_visits_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6c9ff06438021de09929e341214656a1 The Hessian Minister of Education, Professor Alexander Lorz, visited the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) in Darmstadt on Monday during the “Weeks of Science and Research” organized by the government of the German state of Hesse. During his visit, he gathered information about the current research projects at the existing GSI facilities and the status of planning for the FAIR project and the unique experimentation possibilities it will offer. The Hessian Minister of Education, Professor Alexander Lorz, visited the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the future accelerator center FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) in Darmstadt on Monday during the “Weeks of Science and Research” organized by the government of the German state of Hesse. During his visit, he gathered information about the current research projects at the existing GSI facilities and the status of planning for the FAIR project and the unique experimentation possibilities it will offer.

In a guided tour and a talk with the management, the Minister gained an insight into the latest developments at GSI and FAIR. The process of realizing the FAIR accelerator center is gaining speed: FAIR and GSI will soon begin the process of awarding construction contracts — for example, for the tunnel of the approximately 1.1-kilometer-long subterranean ring accelerator, as well as other buildings and infrastructure.

Minister Lorz indicated his strong interest in the progress of the FAIR project, which is one of the world’s biggest projects for cutting-edge research. The German state of Hesse is one of the shareholders of GSI, and it is also playing a major role in the financing of FAIR. The state of Hesse is also supporting the participation of Hessian universities in the research and technology development for FAIR through programs such as the LOEWE Excellence Initiative.

During several theme-based weeks, the state government of Hesse is currently presenting a number of key projects. Members of the state cabinet will be visiting projects in the areas of security, education, and science until mid-December. The visits began in mid-October with the theme complex in the area of security, followed by education. The program is currently focusing on the area of science. In order to emphasize the special significance of the fields of science and research for Hesse, the ministers are visiting selected universities and research institutes during the theme weeks in order to gather information about their activities. One of the stops in this round of visits was GSI/FAIR

About FAIR

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centerpiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas, such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. Alongside Germany, the partner countries of FAIR GmbH are Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Slovenia. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.

Further Informations

Press release of the Hessian Ministy of Education (in German)

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news-2417 Fri, 25 Nov 2016 09:41:33 +0100 Christoph Schmelzer Award 2016 goes to three young female scientists https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////christoph_schmelzer_award_2016_goes_to_three_young_female_scientists.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=07289b55a4fd81dbc7224d3b92fb0445 This year, the Christoph Schmelzer Award was presented to three young female scientists. Bianca Berndt of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Dr. Marta Rovituso of the research institute TIFPA (Trento/Italy), and Dr. Maria Saager of the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg accepted the award on November 24 at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Each year, the Verein zur Förderung der Tumortherapie mit schweren Ionen e.V. (Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions) presents the award in recognition of outstanding work toward the master’s or doctoral degrees in the field of tumor therapy with ion beams. This year, the Christoph Schmelzer Award was presented to three young female scientists. Bianca Berndt of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Dr. Marta Rovituso of the research institute TIFPA (Trento/Italy), and Dr. Maria Saager of the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg accepted the award on November 24 at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Each year, the Verein zur Förderung der Tumortherapie mit schweren Ionen e.V. (Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions) presents the award in recognition of outstanding work toward the master’s or doctoral degrees in the field of tumor therapy with ion beams.

The opening speeches were given by Professor Gerhard Kraft, the initiator of cancer therapy with ion beams and founder of the biophysics research department at GSI, and Professor Karlheinz Langanke, the Scientific Managing Director of GSI. Previously, Dr. Dieter Schardt, Chairman of the Assiciation, welcomed the participants. The keynote lecture was given by Professor Rita Engenhart-Cabillic of the Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Giessen and Marburg.

For her master’s thesis at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (advisor: Professor Katia Parodi), Bianca Berndt analyzed the CT data of patients undergoing proton therapy. In the framework of her master’s thesis concerning “DECT Based Tissue Segmentation as Input to Monte Carlo Simulations for Proton Treatment Verification Using PET Imaging,” she used a special CT technique to analyze both the density and the elemental composition of tissue. The purpose of her work is to improve the accuracy of dosage verification in the patient by means of PET.

In her dissertation at TU Darmstadt (advisor: Professor Marco Durante), Dr. Marta Rovituso carried out studies regarding the possible use of helium ion beams in tumor therapy. In tumor therapy, 4He ion beams could represent a good extension of the treatment options between proton and carbon ions. With her dissertation “Fragmentation and Lateral Scattering of 120 and 200 MeV/u 4He Ions on Water Targets,” Marta Rovituso studied the physical properties of 4He ion beams in the therapeutically relevant range of 120 to 200 MeV/u. This filled the gap in the experimental measurements available in this energy range while also providing precise data for the benchmarking of Monte Carlo simulations.

In her dissertation at Heidelberg University (advisor: Professor Christian Karger), Dr. Maria Saager dealt with “Determining the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions in the Rat Spinal Cord” and contributed to a better understanding of the mode of action of heavy-ion therapy in normal tissue of the central nervous system (CNS) relative to photon irradiation. In carbon therapy, the central nervous system is one of the most critical organs at risk. For the safety of patients, it is crucially important to obtain a precise calculation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on basis of the local effect model. Dr. Saager’s study established an extensive data pool that can be used to validate the RBE models used in planning irradiation treatments. In addition, she studied the mitigating effect of an ACE inhibitor for protecting healthy CNS tissue.

The award comes with a purse of 750 euros for the master’s thesis and 1,500 euros each for the dissertations. The Christoph Schmelzer Award, which is being presented this year for the 18th time, is named after the co-founder and first Scientific Managing Director of GSI. During the 1990s at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, heavy-ion therapy was developed to a level appropriate for clinical use. GSI has traditionally been a fitting venue for the annual award ceremony.

In conjunction with the research project “Tumor Therapy with Heavy Ions” at GSI, the Association for the Promotion of Tumor Therapy promotes activities aimed at developing the therapeutic system further in order to improve the treatment of tumors and make that treatment available for general patient care. From 1997 to 2008, over 400 patients with tumors, generally head tumors, were treated with ion beams at GSI’s accelerator facility as part of a pilot project. The cure rates of this method are in some instances over 90 percent, and the side effects are very minor. Since 2009, patients have routinely been treated with heavy ions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). On November 11, 2015, a second large treatment center began operating in Germany with the opening of the Marburg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, which also uses 12C ions and protons.

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news-2414 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:05:56 +0100 Chinese Academy of Sciences awards three researchers https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////chinese_academy_of_sciences_awards_three_researchers.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=db903bd0db022bb675e2472105c03de4 The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) awarded three FAIR and GSI scientists with visiting professorships under the CAS President's International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI). The awardees were Professor Thomas Stöhlker, research director of GSI, PD Dr. Yuri A. Litvinov, head of GSI's "SPARC Detectors" department, and Professor Christina Trautmann, head of GSI's "Materials Research" department. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) awarded three FAIR and GSI scientists with visiting professorships under the CAS President's International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI). The awardees were Professor Thomas Stöhlker, research director of GSI, PD Dr. Yuri A. Litvinov, head of GSI's "SPARC Detectors" department, and Professor Christina Trautmann, head of GSI's "Materials Research" department.

The awards were presented in recognition of the success and the importance of the long-standing scientific cooperation between the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in Lanzhou, China, and GSI. IMP vice-director Hongwei Zhao handed over the award certificate during the visits of the awardees in China in July and August 2016.

The collaboration between CAS and GSI has a long tradition and covers accelerator physics and research fields such as atomic, nuclear, and astrophysics as well as materials science. Both institutions operate heavy-ion accelerator facilities and plan the next-generation accelerators, FAIR in Darmstadt and HIAF in Huizhou.

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news-2407 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 10:15:44 +0100 Watching chemical reactions at work https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////watching_chemical_reactions_at_work.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1b89040250e0d7b2e7372afc98fd7311 A team of researchers from the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a university branch of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, and DESY has paved the way for using novel laser systems to observe the dynamic process of chemical bonds being broken apart. For their experiments, the scientists combined high-performance light generation and detection components from the two Helmholtz institutions. The resulting set-up forms the basis for observing high-speed processes with a resolution of 30 billionths of a second (30 femtoseconds). In addition, the set-up is so compact and robust that it could serve as a prototype for measuring equipment that could be installed and operated even at smaller facilities and universities. A team of researchers from the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a university branch of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, and DESY has paved the way for using novel laser systems to observe the dynamic process of chemical bonds being broken apart. For their experiments, the scientists combined high-performance light generation and detection components from the two Helmholtz institutions. The resulting set-up forms the basis for observing high-speed processes with a resolution of 30 billionths of a second (30 femtoseconds). In addition, the set-up is so compact and robust that it could serve as a prototype for measuring equipment that could be installed and operated even at smaller facilities and universities.

What happens when a chemical bond is broken? How do individual atoms join to form a molecule, and disengage from each other again? Understanding the dynamics of chemical processes is often described as the “Holy Grail” of physical chemistry; once you understand what is happening, you are in a position to influence such bonds and perhaps even design completely new materials.

Observing such chemical processes with great precision calls for high-speed cameras with an extremely high temporal and spatial resolution, such as the X-ray free electron laser European XFEL, which is currently being constructed in the Hamburg metropolitan region and will allow scientists to look at individual molecules and atoms. However, a laser that emits short-wave ultraviolet light is all that is needed to observe chemical bonds being broken in small molecules – that and a coincidence detector of the type developed for synchrotron and X-ray laser experiments.

In their experiments, the Helmholtz scientists fired short pulses of high-intensity XUV light at iodomethane molecules (CH3I), also called methyl iodide, consisting of an iodine atom and a methyl group (CH3). The light broke the bond between the iodine and the methyl group, and the fragments of the molecule were captured and measured in a spectrometer. This allowed the rearrangement of the electrons in the excited molecule to be deduced, and hence the subsequent induced chemical processes.

The experiments were based on a tabletop laser system for light in the so-called extreme ultraviolet range (XUV). The laser, which was developed at the Helmholtz Institute Jena, produces very short, high-intensity pulses of XUV by first strongly amplifying a pulse of infrared radiation in an optical fibre, and subsequently generating odd multiples of the original laser frequency. For these experiments, one of these so-called higher harmonic frequencies, with a wavelength of about 18 nanometres, was extracted using special optical devices and used for the experiment.

“The XUV laser system produces flashes of light consisting of one million photons, which only last 30 femtoseconds, with a pulse frequency of up to 100 kilohertz,” explains Professor Jens Limpert. Jan Rothhardt, who helped to develop the laser, adds: “The combination of a high photon flux and very high repetition rate in combination with very high stability qualifies this system, in principle, to carry out user experiments in chemical dynamics.”

Using higher harmonics to produce the pulses offers an additional built-in advantage: a chemical reaction can be triggered by a pulse of light produced by the laser, and then examined after a fixed time using a pulse of XUV radiation produced by the same laser. “The delay between the first and the second pulse can be adjusted with a high degree of precision,” says Rothhardt. This “pump and probe” technique was not yet used in the first series of experiments; but it has already been tested and is to be included in follow-up experiments.

A second important component of the experiments was a complex sample and detector chamber, developed for use in free electron lasers (FELs), which had already been deployed in DESY’s FLASH and PETRA III accelerators. In this CAMP experimental chamber, operated at FLASH by the group of Daniel Rolles, the sample is fired into the beam of light as a thin jet travelling at supersonic speeds. The interaction with the XUV radiation destroys the molecules, and the properties of the fragments that fly away are measured with great precision in a built-in spectrometer. Coincidence measurements allow the captured fragments to be assigned to their original molecules, and the precise characterisation of the building blocks means that the breaking of the bond can be deciphered across time. “By bringing together the experimental and scientific possibilities from Jena and Hamburg, we are opening up new opportunities for observing chemical dynamics,” says DESY scientist Professor Jochen Küpper, who instigated the experiments and who is also a member of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science and the Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging at the University of Hamburg. DESY scientist Tim Laarmann adds: “In the next step, we will use the apparatus to conduct pump and probe experiments. In principle, this set-up should in fact allow us to achieve much higher temporal resolutions of less than one femtosecond, making it possible to observe extremely fast movements of electrons in complex molecules.”

Contact:
  • Prof. Dr. Jens Limpert
    Helmholtz Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena
    Tel. +49 (0) 3641 947811
    jens.limpert(at)uni-jena.de

  • Dr. Jan Rothhardt
    Helmholtz Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena
    Tel. +49 (0) 3641 947811
    j.rothhardt(at)gsi.de

  • Prof. Dr. Jochen Küpper
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL)
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY
    Notkestrasse 85
    22607 Hamburg
    Jochen.kuepper(at)desy.de
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news-2395 Mon, 07 Nov 2016 14:00:08 +0100 Calendar 2017 published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////calendar_2017_published.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b30f4008f3c751e7ed18aa937a5e7419 Our calendar 2017 is now available. If you want to order the DIN A2 sized calendar, please contact GSI-Kalender@gsi.de directly and we will immediately send the calendar to you by post. Be sure to mention the following information: your name, your address and the number of calendars you wish to order. GSI employees can get a copy at the foyer, the entrance of the KBW, or the storage. Our calendar 2017 is now available.

If you want to order the DIN A2 sized calendar, please contact GSI-Kalender(at)gsi.de directly and we will immediately send the calendar to you by post. Be sure to mention the following information: your name, your address and the number of calendars you wish to order. GSI employees can get a copy at the foyer or the storage.

Please understand that because of the limited edition you can only request a maximum of three calendars (while supplies last) per order.

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news-2388 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 10:08:00 +0100 FAIR-GSI doctoral candidate award granted https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_gsi_doctoral_candidate_award_granted.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8ec7e5ee9a168d144e05c53482ce4016 Dr. Ingo Tews has received the FAIR-GSI doctoral candidate award. He was presented with the award for his doctoral thesis titled “Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions.” The annual award comes with an endowment of €1,000, which is donated by the Pfeiffer Vacuum company. The award was presented by Professor Boris Sharkov, the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR, and Dr. Ulrich von Hülsen, a member of the Management Board of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, at the GSI colloquium on November 1. The keynote speaker was Professor Johannes Wessels, Rector of the University of Münster. Dr. Ingo Tews has received the FAIR-GSI doctoral candidate award. He was presented with the award for his doctoral thesis titled “Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions.” The annual award comes with an endowment of €1,000, which is donated by the Pfeiffer Vacuum company. The award was presented by professor Boris Sharkov, the Scientific Managing Director of FAIR, and Dr. Ulrich von Hülsen, a member of the Management Board of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, at the GSI colloquium on November 1. The keynote speaker was Professor Johannes Wessels, Rector of the University of Münster.

Dr. Ingo Tews’ work on his doctoral dissertation was motivated by his desire to achieve a better understanding of neutron stars and neutron-rich nuclides. The matter in neutron stars is very strongly compressed. Because of these extreme conditions, systematic calculations of the equation of state of neutron-rich matter are required. Dr. Tews successfully conducted the first-ever quantum Monte Carlo simulations based on the latest effective field theories of the strong interaction. His results are regarded as a milestone by researchers in this field.

“I’m delighted with this gratifying recognition, and I feel honored to receive the FAIR-GSI doctoral candidate award for my work. Strongly interacting systems under extreme conditions are an exciting field of research. Through my findings I can make a contribution to it,” said Tews, who initially studied physics at the Technische Universität Darmstadt and subsequently wrote his doctoral dissertation there under supervision of professor Achim Schwenk. Dr. Tews is currently carrying out research at the renowned Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in the USA.

“These findings are especially fascinating because the physics of neutron-rich nuclei and neutron stars is one of the main research areas of the new FAIR accelerator facility,” said Professor Karlheinz Langanke, the Scientific Managing Director of GSI. “The outstanding research opportunities at the GSI accelerator facility and the development of FAIR are attracting many young scientists from all over the world to GSI. Through their innovative ideas, they are making important contributions to the development of the new accelerators and detectors.”

Dr. Ulrich von Hülsen, a member of the Management Board of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, congratulated the award winner for his commitment to scientific research. “Scientific projects are highly regarded at Pfeiffer Vacuum,” he said. “Whenever we can support research work by supplying our company’s vacuum know-how, we are happy to help, with commitment and reliability.”

Pfeiffer Vacuum and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have worked together as partners for many years. Vacuum solutions from Pfeiffer Vacuum have been successfully utilized at the Centre for decades.

The FAIR-GSI doctoral candidate award is presented annually for the year’s best doctoral dissertation. To be eligible to compete, candidates must have received a doctoral degree in the previous year and must have received support either within the strategic partnerships between GSI and the universities in Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Gießen, Heidelberg, Jena, and Mainz or directly through the research and development program. Today more than 300 doctoral candidates are working on their doctoral dissertations at GSI and FAIR within the Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research (HGS-HIRe).

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news-2366 Tue, 18 Oct 2016 10:50:20 +0200 Studying captured antiprotons: EU to grant millions of euros to new training network https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////studying_captured_antiprotons_eu_to_grant_millions_of_euros_to_new_training_network.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=4439bb212ff58699c901b4ee08d57709 The EU will provide a consortium that includes GSI with millions of euros for the training of young scientists. The consortium of national and international institutes, which, besides GSI, includes CERN, Forschungszentrum Jülich, the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, and the Austrian Academy of Sciences, is headed by the University of Liverpool/Cockcroft Institute. The consortium members jointly applied for funding for the European Training Network AVA (Accelerators Validating Antimatter physics). The EU will provide a consortium that includes GSI with millions of euros for the training of young scientists. The consortium of national and international institutes, which, besides GSI, includes CERN, Forschungszentrum Jülich, the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, and the Austrian Academy of Sciences, is headed by the University of Liverpool/Cockcroft Institute. The consortium members jointly applied for funding for the European Training Network AVA (Accelerators Validating Antimatter physics).

Beginning in January 2017, the EU will grant almost €4 million to AVA for a period of four years, says the AVA network’s spokesperson, Carsten Welsch from the University of Liverpool. The funds will be used to train young scientists for low-energy antiproton physics at CERN and at the new accelerator center FAIR, which is currently being built at GSI.

At GSI, which will receive around €500,000 or around 13 percent of the total amount, the Nuclear Physics department and experts from the Beam Instrumentation department will play a leading role in the network. For one thing, they will develop ion trap technologies that are also suited for antiprotons. In addition, they will forge ahead with the development of cryogenic current comparators. Major contributions to this project will also be made by the Institute of Solid State Physics at Jena University and the Helmholtz Institute Jena, which is an outstation of GSI.

These systems will be used at the existing CRYRING and be installed at FAIR, where they will serve as the standard technology for the diagnosis of beam currents.

The CRYRING is one of Sweden’s contributions to FAIR and was transported from Stockholm to GSI in 2013. It was built in cooperation with GSI and initially used for experiments and machine tests at the existing GSI accelerator facility. In the long run, plans call for it to be used for carrying out nuclear physics research using slow antiprotons at FAIR.

Antiprotons, which are held in storage rings or traps at low energies, are important for the study of essential questions, such as the fundamental interactions or the static structure of antiproton atoms, as well as for gravity experiments.

GSI/FAIR is familiar territory for Carsten Welsch, the spokesperson of the EU-funded AVA network. As part of the Helmholtz support program for top young scientists, Welsch headed a Young Investigators Group at GSI and Heidelberg University from 2007 to 2012. In this position, Welsch had already actively worked within networks. His former Helmholtz Young Investigators Group has evolved into the Quantum Systems and Advanced Accelerator Research (QUASAR) team, a Europe-wide research group that focuses on the development and experimental use of particle accelerators and radiation sources. One of the team’s aims is to firmly establish accelerator physics as a subject of research and university instruction on the international level.

The AVA project receives funding from the EU’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 721559.

Further Information

AVA Project Website

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news-2357 Fri, 14 Oct 2016 11:09:15 +0200 PANDA Collaboration honors PhD: Prize for Dr. Stefan Diehl https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////panda_collaboration_honors_phd_prize_for_dr_stefan_diehl.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1965d6ba59ddd7e07ffabe681a722bbb Dr. Stefan Diehl has received the PANDA PhD Prize 2016 for his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Justus Liebig University in Giessen. The award was presented by the spokesman of the PANDA Collaboration, James Rittman from Forschungszentrum Jülich, at the most recent Collaboration meeting at the Helmholtz Institute in Mainz. Dr. Stefan Diehl has received the PANDA PhD Prize 2016 for his doctoral thesis at GSI, FAIR, and the Justus Liebig University in Giessen. The award was presented by the spokesman of the PANDA Collaboration, James Rittman from Forschungszentrum Jülich, at the most recent Collaboration meeting at the Helmholtz Institute in Mainz.

Physicist Stefan Diehl, 28, received the prize of €200 and a certificate for his dissertation titled Optimization of the Influence of Longitudinal and Lateral Non-Uniformity on the Performance of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter. His doctoral advisors were Professor Kai-Thomas Brinkmann and Dr. Rainer Novotny from the Justus Liebig University in Giessen.

The PANDA Collaboration has awarded the PhD Prize once per year since 2013 in order to honor the best dissertation written in connection with the PANDA Experiment. PANDA will be one of the key experiments of the future accelerator center FAIR. The experiment focuses on antimatter research as well as on various topics related to the weak and the strong force, exotic states of matter, and the structure of hadrons. More than 500 scientists from 17 countries currently work in the PANDA Collaboration. In his dissertation, Dr. Stefan Diehl studied the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) that forms one of the main components of the PANDA detector, which is being built at the FAIR accelerator facility in order to carry out measurements of photons and electrons.

Candidates for the PhD Prize are nominated by their doctoral advisors. In addition to being directly related to the PANDA Experiment, the nominees’ doctoral degrees must have received a rating of “very good” or better. Up to three candidates are shortlisted for the award and can present their dissertations at the PANDA Collaboration meeting. The winner is chosen by a committee that is appointed for this task by the Collaboration. The Collaboration awards the PhD Prize to specifically honor students’ contributions to the PANDA project.

Further information

More about PANDA Collaboration

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news-2345 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 09:39:23 +0200 Nobel prize topic: GSI scientists hunt for exotic quantum materials https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////nobel_prize_topic_gsi_scientists_hunt_for_exotic_quantum_materials.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=0db9c86248c388ed7c9279418706e21e The search for exotic quantum states – the Nobel Prize in physics is awarded to three British scientists for their pioneering contribution to this field of research. Also at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung active research is conducted in this topic. The search for exotic quantum states – the Nobel Prize in physics is awarded to three British scientists for their pioneering contribution to this field of research. Also at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung active research is conducted in this topic.

The Nobel laureates David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz accept their award for their theoretical work on the description and prediction of exotic states of matter. Since the formulation of this model, generations of scientists have joined the successful search for these new exotic materials. The Materials Research department at GSI is joining the quest. The scientists use the ion beam provided by the linear accelerator at GSI, called UNILAC to synthesize and investigate these materials on a very small scale.

The topic of investigation focuses on the so called Topological Insulators. These materials are actually insulating, but exhibit electrical conducting on their surface. Since this ability to conduct only occurs within a very thin layer, which is one atom thick, the scattering of electrons is reduced resulting in very low resistive electrical transport. Additionally, the spin of the electrons, amounting to two values - “up” or “down” -, is coupled to the direction of electron motion. Finding a way of manipulating the spin opens new possibilities in information transfer technology.

In the framework of her PhD thesis in the Materials Research department at GSI, Janina Krieg synthesizes nanowires of the Topological Insulator material bismuth-telluride which are as small as 1/10000 of the thickness of a hair. By fabricating tiny electrical contacts, an electrical potential can be applied to a single nanowire. Adding a very strong magnetic field (250000 times that of the earth), the exotic surface states are investigated. This knowledge is a further step on the route towards energy efficient electronics and fast-computing quantum computer applications.

Further information

Publication in the journal Nano Letters

More about the Nobel Prize in physics

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news-2337 Mon, 10 Oct 2016 11:17:03 +0200 FAIR draws positive balance after Expo Real https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_draws_positive_balance_after_expo_real.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f4e8364fa0de5f08291222e5558b3e7b Intensive talks, new contacts, fruitful discussions: FAIR GmbH (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung drew a positive balance following their participation in internationally renowned real estate exhibition Expo Real in Munich, Germany. For three days the construction plans and implementation steps for the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR were presented. Intensive talks, new contacts, fruitful discussions: FAIR GmbH (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung drew a positive balance following their participation in internationally renowned real estate exhibition Expo Real in Munich, Germany. For three days the construction plans and implementation steps for the unique particle accelerator facility FAIR were presented.

“The future accelerator center FAIR was successfully profiled,” summarized Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. “The FAIR project generated high interest among exhibition visitors thanks to the facility’s complex construction and the interaction between numerous individual trades that will be required for the upcoming building and civil engineering activities.” During talks at the exhibition booth, Blaurock pointed out that this scientific mega-project could be an impressive addition to a construction company’s portfolio: “We were able to convince potential partners by giving them comprehensive information, meaning that we could make important contacts for future business.”

Klaus Ringsleben, Chairman of the FAIR Building Advisory Committee, was also very happy with the feedback given at Expo Real: “We were able to promote the FAIR project and present it to many decision makers and key players in the construction sector,” he said, adding that Expo Real is the flagship event for the whole sector. “Potential contractors were able to gain information about our scientifically and technically extraordinary construction project and about their own possible participation. We certainly made our mark as a fascinating project.”

Expo Real attracts 40,000 visitors every year and is one of the most important European trade fairs for real estate, construction and location marketing. The FAIR project was presented at the booth of the City of Darmstadt, which in turn was part of the metropolitan region Frankfurt/Rhine-Main. Individual face-to-face appointments were complemented by public panel discussions on realizing the FAIR project and on the importance of science and education as locational factors. Scientific Managing Director of GSI, Prof. Karlheinz Langanke, also gave a keynote speech about the FAIR research program. He emphasized the uniqueness of FAIR as a research accelerator of the future.

About FAIR

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centerpiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas, – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe. Alongside Germany, FAIR's shareholders are the countries Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Slovenia. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.

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news-2327 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 08:56:00 +0200 Heaviest atoms in the limelight https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////heaviest_atoms_in_the_limelight.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3c5dc3b975bcbbacd327e87f83f1720a The analysis of atomic spectra is of fundamental importance for our understanding of atomic structures. Until now, researchers were unable to examine heavy elements with optical spectroscopy because these elements do not occur in nature and cannot be artificially created in weighable amounts. However, scientists have now looked for the first time into the inner structure of heavy elements. For this they used short-lived nobelium atoms with a nuclear charge of Z=102, which had been produced at the GSI accelerator facility. Using laser spectroscopy the researchers investigated individual atoms of nobelium and discovered a variety of excited states. The experiment was conducted by an international collaboration under the leadership of the department Superheavy Elements Physics at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The collaboration included scientists from GSI, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM). The researchers reported their findings in the scientific journal Nature. The analysis of atomic spectra is of fundamental importance for our understanding of atomic structures. Until now, researchers were unable to examine heavy elements with optical spectroscopy because these elements do not occur in nature and cannot be artificially created in weighable amounts. However, scientists have now looked for the first time into the inner structure of heavy elements. For this they used short-lived nobelium atoms with a nuclear charge of Z=102, which had been produced at the GSI accelerator facility. Using laser spectroscopy the researchers investigated individual atoms of nobelium and discovered a variety of excited states. The experiment was conducted by an international collaboration under the leadership of the department Superheavy Elements Physics at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The collaboration included scientists from GSI, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM). The researchers reported their findings in the scientific journal Nature.

We know the energy spectra of most of the 118 elements that have been discovered to date. However, scientists were previously unable to experimentally investigate the elements beyond fermium (transfermium elements), which have more than 100 protons in the nucleus and the same number of electrons in their electron shells. Research is hampered by the fact that the inner structure of these atoms is greatly influenced by the relativistic effects caused by the high speeds at which the electrons orbit atomic nuclei with such high proton numbers and by the interactions between the many electrons. Like the other transfermium elements, nobelium is very hard to investigate experimentally. Nobelium does not occur in nature and can only be produced artificially in very small numbers of atoms. As a result, the element’s properties and inner structure are largely unknown.

An extremely sensitive method, which had been developed by the group of Professor Hartmut Backe und Dr. Werner Lauth at the Institutes of Physics and of Nuclear Physics at Mainz University in the early 1990s, was now used to detect and characterize excited states of nobelium atoms for the first time. “At the GSI accelerator facility, we bombarded thin films of lead with calcium projectiles in order to create the isotope nobelium-254 by fusing the atomic nuclei of the reaction partners. We then used the SHIP separator to isolate the nobelium isotopes, which enabled us to irradiate them with laser light,” writes Professor Michael Block, head of the department Superheavy Elements Physics, GSI, and head of the section Superheavy Elements Physics, HIM, about the experiment. The team determines the energy transitions in the electron shell by varying the energy of the irradiating laser light. If the transition energy is correct, the laser light is absorbed and an electron is removed from the atom, turning it into a positively charged ion. This ion can then be clearly identified on the basis of its radioactive decay. “The experiment unit is so sensitive that only about four atoms need to be created per second for our experiments. The radioactive nobelium atoms exist for only 50 seconds before they decay again,” says Dr. Mustapha Laatiaoui, GSI scientist heading the experiment.

After the researchers had measured the first atomic transition in nobelium-254, they were able to extend their investigations to the even shorter-lived isotope nobelium-252, which can be created at only one fifth the rate of nobelium-254. The measurement of the energy shift of an atomic transition between different isotopes provides information about the size of their respective nuclides.

For the first time the experiments allowed measuring the atomic structure of a transfermium element, e.g., the element nobelium (Z=102) with laser spectroscopy. The extremely high precision with which the energies of the atomic states were measured during the laser experiments provides a basis for further theoretical work and opens up new perspectives for future high-precision experiments for the measurement of the atomic and nuclear properties of the unstable nuclides of super-heavy elements.

The experiments were jointly conducted by scientists from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, the Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany), the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), the University of Liverpool (UK), and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada).

Further information:

Publication in the journal Nature

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news-2311 Wed, 28 Sep 2016 10:30:07 +0200 Calls for tender from throughout Europe for commissions for the construction of FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////calls_for_tender_from_throughout_europe_for_commissions_for_the_construction_of_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b93bcb3e1faa870788c534474f4c44bd The realization of the FAIR accelerator center is progressing rapidly. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has approved approximately €200 million in funding for the construction of the FAIR facility. Thanks to the approval of the funding, FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung can now begin to award construction commissions, e.g. for the tunnel of the approximately 1.1-kilometer-long underground ring accelerator, as well as for other buildings and infrastructure measures. Calls for tender have recently been made throughout Europe for the excavation work and the shoring. They will be followed by additional calls for tender. If the tendering process runs smoothly, the construction work could begin in mid-2017. The realization of the FAIR accelerator center is progressing rapidly. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has approved approximately €200 million in funding for the construction of the FAIR facility. Thanks to the approval of the funding, FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung can now begin to award construction commissions, e.g. for the tunnel of the approximately 1.1-kilometer-long underground ring accelerator, as well as for other buildings and infrastructure measures. Calls for tender have recently been made throughout Europe for the excavation work and the shoring. They will be followed by additional calls for tender. If the tendering process runs smoothly, the construction work could begin in mid-2017.

“We are about to make the worldwide unique FAIR particle accelerator facility a reality in Darmstadt,” says Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI. “Many different trades will work together on the upcoming building construction and civil engineering tasks. In this project, we are creating a very sophisticated building complex, where high-tech systems will be used to conduct cutting-edge international research.”

In addition to issuing calls for tender and making other construction-related preparations, FAIR will present the future accelerator center at the internationally renowned real estate trade fair Expo Real in Munich from October 4 to 6. This trade fair offers FAIR an outstanding opportunity to enter into an intense dialogue with representatives of the construction and real estate sectors. At the fair, potential contractors will be able to gain detailed information about the construction project and the opportunities for participating in it. The FAIR project will be presented at the stand that showcases the “science city” Darmstadt as part of the Frankfurt/Rhein-Main metropolitan region.

Calls for tender for FAIR construction

FAIR at the Expo Real

International Trade Fair for Property and Investment, October 4-6, 2016, Munich

FAIR Stand No.: C1 331

FAIR events at the Expo Real (in German): Metropolarena, Stand No.: C1 334

  • Tuesday, October 4, 2016, 2:30–3 p.m.
    Panel talk „Megaprojekt aktuell – Der Forschungsbeschleuniger FAIR“
    Moderation: Klaus Ringsleben, Chair FAIR Building Advisory Committee
    Participants: Professor Laura Fabietti, FAIR researcher; Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director FAIR and GSI; Uwe Kreische, head of FAIR construction project management; Kai Otto, director Arge ion42

  • Wednesday, Oktober 5, 2016, 5:30–6 p.m.
    in the framework of "Wissenschaft, Forschung und Entwicklung, Bildung als Standortfaktor"
    Introductory talk "FAIR – der Forschungsbeschleuniger der Zukunft"
    Professor Karlheinz Langanke, Scientific Managing Director GSI
    also present: Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director FAIR and GSI
About FAIR

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centerpiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 meters. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas, – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

Alongside Germany, FAIR's shareholders are the countries Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Slovenia. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.
 

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news-2292 Mon, 19 Sep 2016 13:44:00 +0200 Paolo Giubellino appointed new Scientific Managing Director of FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////paolo_giubellino_appointed_new_scientific_managing_director_of_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=1aa9bcd65268ea3d5bb8fcb1e1e72005 The internationally renowned Italian physicist Professor Paolo Giubellino will be the first joint scientific managing director and spokesperson of the directorate of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt. This was decided by the FAIR Council and the GSI Supervisory Board. The contracts have already been signed, and Giubellino will take up his new position in Darmstadt on January 1, 2017. The internationally renowned Italian physicist Professor Paolo Giubellino will be the first joint scientific managing director and spokesperson of the directorate of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt. This was decided by the FAIR Council and the GSI Supervisory Board. The contracts have already been signed, and Giubellino will take up his new position in Darmstadt on January 1, 2017.

Paolo Giubellino succeeds Professor Boris Sharkov, the scientific managing director of FAIR, and Professor Karlheinz Langanke, the interim scientific managing director of GSI. Giubellino’s appointment completes the joint management team of GSI and FAIR. The new scientific managing director will perform his management tasks for GSI as well as FAIR. This is also the case with the administrative managing director Ursula Weyrich (end of 2014) and the technical managing director Jörg Blaurock (beginning of 2016). Both expressed their delight at the appointment of Paolo Giubellino and their future teamwork. To conduct cutting-edge research and to realize the future accelerator facility FAIR in international cooperation will be the aim.

State Secretary Dr. Georg Schütte of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the Chairman of the GSI Supervisory Board and the FAIR Council, said: "With Paolo Giubellino we've won an outstanding scientist, who has plenty of experience with international scientific collaborations. His in-depth knowledge of heavy-ion research and his clear vision of forward-looking basic research will play an important role in the further realization of FAIR.“

In addition Professor Otmar D. Wiestler, president of the Helmholtz Association, emphasized the international significance of this appointment: "With the extensive international experience Paolo Giubellino gained at CERN in Switzerland, he has ideal prerequisites to tackle the assignment in Darmstadt. Being able to attract people like Paolo Giubellino to FAIR shows the world-wide appeal of the Helmholtz research. We have chosen the right path with our strategy to pursue a more international course. We will continue it consistently in the future."

Research focus of the 56 year-old Paolo Giubellino is the physics of high-energy heavy ion collisions and the matter produced in them. After studying at Turin University and the University of California in Santa Cruz, he took part in many heavy-ion experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Switzerland. Since the early 1990s, he has held several senior positions at CERN’s ALICE experiment — one of the four major permanent experiments at the LHC particle accelerator. In 2011 Giubellino was appointed Spokesperson of ALICE at CERN. More than 1,600 scientists from 42 countries are currently members of the ALICE Collaboration. Giubellino has also worked at the Torino section of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN) since 1985 and has served as research director since 2006.

GSI is well-known terrain for Paolo Giubellino. This is due partly to GSI’s links to the ALICE experiment, since scientists from GSI play a leading role in the collaboration’s scientific program as well as in the development and construction of measuring instruments for ALICE. Moreover, Giubellino is currently the Chairman of GSI’s General Program Advisory Committee, whose members come from all over the world. This committee advises the GSI management board how the accelerator facility should be used and which experiments proposed by scientists should be conducted.

Paolo Giubellino is married and has a son. In addition to his scientific expertise, he has extensive experience with international collaborations and has often played a key role in the development of bilateral agreements and research programs, such as those from the European Union. He is now eagerly looking forward to his future tasks at GSI and FAIR. “It is a great pleasure and a great responsibility for me,” he says. “FAIR is a new and unique accelerator facility that is being built at GSI. Over 3,000 scientists from all over the world will work at FAIR in the future. It is a fantastic opportunity for a scientist.” The future scientific managing director is thrilled by the research opportunities at FAIR: “We will conduct outstanding experiments here to gain pioneering new insights into the structure of matter and the universe,” he says. “The questions that we hope FAIR will answer are fascinating. For example, how do stars create the chemical elements that are essential for our lives?” FAIR will also be a magnet for young people from all over the world. That will make it possible to train highly qualified young scientists and engineers in Darmstadt within an international environment, he adds.

Giubellino has received numerous awards for his work, which includes more than 300 scientific publications. Among others, he was awarded the 2014 Lise Meitner Prize of the European Physical Society as well as the Enrico Fermi Prize, the highest award bestowed by the Italian Physical Society (2013). In 2012 the Italian President Napolitano awarded him the title of Commendatore della Repubblica Italiana for his scientific achievements.

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news-2283 Fri, 16 Sep 2016 13:08:28 +0200 Sustainable research: Chamber of Industry and Commerce Darmstadt visits FAIR and GSI for CSR-Breakfast https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////sustainable_research_chamber_of_industry_and_commerce_darmstadt_visits_fair_and_gsi_for_csr_breakfa.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=9b65dcccadc98eca6896d3154d97d866 Approximately 50 participants visited FAIR and GSI on Tuesday, 12th September 2016, for the so called CSR-Breakfast of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (IHK) Darmstadt. After a welcoming by Martina Winkelmann of the IHK Darmstadt, Ina Biehl-von Richthofen of rfw.kommunikation and Ursula Weyrich, the Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, the participants were given a talk on sustainability in research by GSI press officer Ingo Peter. Approximately 50 participants visited FAIR and GSI on Tuesday, 12th September 2016, for the so called CSR-Breakfast of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (IHK) Darmstadt. After a welcoming by Martina Winkelmann of the IHK Darmstadt, Ina Biehl-von Richthofen of rfw.kommunikation and Ursula Weyrich, the Administrative Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, the participants were given a talk on sustainability in research by GSI press officer Ingo Peter.

In the following tour the guests visited the existing GSI facilities as well as the FAIR construction site. Among other things they saw the medical treatment facility that was used to develop a novel method for tumour therapy with carbon ions — an expample for social responsibility within research. Another destination was the high-performance computing centre Green IT Cube, inaugurated this year, that excels by having an especially sustainable construction concept: an energy-efficient water cooling of the computing systems and a space- and cost-saving form of construction. Additionally the waste heat of the computing centre is used to heat a new office building.

CSR stands for Corporate Social Responsibility, an entrepreneurship balancing economic, ecologic and social goals. CSR is a value-based management focussing on fair competition, regard of natural resources, a visible social partnership and a high commitment to the region of living and working. CSR also has a positive impact on the image and thus on the economic situation of a company. With the event series "CSR-Breakfast" the IHK Darmstadt wants to offer its members an opportunity to learn about best practice examples and to encourage exchange about the topic.

More information

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news-2265 Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:03:34 +0200 Focus Europe: European Politicians from the State of Hesse visit FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////focus_europe_european_politicians_from_the_state_of_hesse_visit_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=edf37ea389536c88c9f37b56965a8b64 Hesse's state secretary for European Affairs, Mark Weinmeister, and 5 members of the Europe working group of Hesse's CDU fraction in the State Parliament of Hesse visited FAIR and GSI to inform themselves about the international FAIR project. Hesse's state secretary for European Affairs, Mark Weinmeister, and 5 members of the Europe working group of Hesse's CDU fraction in the State Parliament of Hesse visited FAIR and GSI to inform themselves about the international FAIR project.

7 out of 9 FAIR shareholders are European countries, and 3,000 scientists and engineers from all over the world are working since many years to realize FAIR. After short presentations about current and future research and construction activities the politicians visited the FAIR construction site and several research projects such as the GLAD magnet and CRYRING.

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news-2259 Fri, 26 Aug 2016 12:58:16 +0200 First ring for FAIR: Successful beam transport from ESR to CRYRING https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////first_ring_for_fair_successful_beam_transport_from_esr_to_cryring.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=c03580612a4c7cc5e4d2d8623494f7fd The experimental collaboration SPARC (a part of APPA) and GSI teams successfully tested the beam transport from the existing GSI Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) to the first FAIR-storage ring CRYRING@ESR, which is being installed on the GSI premises. The experimental collaboration SPARC (a part of APPA) and GSI teams successfully tested the beam transport from the existing GSI Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) to the first FAIR-storage ring CRYRING@ESR, which is being installed on the GSI premises.

During the last beamtime block at GSI, the teams extracted C6+ ions from ESR at 6 MeV/u (corresponding to Bρ ≈ 0.7 Tm) in a microsecond bunch and transported the particles onto the first diagnostic station inside of CRYRING@ESR. The modified transport beam line from ESR to Cave B (where CRYRING is being set up) has been fully operational including the newly built magnetic septum in CRYRING. Furthermore, new beam diagnostics and FAIR-like control hardware and software could be tested with real beam.

CRYRING, formerly in Stockholm, is an immensely successful ion storage ring which has enabled central research contributions in atomic and molecular physics for many years. As Swedish in-kind contribution to FAIR, the ring was delivered to Darmstadt in 2013. Here, the ring has been modernized and adapted to FAIR standards and was placed downstream of ESR, as CRYRING@ESR project. It will allow testing of novel FAIR technologies and enable research on slow highly charged ion (HCI) beams and possibly exotic systems. SPARC along with other FAIR collaborations prepares many new experiments in the domain of atomic and nuclear processes, in material science and possibly even biomolecular physics with slow HCIs.

The successful beam transport from ESR to CRYRING also marks the beginning of its commissioning, byintegrating both rings into one facility. For the year to come all ring installations will be brought into operation, including a local ion source, the electron cooler and necessary ultra-high vacuum conditions. After 2018, CRYRING shall be ready to perform its first experiments with slow HCI beams, when the GSI accelerators will also recommence their operation.

Weitere Informationen:

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news-2239 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:47:49 +0200 New brochure: "Successful Support for Young Academics – The Helmholtz Young Investigators Groups at GSI" https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////new_brochure_successful_support_for_young_academics_the_helmholtz_young_investigators_groups_a.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ed65664857881d8fa87ffb70ba1d5f9e Creating and managing one’s own research group for the first time and meanwhile being integrated within a renowned international working environment, gathering teaching experience, and also benefiting from the outstanding infrastructure of a major research center—this is the dream of every young scientist. For the Young Investigators Groups in the Helmholtz-funded research program of the same name, it’s no longer a dream—it’s a tangible reality. In our brochure "Successful Support for Young Academics – The Helmholtz Young Investigators Groups at GSI" we introduce our Young Investigators Groups and their leaders to you in detail. Creating and managing one’s own research group for the first time and meanwhile being integrated within a renowned international working environment, gathering teaching experience, and also benefiting from the outstanding infrastructure of a major research center—this is the dream of every young scientist. For the Young Investigators Groups in the Helmholtz-funded research program of the same name, it’s no longer a dream—it’s a tangible reality.

In our brochure "Successful Support for Young Academics – The Helmholtz Young Investigators Groups at GSI" we introduce our Young Investigators Groups an their leaders to you in detail.

Download of the brochure (German and English, PDF, 7,9 MB)

Further information:

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news-2236 Fri, 12 Aug 2016 10:00:00 +0200 FAIR goes down under: Scientists on all continents are involved in the FAIR research program https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_goes_down_under_scientists_on_all_continents_are_involved_in_the_fair_research_program.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=ff4887f4f5cdd75249a7c16e7e5651bf The global network for FAIR continues to expand. With the inclusion of Australia, all of the world’s continents are now involved in the research program at the future accelerator center FAIR. Scientists from the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra will play a leading role in a new international partnership at NUSTAR, one of the four key experiment programs at FAIR. The global network for FAIR continues to expand. With the inclusion of Australia, all of the world’s continents are now involved in the research program at the future accelerator center FAIR. Scientists from the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra will play a leading role in a new international partnership at NUSTAR, one of the four key experiment programs at FAIR.

This participation is Australia’s first contribution to the research at FAIR and demonstrates the science program’s global appeal for a world-spanning community of researchers. NUSTAR is the world’s largest research partnership in the field of nuclear physics. With the inclusion of Australia, 39 countries are now involved in the program, whose approximately 850 members work at more than 180 institutes all over the globe. Other than Antarctica, all of the world’s continents are represented in the partnership.

“FAIR will be a magnet for around 3,000 guest researchers in the future and it’s already a coveted partner for international partnerships, as the involvement of ANU shows. The Australian team will find unparalleled research opportunities at the FAIR accelerator center, but will also contribute its unique expertise and increase the NUSTAR project’s discovery potential,”says Karlheinz Langanke, Scientific Managing Director of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, where currently the FAIR accelerator facility is being built.

The NUSTAR program aims to transport a piece of outer space into the lab and solve the mysteries of the creation of the elements in their “birthplaces”: massive stellar explosions. For example, the NUSTAR scientists want to determine the properties of rare and highly unstable nuclides that contain large numbers of neutrons. Such nuclides are created inside supernovae.

NUSTAR encompasses a very broad research program, involving plans for more than 60 individual work packages. The participation of the Australian team now rounds out this main subject of NUSTAR and marks an important step in the overall planning of research at FAIR. In the next step, the team headed by Professor Andrew Stuchbery will get organized, specify its research objectives, and precisely define the instruments it needs. Stuchbery, who is the Head of the Department of Nuclear Physics at the Australian National University, is already looking forward to the opportunities he’ll find in Darmstadt. “FAIR will be one of the most attractive research facilities in the world,” he says. “It will be very exciting for us to perform experiments there. We can already start preparations to get detailed information about the structure and characteristics of exotic nuclei by g-factor measurments.”

“We’re delighted that our Australian colleagues are participating in FAIR. Their expertise will be of great benefit for the NUSTAR experimental program. It also emphasizes the global significance of the NUSTAR research program at FAIR,” says Björn Jonson from Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenberg, who serves as the spokesperson of the international NUSTAR Collaboration and is a former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee. Jürgen Gerl, the coordinator of the NUSTAR project at GSI, is also delighted about the new partnership. “The individual experiments supplement one another, so that we can study the structure and forces that hold nuclides together from all angles,” he says. “We are very happy to have the Australian colleagues onboard.”

Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centrepiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 metres. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

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news-2203 Fri, 29 Jul 2016 16:40:00 +0200 Building Bridges: Polish Contribution for Bypass in FAIR Accelerator Ring has arrived https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////building_bridges_polish_contribution_for_bypass_in_fair_accelerator_ring_has_arrived.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=3e05373933ee2a72463b8bb625565f95 Without extreme cold, nothing at all functions properly in the new SIS100 accelerator ring, the heart of the future FAIR system. Components for FAIR are currently being designed and built around the world. A crucial component for the cooling system in the 1,100-meter-long ring accelerator has now arrived in Darmstadt. Without extreme cold, nothing at all functions properly in the new SIS100 accelerator ring, the heart of the future FAIR system. Components for FAIR are currently being designed and built around the world. A crucial component for the cooling system in the 1,100-meter-long ring accelerator has now arrived in Darmstadt. It is the first part of several bypass lines that are arranged around the entire ring to ensure that the cryogenic agent (liquid helium) is transported to the right places. Approximately 30 components of this kind, each up to 12 meters long, guarantee that the required low temperatures (-268.6 °C) are maintained through the ring system.

The first bypass segment is a Polish contribution to FAIR. It was manufactured by the company Kriosystem of Wrocław, Poland, based on a design and preliminary developments of the Wrocław University of Science and Technology (Politechnika Wroclawska). The Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński) in Kraków is also playing a major role as a contractual partner of FAIR.

As Peter Spiller, a project area manager at GSI responsible, among other things, for the construction of the ring accelerator SIS100, explains: “The bypass ensures that the cold temperature can be maintained throughout the whole system.” The challenge faced by the cryotechnology here is that the powerful magnets of SIS100 that guide the particles, keep them on their circular path, and focus them must be extremely cold. However, other accelerator components that are operated at room temperature are connected up right next to the magnets, such as high-frequency systems, injection systems, or extraction systems. For these warm components, the system therefore needs a bridging mechanism that can act as a sort of Thermos bottle and maintain the extremely cold temperatures in the ring system at these spots too—a bypass.

There are six segments in the accelerator ring that must be bridged with bypasses, says Thomas Eisel, the work package manager responsible for the local cryogenics. The bypasses transport both liquid helium as a cryogenic agent and an electrical current of several thousand amperes to the magnets. For the synchrotron SIS100 of FAIR, the superconducting magnets are needed not only to guide the beam but also to cool down the vacuum chambers in the magnets to close to absolute zero. The residual gases in the beam pipe then adhere to the extremely cold chamber surface, so that an extremely low residual gas pressure is generated in the beam pipe. The magnet chamber thus serves as a super vacuum pump. An extremely good vacuum is indispensable for generating heavy ion beams with high intensities, one of the core jobs of FAIR.

But superconductivity is only achieved when the magnet coils are cooled with liquid helium to the extremely low temperature of 4.5 Kelvin (-268.6 °C). That is the temperature norm for the whole cryomagnetic system of SIS100.

The approximately seven-meter-long segment of the bypass that has now been delivered is currently being kept in the test facility of GSI and FAIR, where it will be closely examined beginning now: It will be cooled down to -268.6° C and then tested to ensure it can withstand a number of different stress conditions. Is everything well insulated, or are there weld seams that aren’t sealed? Does any helium escape? Does the superconductivity break down? Is damage incurred because of the high electrical current? If all the tests are passed, the bypass segment will be placed in temporary storage. In the coming months, more components are expected to follow.

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news-2211 Fri, 29 Jul 2016 16:26:05 +0200 Marketing Committee Darmstadt visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////marketing_committee_darmstadt_visits_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=bf5e16e0e7bc6c4f268f5a00fdb6550b The Marketing Committee of the city of Darmstadt held his latest meeting at GSI and FAIR. The municipal committee under the direction of Head Mayor Jochen Partsch was staying at GSI and FAIR on invitation of Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich. The Marketing Committee of the city of Darmstadt held his latest meeting at GSI and FAIR. The municipal committee under the direction of Head Mayor Jochen Partsch was staying at GSI and FAIR on invitation of Administrative Managing Director Ursula Weyrich.

At the beginning of the visit the members of the Marketing Committee, consisting among others of economic experts and marketing professionals, had the opportunity to find out about heavy ion research in general and current developments at GSI and FAIR. Various aspects of marketing in Darmstadt were covered afterwards during the meeting of the Marketing Committee, to whom Ursula Weyrich belongs.

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news-2192 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:21:09 +0200 Summer Students at GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////summer_students_at_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fec94b88ae23c84b0c97dadfcfffc6da On Monday, 25 July, this year’s Summer Student Program at GSI and FAIR started, in which 34 students from 20 countries take part. They will spend eight weeks on the campus, get to know the experiments and the research areas and get involved in the everyday working life. On Monday, 25 July, this year’s Summer Student Program at GSI and FAIR started, in which 34 students from 20 countries take part. They will spend eight weeks on the campus, get to know the experiments and the research areas and get involved in the everyday working life.

Every year the Summer Student Program offers the participants a unique insight into the research at a particle accelerator. Every summer student gets the chance to work on his own scientific or technical project within the current GSI and FAIR experiments. The topics range from accelerator science to tumor therapy and astrophysics. In public lectures, which are part of the program, the summer students learn about GSI and FAIR research and scientific results.

For many of the students, who come mainly from European and Asian countries, the Summer Student Program is the first step to a masters or doctorates thesis at GSI. The Summer Student Program, which takes place for the 36th time, is organized by the graduate school HGS-HIRe. Apart from the scientific program there are also social events like barbecue parties, football competition or exploring the region.

The public lectures are in English and are open to everyone. Lecture Program

More information

Graduate School HGS-HIRe

Sommer Student Program

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news-2190 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:52:08 +0200 Summer walk: Member of the German parliament Brigitte Zypries visits GSI and FAIR https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////summer_walk_member_of_the_german_parliament_brigitte_zypries_visits_gsi_and_fair.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=671556bcb2aa5124940aa383a015b6bb Current research and further projects at GSI and FAIR were the main topics during a visit of Brigitte Zypries, member of the German parliament. The traditional summer walking tour with citizens through her constituency led the politician, who also is Parliamentary State Secretary of the Federal Ministry of Economy and Energy, to the GSI and FAIR campus. Current research and further projects at GSI and FAIR were the main topics during a visit of Brigitte Zypries, member of the German parliament. The traditional summer walking tour with citizens through her constituency led the politician, who also is Parliamentary State Secretary of the Federal Ministry of Economy and Energy, to the GSI and FAIR campus.

Together with about 50 hikers she was welcomed by the management board, represented by Technical Managing Director Jörg Blaurock. He explained the current state of planning for the FAIR project. Press officer Ingo Peter gave an insight into the research activities and the unique experimental opportunities at the future accelerator facility FAIR.

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news-2125 Wed, 13 Jul 2016 10:51:00 +0200 Outstanding biophysics publication: One of the most important articles in six decades https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////outstanding_biophysics_publication_one_of_the_most_important_articles_in_six_decades.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fa792de86ab55a5589338bdefe092908 A publication by researchers of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg is included in the 25 most important articles of the 60-year history of the scientific journal "Physics in Medicine and Biology". The publication dating from the year 2000 was fundamental for the three-dimensional treatment planning in tumor therapy with ion beams based on of the so-called raster scan method. The article was published again in an anniversary edition on the occasion of the 60th birthday of the journal. A publication by researchers of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg is included in the 25 most important articles of the 60-year history of the scientific journal "Physics in Medicine and Biology". The publication dating from the year 2000 was fundamental for the three-dimensional treatment planning in tumor therapy with ion beams based on of the so-called raster scan method. The article was published again in an anniversary edition on the occasion of the 60th birthday of the journal.

The tumor therapy with ion beams is a particularly effective and gentle method. Ion beams penetrate the body and unfold their maximal effect in the tumor tissue, where they are stopped. They can be aimed at the tumor tissue point-by-point with millimeter accuracy  using the raster scan method developed by GSI, so that the surrounding healthy tissues are spared. Up to 40,000 raster points in a three-dimensional space can be precisely targeted.

The publication describes the computer programming for treatment planning, which is used for the application of the raster scan method. "The raster scan method for carbon ions was an absolute novelty in radiation therapy back then, and the same is true for the necessary treatment planning. The software is a standard in this field until today," says Dr. Michael Krämer, scientist in the GSI biophysics department and the first author of the publication.

The GSI treatment planning created the basis for radiation therapy adapted to the shape of the tumor by using ion beams with variable intensity and energy and high spatial resolution. "It was innovative to integrate physical and radiobiological modeling, as well as three-dimensional optimization, in the software, and to take into account the relative biological effectiveness of the ions at the same time. This technique or comparable ones are in use in all new facilities for therapy with proton or ion beams today," explains Krämer. The publication was quoted several hundred times until now, representing a measure for its  scientific impact. The software TRiP (Treatment planning for particles) is still in use today, not only for carbon ions but also for other particles such as protons, and helium and oxygen ions. Additionally it is used for the treatment planning of of tumors in the lung or liver, which can move during treatment due to breathing ( so-called 4D radiation therapy).

The field of 4D radiation therapy shows a large development potential for future innovative treatment techniques. Furthermore, it is planned to expand the treatment planning software to be used for risk assessment of the radiation hazards in outer space, for example in space flight missions. In the future the research on these topics shall be deepened in the biophysical research both at GSI and also at the planned international accelerator FAIR.

An article on the likewise relevant radiobiological aspects of the tumor therapy with ion beams was published in the same issue of the journal in the year 2000. The two subjects were published separately, although scientifically they belong together. The goal already then: as a first publication the paper about treatment planning aimed to serve as a reference for future research.

The international journal "Physics in Medicine and Biology" issued by IOP Publishing has been published since 1956. It covers publications on physics in relation to medicine and biology, among them e.g. radiation therapy, biomedical imaging, and radiation protection. The editorial office and the international editorial board of the journal selected the publication out of the total number of more than 10,000 publications.

Further information
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news-2165 Tue, 12 Jul 2016 09:54:18 +0200 "target" magazine issue 14 published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////target_magazine_issue_14_published.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=72ea876dd4ed08b58104cec5b7c30b5e In the 14th issue of our magazine "target" we report the inauguration of our new and especially energy efficient high-performance computing centre Green IT Cube. Also the bunch compressor, the first component for the FAIR ring accelerator, has been delivered, as well as components for the FAIR beam transport and the FAIR storage ring CR. Our research activities bring news on tests of quantum electrodynamics and the search for the island of stability. Furthermore we present the five existing Helmholtz Young Investigator Groups in this issue. In the 14th issue of our magazine "target" we report the inauguration of our new and especially energy efficient high-performance computing centre Green IT Cube. Also the bunch compressor, the first component for the FAIR ring accelerator, has been delivered, as well as components for the FAIR beam transport and the FAIR storage ring CR. Our research activities bring news on tests of quantum electrodynamics and the search for the island of stability. Furthermore we present the five existing Helmholtz Young Investigator Groups in this issue.

Download of "target" – Issue 14, July 2016 (German, PDF, 4.6 MB)

Further information

Abonnement und target archive

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news-2154 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 11:48:47 +0200 International support for FAIR accelerator – Shareholders meet in Darmstadt and approve developments https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////international_support_for_fair_accelerator_shareholders_meet_in_darmstadt_and_approve_developmen.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=bdd4f4957f186db13e841d04ea7d0d51 Members of the international council of the future accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) and the supervisory board of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research have responded very positively to current developments at FAIR and GSI. At their most recent meeting in Darmstadt, delegates of the nine partner countries who are realising the new large-scale research institution alongside Germany welcomed FAIR’s organisational restructuring and the further development of the strategy for the facility’s construction. They said they saw important milestones for the future in this strategy and expressed their full support for the plans. Members of the international council of the future accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe) and the supervisory board of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research have responded very positively to current developments at FAIR and GSI. At their most recent meeting in Darmstadt, delegates of the nine partner countries who are realising the new large-scale research institution alongside Germany welcomed FAIR’s organisational restructuring and the further development of the strategy for the facility’s construction. They said they saw important milestones for the future in this strategy and expressed their full support for the plans.

Following the FAIR Council’s decision in late September 2015 on the overall scope of the FAIR facility, the management team in Darmstadt was able to begin intensive work on defining the orientation and framework conditions of the FAIR project. The result is a new overall structure that merges the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research and FAIR GmbH at organisational level. An important part of this process is establishing a specific project structure for realising the FAIR facility that integrates the engineering and building work, the development and construction of the accelerator, and the scientific experiments themselves. The research objectives were also more precisely defined and ranked.

The management team presented the research programme for the coming years at the Darmstadt site. This was met with great approval by the FAIR Council and the GSI supervisory board. The programme represents a major step forward with regard to the future research at FAIR and offers excellent research opportunities in the period until FAIR goes into operation. For this purpose scientists make use of the existing GSI accelerators, which have undergone significant improvements for their future use as pre-accelerators for FAIR and will receive further technical upgrades. Scientists also already have access to the first measuring devices made especially for FAIR: these detectors are high-tech developments that form the basis for globally unique experiments. The promise of exciting new research possibilities is already enabling researchers to generate enthusiasm for FAIR among junior scientists.

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The centrepiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 metres. Engineers and scientists are working in international partnership to advance new technological developments in a number of areas – such as information technology and superconductor technology. Around 3,000 scientists from all over the world will be able to conduct top-level research at FAIR. Their outstanding experiments will generate new fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

Alongside Germany, FAIR’s shareholders are the countries Finland, France, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia and Sweden. The United Kingdom is an associated partner.

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news-2144 Wed, 29 Jun 2016 13:34:55 +0200 The chemistry is right not only in element 113: David Hinde a guest of GSI and HIM https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////the_chemistry_is_right_not_only_in_element_113_david_hinde_a_guest_of_gsi_and_him.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e46872f3b61814488f1a5989941bf557 Professor David Hinde, Director of the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility at the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra (Australia), recently received the Helmholtz International Fellow Award. The prize, of EUR 20.000, also enables the award winner to undertake research at a Helmholtz center. Hinde, a leading expert in the field of nucleus-nucleus collisions, is using this award to strengthen cooperation with the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM). Quite recently he made another research visit to Darmstadt and Mainz. Professor David Hinde, Director of the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility at the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra (Australia), recently received the Helmholtz International Fellow Award. The prize, of EUR 20.000, also enables the award winner to undertake research at a Helmholtz center. Hinde, a leading expert in the field of nucleus-nucleus collisions, is using this award to strengthen cooperation with the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM). Quite recently he made another research visit to Darmstadt and Mainz.

A central subject there was the chemistry of the recently officially recognized element 113 which, according to IUPAC, was discovered in Japan and has recently been proposed to be given the name "Nihonium". Professor Hinde, as a member of a collaboration project managed by the Superheavy Elements Chemistry (SHE Chemistry) Department, was a guest for one week at the TASCA recoil separator. There, 40 scientists and engineers from ten research centers are collaborating. The objective of the three-week experiment was to study the chemical characteristics of the element. Another main subject of the visit was planning of the next joint experiments of the two research groups, to be carried out at the ANU accelerator in Australia. A very close partner is also the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, which also cooperates within HIM. After the visit to the Rhine-Main region, he attended a symposium in Sweden on superheavy elements, then returned to his homeland of Australia.

This visit strengthens the intensive scientific exchanges between the Australian researchers and their colleagues at GSI and HIM. Research collaboration started five years ago, and was intensified from 2012 by Professor Hinde and Christoph Düllmann, professor at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and Head of the SHE Chemistry Departments at GSI and HIM. Hinde remembers: "Christoph came in 2012 to a conference in Australia; we met there and soon decided to strengthen our collaboration." As a result of the joint research interests and the complementary research infrastructure at ANU and GSI, an increasingly strong cooperation was developed in recent years between the research groups in Germany and Australia. Research experiments have been conducted at ANU since 2011 and at GSI since 2012. "GSI has excellent tools, which are among the best in the world", says Hinde.

The nomination of David Hinde for the Helmholtz International Fellow Award has also arisen from this cooperation and was initiated by HIM via GSI. Christoph Düllmann, who himself was in Canberra for several months in the past winter and worked together with Hinde and other members of his research group on joint experiments on the tandem-accelerator, points out: "David Hinde is a recognized expert in fundamental high-precision research on low-energy nuclear fusion reactions covering a large area of the chart of the nuclides. Under his direction, unique devices were built for such research, which optimally use the precision beam characteristics of the ANU accelerator."

This is a complex subject, but it is based on a very simple stimulus which led the now 59-year-old English-born researcher to his career choice: "I love physics, and it should not sound like bragging, but I am good at what I do. I have always wanted to know how things in nature function." The married father of two grown-up children has known Germany for many years, since in the late 1980s he worked for two years at the Hahn-Meitner Institute in Berlin, which is today the Helmholtz Center Berlin (HZB). And how did he get to know the GSI? Get to know does not appear to be the right word because Hinde says simply: "Everybody knows the GSI. It is famous around the world."

Hinde still remembers with pleasure one key moment: During a conference in 1996, Professor Peter Armbruster reported about the discovery at GSI of element 112 (Copernicium) – and described the long alpha-particle decay chain from 112 as “a poem of physics”. Hinde has never forgotten those words: "I found this very inspiring, this passion and poetry. For me this was a strong motivator for my subsequent work." 

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news-2131 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 15:07:00 +0200 Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM)—Pioneer for successful cooperations between Helmholtz Association and universities https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////helmholtz_institute_mainz_himpioneer_for_successful_cooperations_between_helmholtz_association.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=88e8ed86df4fdcc114214e501a05c6fe Today the Minister of Science Konrad Wolf, the president of the Helmholtz Association Otmar Wiestler, the vice president for research of the Johannes Gutenberg University Wolfgang Hofmeister and the Scientific Director of GSI Karlheinz Langanke visited the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) and the research building "Structure, Symmetry and Stability of Matter and Antimatter" which are located on the university's campus close to the institutes for nuclear physics, physics and nuclear chemistry. News on the basis of the press release of the Ministry of Science, Further Education and Culture, Rhineland-Palatinate, 21st June 2016

Today the Minister of Science Konrad Wolf, the president of the Helmholtz Association Otmar Wiestler, the vice president for research of the Johannes Gutenberg University Wolfgang Hofmeister and the Scientific Director of GSI Karlheinz Langanke visited the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) and the research building "Structure, Symmetry and Stability of Matter and Antimatter" which are located on the university's campus close to the institutes for nuclear physics, physics and nuclear chemistry.

Seven years ago the first Helmholtz Institute in Germany, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), was founded. Since then the cooperation between the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt and the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz is well-established. Approximately 80 scientists currently work on research concerning structure, symmetry and stability of matter and antimatter.

For science minister Konrad Wolf the HIM has a pioneering role in Germany, and thus a special significance. "Our HIM was the first Helmholtz Institute ever formed. At that time the idea aimed at using the scientific assets of the university for the Helmholtz Association and simultaneously provide the universities in their strategic areas of profile with recognicion and support of the federal government—for the benefit of universities and Helmholtz Association."

The new research building is supported equally with funds of approximately 29 million Euro by the federal and the federal state government.

Further information
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news-2120 Wed, 25 May 2016 11:48:23 +0200 Successful start of computing in the Green IT Cube https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////successful_start_of_computing_in_the_green_it_cube.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=827d6e4a77b7c2e9ed603ef93850d71a The first step of moving the GSI computing centres into the Green IT Cube was completed successfully. Since the end of March the high-performance computer L-CSC has found a new home in the fifth floor of the building. At the same time the CPU-based Kronos computer cluster as well as a Lustre storage system with 7.1 petabyte has been installed in the sixth floor of the Green IT Cube. These systems will be used in combination with the high-performance computer L-CSC. The three-dimensional layout inside the Green IT Cube has already resulted in optimizations in the networking area, e.g. to faster signal propagation times by shortening the cable lengths. The first step of moving the GSI computing centres into the Green IT Cube was completed successfully. Since the end of March the high-performance computer L-CSC has found a new home in the fifth floor of the building. At the same time the CPU-based Kronos computer cluster as well as a Lustre storage system with 7.1 petabyte has been installed in the sixth floor of the Green IT Cube. These systems will be used in combination with the high-performance computer L-CSC. The three-dimensional layout inside the Green IT Cube has already resulted in optimizations in the networking area, e.g. to faster signal propagation times by shortening the cable lengths.

The computing in the Green IT Cube started directly after the move. Scientific data gained in the HADES and ALICE experiments are since then analysed. Also the theory division now uses the new computing centre for calculations.

In autumn additional servers will be moved into the Green IT Cube in a next step. To deactivate old components in other computing centres and switch to new high-performance hardware is part of the plan. This will greatly improve the energy efficiency of GSI.

Further information

Press release of the inauguration

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news-2085 Wed, 04 May 2016 10:18:53 +0200 One step closer to the development of an ultra-precise nuclear clock—Measuring time using oscillations of atomic nuclei might significantly improve precision beyond that of current atomic clocks https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////one_step_closer_to_the_development_of_an_ultra_precise_nuclear_clockmeasuring_time_using_oscillat.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b4633a64f3735194dc46e5503ea708f5 Atomic clocks are currently our most precise timekeepers. The present record is held by a clock that is accurate to within a single second in 20 billion years. Researchers led by physicist PD Dr. Peter Thirolf and his team at LMU Munich and including scientists and engineers from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, and the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt have now experimentally identified a long-sought excitation state, a nuclear isomer in an isotope of the element thorium (Th), which could enhance this level of accuracy by a factor of about ten. Their findings are reported in the scientific journal Nature. Atomic clocks are currently our most precise timekeepers. The present record is held by a clock that is accurate to within a single second in 20 billion years. Researchers led by physicist PD Dr. Peter Thirolf and his team at LMU Munich and including scientists and engineers from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, and the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt have now experimentally identified a long-sought excitation state, a nuclear isomer in an isotope of the element thorium (Th), which could enhance this level of accuracy by a factor of about ten. Their findings are reported in the scientific journal Nature.

Oscillations as the heart of timekeeping

The second is our basic unit for the measurement of time. In today’s conventional atomic clocks, the time a second is tied to the oscillation period of electrons in the atomic shell of the element cesium (Cs). The best atomic clock currently in use boasts a relative precision of almost 10-18. „Even greater levels of accuracy could be achieved with the help of a so-called nuclear clock, based on oscillations in the atomic nucleus itself rather than oscillations in the electron shells surrounding the nucleus“, said Thirolf. „Furthermore, as atomic nuclei are 100,000 times smaller than whole atoms, such a clock would be much less susceptible to perturbation by external influences.“

However, of the more than 3,300 known types of atomic nuclei, only one potentially offers a suitable basis for a nuclear clock, i.e., the nucleus of the thorium isotope with atomic mass 229 (Thorium-229), which, however, does not occur naturally. For over 40 years physicists have suspected this nucleus to exhibit an excited state with energy only very slightly above that of its ground state. The resulting nuclear isomer, Th-229m, possesses the lowest excitation state in any known atomic nucleus. Furthermore, Th-229m is expected to show a rather long half-life from between minutes to several hours. It should thus be possible to measure with extremely high precision the frequency of the radiation emitted when the excited nuclear state falls back to the ground state.

First direct detection of the nuclear transition

Direct detection of the thorium isomer Th-229m has never before been achieved. „Up until now, the evidence for its existence has been purely indirect,“ said Thirolf. In a complex experiment, the researchers involved have now succeeded in detecting the elusive nuclear transition. They made use of uranium-233 as a source of Th-229m, which is produced in the radioactive alpha decay of uranium-233. In an experimental tour-de-force, the scientists isolated the isomer as an ion beam. „The uranium-233 was chemically cleaned at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry at Mainz University, before experts from the Mainz-based and Darmstadt research teams separated it in the form of an ultra-pure thin layer on a titanium-coated silicon wafer from the semiconductor industry. This uranium-233 source was then brought to Munich, where it was mounted inside the experimental apparatus at LMU to produce the Th-229m for examination,“ explained Professor Christoph Düllmann, head of the work groups at Mainz und Darmstadt.

„Through a number of intermediate steps, the Th-229m was finally isolated as an ion beam. Using a microchannel plate detector, we were then able to measure the decay of the excited isomer back to the ground state of Th-229 as a clear and unambiguous signal. This constitutes direct proof that the excited state really exists,“ said Thirolf. „This breakthrough is a decisive step toward the realization of a working nuclear clock,“ emphasized the LMU physicist. „Our efforts to reach this goal in the framework of the European Research Network nuClock will now be redoubled. The next step is to characterize the properties of the nuclear transition more precisely, i.e., its half-life and, in particular, the energy difference between the two states. These data will allow laser physicists to set to work on a laser that can be tuned to the transition frequency, which is an important prerequisite for an optical control of the transition.“ Professor Thomas Stöhlker, research director at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, added: „These new findings are very valuable for our experiments with Th-229m planned at the GSI/FAIR storage ring, particularly those concerning the determination of the energy of the nuclear transition.“

Further information:

Publication in the journal Nature

Superheavy elements SHE chemie

HIM - Helmholtz Insitute Mainz

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news-2071 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 11:46:29 +0200 „I want to study astrophysics!“—GSI and FAIR inspire during Girls’Day https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////i_want_to_study_astrophysicsgsi_and_fair_inspire_during_girlsday.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=dd07b541b727c3846b4a7dcc2e929cb6 29 girls visited GSI and FAIR on 28 April 2016 to participate in the Girls’Day. They took advantage of the future career day for girls to discover jobs at a scientific institute that are usually performed by men. In the scientific laboratories and workshops of eleven departments the girls tried soldering, programming and the production of targets. 29 girls visited GSI and FAIR on 28 April 2016 to participate in the Girls’Day. They took advantage of the future career day for girls to discover jobs at a scientific institute that are usually performed by men. In the scientific laboratories and workshops of eleven departments the girls tried soldering, programming and the production of targets.

The Girls’Day started with a guided tour through the facility for the participants that raised many questions: Why can’t the particles in the accelerator reach the speed of light? Do results differ when particles hit each other with 90% or 99% of the speed of light? And from which elements was Darmstadtium produced?

Afterwards the girls were divided into small groups and explored the workshops, technology laboratories and scientific departments. The girls from grades five to nine were able to build small detectors, work with metals on milling and turning machines, or use a 3D printer. Highlight was self-made ice cream produced with liquid nitrogen.

In the large group the participants presented their results and raised a cheer. Also for GSI and FAIR the Girls’Day was a great success, as one of the girls was already certain: “I definitely want to study astrophysics. Or something else with physics.”

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news-2049 Wed, 27 Apr 2016 21:23:00 +0200 Test successfully passed! Magnet for FAIR beam transport meets all specifications https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////test_successfully_passed_magnet_for_fair_beam_transport_meets_all_specifications.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=08e948ac67bc267a1a953ba1304f0050 In the past weeks a magnet for the future facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) was successfully tested in the test setup at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. It is the first of approximately 365 magnets of different designs used to transport the beam to accelerators and experiments in the future FAIR facility. The magnet was manufactured by order of the FAIR GmbH by the Russian D.V.Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus following specifications and drafts provided by GSI. Until the end of 2018 the Efremov Institute will deliver 50 additional magnets of the same design. In the past weeks a magnet for the future facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) was successfully tested in the test setup at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. It is the first of approximately 365 magnets of different designs used to transport the beam to accelerators and experiments in the future FAIR facility. The magnet was manufactured by order of the FAIR GmbH by the Russian D.V.Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus following specifications and drafts provided by GSI. Until the end of 2018 the Efremov Institute will deliver 50 additional magnets of the same design.

In the tests performed in spring at the GSI test setup the magnet weighing nine tons has met all specifications. It generates a magnetic field of 1.6 Tesla and allows a deflection of the beam in an angle of 7.5 degrees. The magnet is a so-called dipole magnet. Dipoles form a homogeneous magnetic field between their poles and will be used in the future FAIR facility to deflect the beam for transport. Located between the two poles is the beam pipe the particles pass through. The beam pipe of this dipole has a special feature however: it has a v-shaped geometry to deflect particles in different directions. A vacuum is applied to the inside of the beam pipe to avoid collisions of the particles with air molecules during their flight through the pipe.

The now tested dipole will be mounted into the beam transport that directs the beam coming from the existing GSI ring accelerator to an experiment at FAIR. Until its installation it is planned to use the magnet for calibration of measurement facilities for further accelerator components.

The dipole magnet was drafted and designed by GSI. On the basis of these technical specifications, the production drawings were created and the components were manufactured by the Efremov Institute in St. Petersburg. The appendant vacuum pipe was built by the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia, co-operating with the Efremov Institute for this order. It is the first of 51 magnets in total to be manufactured by the Efremov Institute for FAIR in the coming years. They are based on the same principle, but have different deflection angles and magnetic field strengths. The 51 magnets and vacuum chambers are a Russian in-kind contribution to FAIR.

Approximately 365 magnets of different designs are needed for the FAIR beam transport in total. With just a few exceptions the orders for the construction of these components have already been placed.

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news-2045 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 10:15:52 +0200 PhD Award of the CBM collaboration granted for the first time https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////phd_award_of_the_cbm_collaboration_granted_for_the_first_time.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a243740a8460014cad42da9a2043750b Dr. Dennis Doering received the CBM PhD Award 2015, granted for the first time this year, for his PhD thesis at FAIR and GSI and the Goethe-University Frankfurt. The award was handed over by Dr. Volker Friese, head of the selection committee, on Friday, 15 April 2016, during the CBM collaboration meeting at GSI. Doerings PhD advisor Dr. Michael Deveaux accepted the award in proxy. The award is endowed with a prize money of 500 Euro. Dr. Dennis Doering received the CBM PhD Award 2015, granted for the first time this year, for his PhD thesis at FAIR and GSI and the Goethe-University Frankfurt. The award was handed over by Dr. Volker Friese, head of the selection committee, on Friday, 15 April 2016, during the CBM collaboration meeting at GSI. Doerings PhD advisor Dr. Michael Deveaux accepted the award in proxy. The award is endowed with a prize money of 500 Euro.

In his PhD Doering worked on the development of a micro vertex detector (MVD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment (CBM) in the team of Professor Joachim Stroth. He tested and evaluated CMOS sensors for the MVD, produced with new technologies, with particular emphasis on their radiation hardness which would qualify them to be applied for CBM. He showed that high-resistive epitaxial layers constitute an important step forward in tolerance to non-ionising radiation, and that the combination of such material with a new CMOS process is a most promising way to fulfil the CBM requirements for monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS). His work has high impact for the future MAPS developments in general and for the CBM project in particular.

Candidates for the award are nominated by their advisors. The selection is carried out by a committee appointed by the CBM collaboration. The criteria for the selection are originality and quality of the scientific work, scientific value, impact of the results on the field of research in general and on CBM in particular, as well as the presentation of the work in the dissertation. The award was granted for the first time this year and will in future be annually awarded to the best PhD thesis within the CBM experiment. The CBM collaboration especially wants to honour the contributions of students to the CBM project with the award.

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news-2038 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 11:31:56 +0200 Patent-worthy! Concept for a new accelerator component developed https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////patent_worthy_concept_for_a_new_accelerator_component_developed.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5e2b3e0705a4fec4fc665bb35e169c28 A new patent for the US American market has been granted this winter. GSI scientist Dr. Kei Sugita developed a novel concept for a septum magnet, which allows high magnetic-field strength in a limited region of space and a compact design. The new concept could be used in accelerators for medical purposes or for research, like the future FAIR facility. A similar patent application for Europe and Japan has been submitted and is on the verge of issuing in Europe. A new patent for the US American market has been granted this winter. GSI scientist Dr. Kei Sugita developed a novel concept for a septum magnet, which allows high magnetic-field strength in a limited region of space and a compact design. The new concept could be used in accelerators for medical purposes or for research, like the future FAIR facility. A similar patent application for Europe and Japan has been submitted and is on the verge of issuing in Europe.

In ring accelerators septum magnets are used to inject or extract the beam into or from the accelerator. This requires strong magnetic fields to force the beam onto a curved trajectory. At the same time the magnetic field must not disturb the circulating beam in the ring. Therefore a magnet with two regions divided by a thin wall (septum) is necessary, which induces a strong magnetic field on one side of the wall and a vanishing magnetic field on the other side.

Common electromagnets use a coil for the generation and a rectangular iron yoke for the forming of the magnetic field. In septum magnets the yoke is open on one side (c-shape) to reduce the field to zero on that side. Sugita's idea is based on another type of magnet: So-called cosine-theta magnets are mainly built as superconducting magnets with high magnetic-field strength. The novel concept is to equip the cosine-theta magnet with an iron yoke (in this case a round one), which is truncated on one side to reduce the field to zero. This enables the use of a cosine-theta magnet as a septum magnet.

For Sugita, who works in GSI's "SIS100/SIS18" department and comes from Japan, this work has special personal meaning. "I worked on this topic five years ago, during the time of the catastrophic earthquake in Japan. I worked very hard, because this was almost all I could do here. I was deeply impressed by my colleagues at GSI who organized a fund-raiser and supported a special programme for Japanese graduate students who could not complete their studies at Japanese accelerator facilities. Such activities at GSI truly encouraged me. I hope my patented invention will contribute to GSI and the international accelerator community."

Sugita's invention could lead to septum magnets with magnetic-field strengths of more than two Tesla, which is the limit of the conventional design. By introducing a superconducting coil, even up to eight Tesla are achieved in electromagnetic simulations. Quadrupole or higher multipole septum magnets could also be realised with the design. This new septum type might be used for accelerators in medicine or in future large-scale facilities for research such as FAIR or the Future Circular Collider (FCC) planned at CERN.

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news-2033 Tue, 12 Apr 2016 09:24:08 +0200 Mexico and the international accelerator centre FAIR launch collaboration https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////mexico_and_the_international_accelerator_centre_fair_launch_collaboration.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5697912b9a3762d0bd56b1d74b65f9b4 On the occasion of the opening event of the Mexican-German “Nation Years” 2016/2017 hosted by the Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto and the Federal President Joachim Gauck on 11th April, 2016 in Berlin, the Research and Advanced Studies Center (CINVESTAV) in Mexico City and the FAIR GmbH in Darmstadt have concluded a cooperation agreement. The General Director of CINVESTAV, Dr. José Mustre de León, and the Scientific Director of FAIR, Professor Boris Sharkov, signed the so called memorandum of understanding in the afternoon of 11th April attended by the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs Claudia Ruíz Massieu in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Berlin. On the occasion of the opening event of the Mexican-German “Nation Years” 2016/2017 hosted by the Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto and the Federal President Joachim Gauck on 11th April, 2016 in Berlin, the Research and Advanced Studies Center (CINVESTAV) in Mexico City and the FAIR GmbH in Darmstadt have concluded a cooperation agreement. The General Director of CINVESTAV, Dr. José Mustre de León, and the Scientific Director of FAIR, Professor Boris Sharkov, signed the so called memorandum of understanding in the afternoon of 11th April attended by the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs Claudia Ruíz Massieu in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Berlin.

In the memorandum FAIR and CINVESTAV declare their intention to further the exchange of scientists between both institutions and to implement joint research and development activities relating to the research facilities planned at FAIR. Thus, technical innovations and socio-economic developments on the basis of equality and for joint benefit are to be promoted beyond research.

The Chair of the FAIR Council, State Secretary Dr. Georg Schütte from the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, welcomes the participation of CINVESTAV in the science programmes of FAIR: „This is an important step to further promote scientific-technological cooperation between Mexico and Germany, opening the perspective for joint forefront research and technological development at the international FAIR facility in Darmstadt.”

"The scientific exchange and the cooperation with international partners within large promising research projects like FAIR are important elements of the Mexican science policy," said Dr. José Mustre de León, General Director of CINVESTAV. "We look forward to an active dialogue between the Mexican and the FAIR scientists that will be beneficial for both parties. Especially junior scientists will profit from the planned cooperation in research and technology as well as from the cultural exchange."

"We are glad that with CINVESTAV a very renowned science institution from Mexico will collaborate with FAIR," said Professor Boris Sharkov, Scientific Managing Director of FAIR. "Research needs discourse, which furthers new ideas and innovations. The cooperation with our Mexican colleagues will set new impulses for FAIR."

Mexico and Germany have agreed on the realisation of so-called "Nation Years" for 2016/17 to further the knowledge about culture, economy, science and technology in the other country. The scientific cooperation between Germany and Mexico can look back on a long-standing tradition. Already in 1974 a basic agreement on technical and scientific cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Mexican government had been signed.

Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The existing GSI accelerator facility will be part of FAIR and serve as first acceleration stage. For FAIR engineers and scientists will expedite technological developments in many areas in international cooperation, for example in computer science or in superconductivity techniques. Approximately 3,000 scientists from all over the world will conduct cutting-edge research at FAIR. In unique experiments they will gain new basic insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

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news-2025 Tue, 05 Apr 2016 09:41:43 +0200 The debuncher for the FAIR Collector Ring – The trick is in the rotation https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////the_debuncher_for_the_fair_collector_ring_the_trick_is_in_the_rotation.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=8c1fa8f0beca3e5455ae3b8a31ef8c2a A first so-called debuncher for FAIR has reached GSI in autumn 2015 and is currently in commission in a testing facility. Over the course of the year the scientists want to thoroughly evaluate it, as it will be used to improve the properties of the ion beams. It weighs almost two tons and has a height of two meters and a length of more than one meter. In total five. debunchers will be installed in the FAIR Collector Ring (CR). A first so-called debuncher for FAIR has reached GSI in autumn 2015 and is currently in commission in a testing facility. Over the course of the year the scientists want to thoroughly evaluate it, as it will be used to improve the properties of the ion beams. It weighs almost two tons and has a height of two meters and a length of more than one meter. In total five. debunchers will be installed in the FAIR Collector Ring (CR).

The GSI and in future the FAIR accelerators get billions of charged atomic nuclei, so called ions, up to high speed. In the collision of the beam with a material sample, called a target, a beam of new nuclei not existent on Earth is produced. They are the goal of the researchers, as they could e.g. give information about the element synthesis in stars. But the desired objects are unstable and decay after a short time – so you better hurry up with your studies.

And also another problem arises: The desired particles move with different speeds in all directions in reference to an ideal particle. They have, in the language of the scientists, a large momentum spread. "A cooling of the beam i.e. a reduction of the momentum spread is needed to accumulate or to analyze those nuclei. But the established cooling methods like stochastic cooling are only effective if the momentum spread is small to begin with. Otherwise cooling can not be performed for all particles. And for particles, which can be cooled it will take too long and the nuclei have decayed before they are prepared for their experiments", explains Dr. Oleksiy Dolinskyy, head of the FAIR project department "Collector Ring".

To reduce momentum spread the debunchers are necessary. They are positioned in the FAIR Collector Ring (CR) where the new nuclei are cooled. The word debuncher derives from the word bunches. That's what the tighly-packed heaps of ions in the acceleration process are called. Electric fields form the bunches and take care that the positively charged ions don't repel each other, but cuddle closely together. Already during the acceleration very short bunches of 50 nanoseconds duration can be generated, which lead to equally short bunches of new atomic nuclei via the collision with the target. Not a lucky coincidence, but a prerequisite for the now following process of debunching.

So we have two parameters to look at: the momentum spread and a time component. In combination those two span a so called phase space, in which the ions move. To reduce momentum spread, the scientist use a trick: The debunchers rotate the bunch in the phase space transforming a large momentum spread into a bunch with a long duration, and vice versa changing a long (short) bunch to a small momentum spread. This method reduces the momentum spread by a factor of three in the CR,. After that they  stretch the beam around the whole ring and generate a continuous or "coasting" beam, and thus prepare the beam for stochastic cooling.

The debuncher operates at a  frequency from 1.1 to 1.5 megahertz, and each debuncher is able to deliver a voltage of 40 kilovolts for the bunch rotation, in sum 200 kilovolts. They are a German in-kind contribution for FAIR with GSI being responsible for the delivery. "We worked out the specifications and a conceptual design, and then contracted out the detailed design as well as the production", says Dr. Ulrich Laier from the FAIR project department "Ring RF". "Three companies have been entrusted with the three main components of the first model and will also build the other four debunchers after our acceptance." RI Research Instruments from Bergisch-Gladbach built the cavity, Ampegon PPT GmbH from Dortmund built the amplifier and OCEM Power Electronics from Bologna, Italy, built the power supply.

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news-2016 Fri, 01 Apr 2016 09:23:33 +0200 Hannah Petersen receives Heinz Maier-Leibnitz-Award https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////hannah_petersen_receives_heinz_maier_leibnitz_award.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=dc06c014fac2d7e9f3ce0a9c6060918a This year’s recipients of the most important award for young scientists in Germany have been chosen. In total 134 scientists from all scientific fields had been proposed for the award, of which 15 were shortlisted. Now the choosing committee installed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Federal Ministry for Eduation and Research (BMBF) decided in favour of five female and five male scientists to win the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz-Award 2016. The award is endowed with 20,000 Euro and will be handed over on 18 Mai 2016 in Bonn. One of the awardees is professor Hannah Petersen, who is head of a Helmholtz Young Investigators Group at GSI since 2012 and a W2-professor at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt since 2013. This year’s recipients of the most  important award for young scientists in Germany have been chosen. In total 134 scientists from all scientific fields had been proposed for the award, of which 15 were shortlisted. Now the choosing committee installed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Federal Ministry for Eduation and Research (BMBF) decided in favour of five female and five male scientists to win the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz-Award 2016. The award is endowed with 20,000 Euro and will be handed over on 18 Mai 2016 in Bonn. One of the awardees is professor Hannah Petersen, who is head of a Helmholtz Young Investigators Group at GSI since 2012 and a W2-professor at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt since 2013.

In the field of relativistic heavy ion collisions Petersen works on new theoretical models of the so-called “little bang”. In heavy ion collisions a quark-gluon plasma with extremely high pressure is generated, leading to an explosive expansion. Inside conditions similar to those of the Big Bang are present. Petersen identified and examined as one of the first, that and how the course of this explosion is influenced by fluctuations in density and temperature due to quantum effects. By comparison of theory and experimental data Petersen developed a oft-quoted hybrid model, that describes the dynamics of the plasma and its viscosity in dependency of the initial state of the quantum fluctuation. With her “event-by-event” method of analysis she delivered new foundations for experimental measurements e.g. at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (Brookhaven, USA) and at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (Darmstadt).

As a recognition and an incentive to pursue their scientific career straight-lined, the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz-Award is given to outstanding young scientists since 1977. Named after the atomic physicist and former DFG president – in whose term of office it was awarded for the first time – the award is not only the most important of its kind for young scientists in Germany. In a poll by the magazine “bild der wissenschaft” it was also voted the third most important scientific award in Germany in total – following the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Award of the DFG and the Zukunftspreis of the Federal President.

Further recipients are:
  • Aline Bozec, Rheumatologie, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
  • Tobias Erb, Mikrobiologie, Max-Planck-Institut für terrestrische Mikrobiologie, Marburg
  • Daniel Gutzmann, Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaften, Universität Frankfurt/Main
  • Markus Krötzsch, Informatik / Wissensrepräsentation, Technische Universität Dresden
  • Christoph Lundgreen, Alte Geschichte, Technische Universität Dresden
  • Isabell Otto, Medienwissenschaft, Universität Konstanz
  • Ludovic Righetti, Robotik, Max-Planck-Institute für Intelligente Systeme, Tübingen
  • Tatjana Tchumatchenko, Theoretische Neurowissenschaften, Max-Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung, Frankfurt/Main
  • Celine Teney, Empirische Sozialforschung, Universität Bremen
Further information:

Press release of the DFG (German)

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news-2010 Tue, 29 Mar 2016 11:02:00 +0200 Heavy elements from the depths of the universe https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////heavy_elements_from_the_depths_of_the_universe.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=dc743cea040b73ea8fcd713e15f2d486 The origin of the chemical elements in the universe is one of the unsolved mysteries of natural science. A collaboration of two nuclear astrophysicists of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Technical University of Darmstadt – Dirk Martin and Almudena Arcones – and two nuclear physicists of the Michigan State University – Witold Nazarewicz and Erik Olsen – discovered that the properties of nuclear interactions have influence on the synthesis of the most heavy elements in our universe. Press release of the Technical University Darmstadt, 29 March 2016

The origin of the chemical elements in the universe is one of the unsolved mysteries of natural science. A collaboration of two nuclear astrophysicists of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Technical University of Darmstadt – Dirk Martin and Almudena Arcones – and two nuclear physicists of the Michigan State University – Witold Nazarewicz and Erik Olsen – discovered that the properties of nuclear interactions have influence on the synthesis of the most heavy elements in our universe.

The heavy elements in our solar system – like gold or uranium – were formed by a complex chain of nuclear reactions and decays, also known as the "rapid neutron capture" process (r-process). This mechanism requires extremely high neutron densities as well as short-lived so-called exotic isotopes which can't be produced in existing particle accelerators as of yet. Current information about these conditions stems solely of theoretical models which rely on extreme extrapolations to areas of the nuclear chart where no experimental data is available. The two favoured astrophysical scenarios for the r-process are catastrophic core-collapse supernova explosions and the merging of neutron stars. In their work the scientists predict the synthesis of the elements in the r-process with different models of nuclear interaction.

In their article published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters they determine systematic uncertainties of the predicted abundance distributions directly linked to the modelling of masses for realistic astrophysical scenarios.

New accelerators allow important measurements

The results published in the article will be useful in the future to identify regions in the nuclear chart that are crucial for the synthesis of the heavy elements. The two accelerator facilities under construction FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt and FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams) in Michigan will be world leaders in this area and conduct important measurements to verify these predictions.

While it is not yet possible to determine whether the gold in jewellery or the dysprosium in the engine of an electric car come from colliding neutron stars or from a supernova, still the scientists are closer to the understanding of their astrophysical origin than ever.

Further information:
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news-1993 Sun, 20 Mar 2016 08:51:00 +0100 FAIR-GENCO Award for Young Scientists https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////fair_genco_award_for_young_scientists.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fb9a539530ece9c27d60acc6e80c2d1c In March the FAIR-GENCO Award for Young Scientists was handed over. The prize is awarded by the GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. This year's award went to Dr. José Luis Rodríguez Sánchez of the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain. The bestowal by GENCO president professor Christoph Scheidenberger and vice president professor Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki took place during the GENCO session of the annual NuSTAR Meeting at FAIR and GSI. In March the FAIR-GENCO Award for Young Scientists was handed over. The prize is awarded by the GSI Exotic Nuclei Community (GENCO) and endowed with 1,000 Euro. This year's award went to Dr. José Luis Rodríguez Sánchez of the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain. The bestowal by GENCO president professor Christoph Scheidenberger and vice president professor Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki took place during the GENCO session of the annual NuSTAR Meeting at FAIR and GSI.

Dr. José Luis Rodríguez Sánchez received the award for applying the inverse kinematics technique to the long-standing problem of nuclear fission and the possibility, for the first time, to determine the mass, charge and kinetic energy of the two emerging fission fragments, thus yielding new, exciting insights to the fission process and dynamics. He conducted his research with the ALADIN-LAND setup at GSI and the new SOFIA experiment setup.

Additionally two GENCO Membership Awards were granted: Professor Muhsin Harakeh of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut and the University of Groningen was appointed member for pioneering work using radioactive beams for elastic and inelastic scattering and studies of giant resonances. Ursula Weyrich, Adminstrative Director of FAIR and GSI, was honoured with a membership for her support of young scientists and the realization of the FAIR project.

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news-1983 Mon, 14 Mar 2016 08:01:00 +0100 GLAD magnet moved into cave https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////glad_magnet_moved_into_cave.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=df03d8c332c961e7dd1d713adadd7415 Recently the 60 ton superconducting magnet GLAD (GSI Large Acceptance Dipole) was guided on air cushions into the experimental cave R3B. Here, GLAD will undergo further extensive testing in order to precisely verify its specifications. Recently the 60 ton superconducting magnet GLAD (GSI Large Acceptance Dipole) was guided into the experimental cave R3B on air cushions.

Here, GLAD will undergo further extensive testing in order to precisely verify its specifications. Thereafter it will be completely installed and connected to the experimental setup. Its coils will be cooled down to a temperature below minus 268 degrees Celsius. The magnet will be used for experiments at the GSI facility until it is moved to the future FAIR accelerator facility.

Further information:
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news-1977 Tue, 08 Mar 2016 10:18:00 +0100 First component delivered for FAIR’s ring accelerator https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////first_component_delivered_for_fairs_ring_accelerator.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=09b2379f29db32864293dbf1d244bf3c Delivery of components commences for the centerpiece of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, the 1,100-meter-long ring accelerator. The components are being developed and produced all over the world. The first component to be delivered was a bunch compressor, which was manufactured by Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH in Seligenstadt, Germany, on the basis of advance developments by GSI. GSI will first subject the bunch compressor to extensive acceptance tests. The other eight bunch compressors can be series produced once testing is completed. The bunch compressors will bundle accelerated particles into bunches that will be denser than ever before. Scientists will need such dense bunches for a large number of new experiments that will be conducted at FAIR. Delivery of components commences for the centerpiece of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, the 1,100-meter-long ring accelerator. The components are being developed and produced all over the world. The first component to be delivered was a bunch compressor, which was manufactured by Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH in Seligenstadt, Germany, on the basis of advance developments by GSI. GSI will first subject the bunch compressor to extensive acceptance tests. The other eight bunch compressors can be series produced once testing is completed. The bunch compressors will bundle accelerated particles into bunches that will be denser than ever before. Scientists will need such dense bunches for a large number of new experiments that will be conducted at FAIR.

“FAIR’s ring accelerator will be composed of many different components that we design, develop, and plan in detail with the help of complex calculations and design studies,” says GSI project area manager Peter Spiller, who is responsible, among other things, for the construction of the ring accelerator at FAIR. “The fact that the delivery of the components has now begun is a real milestone for us. We expect to receive several additional components this year.”

“We’re delighted that the development and production of the bunch compressors has enabled our small Hessian company to make a major contribution to FAIR, a globally significant high-tech project,” says Joachim Scherer, Managing Director of Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH in Seligenstadt.

FAIR’s ring accelerator will be able to accelerate ions (electrically charged atoms) from any element as well as antiprotons to almost the speed of light. Before particles are accelerated, they first have to be packed into bunches that consist of up to 500 billion ions each. The particles are then channeled to the various experiments. The size of the ion bunches depends on the experiment they are used for. The bunch compressor can generate especially short pulses that are needed for experiments in plasma physics and nuclear astrophysics, for example.

“The bunches have a temporal length of 200 to 300 nanoseconds during acceleration. This is too long for some experiments, which require the large number of ions in a shorter period of time,” says Spiller. “The bunch compressor system shortens the ion bunches to a duration of 30 to 90 nanoseconds. To do this, we use high-frequency electric fields that compress the ion pulse by rotating it in the phase space.”

“The bunch compressor is 2 meters long and 1.20 meters wide. It is 2.10 meters tall and weighs around two tons. The key structural elements are two sets of eight disks composed of special magnetic alloys that are arranged around the beamline. These disks can generate a high-frequency voltage of 40,000 volt,” says high-frequency physicist Hans Günter König from GSI’s Ring RF department. König and his colleague Peter Hülsmann were the main people in charge of implementing the project technology and liaising with the manufacturer. “In the next step, the device will be subjected to extensive testing that will be conducted on the test rig for high-frequency systems at GSI. These tests are scheduled to be completed this spring. Series production will begin as soon as the bunch compressor has passed all of the tests.”

Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. The existing GSI accelerator facility will be part of FAIR and serve as first acceleration stage. For FAIR engineers and scientists will expedite technological developments in many areas in international cooperation, for example in computer science or in superconductivity techniques. Approximately 3,000 scientists from all over the world will conduct cutting-edge research at FAIR. In unique experiments they will gain new basic insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

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news-1967 Mon, 07 Mar 2016 10:07:00 +0100 Hessian Minister of Economics visits Green IT Cube https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////hessian_minister_of_economics_visits_green_it_cube.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fbeeecdec5fc5f1878d1f7f15c697cc9 On Wednesday, 24 February 2016, the Hessian Minister of Economics, Energy, Transport and Regional Development, Tarek Al-Wazir, visited the high-performance computing centre Green IT Cube at FAIR and GSI in the context of his excursion "Tour Digitalization in Hesse 2016". He was accompanied by Karin Wolff, who is a member of the Landtag of Hesse elected by the constituency Darmstadt Stadt II. Following up on the welcome by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, and professor Volker Lindenstruth, head of the GSI research area "Scientific IT", a guided tour of the Green IT Cube took place. It involved the galleries with computing racks as well as the balcony with view onto the not yet equipped steel framework and the utility buildings containing pumps and heat exchangers. On Wednesday, 24 February 2016, the Hessian Minister of Economics, Energy, Transport and Regional Development, Tarek Al-Wazir, visited the high-performance computing centre Green IT Cube at FAIR and GSI in the context of his excursion "Tour Digitalization in Hesse 2016". He was accompanied by Karin Wolff, who is a member of the Landtag of Hesse elected by the constituency Darmstadt Stadt II. Following up on the welcome by Jörg Blaurock, Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI, and professor Volker Lindenstruth, head of the GSI research area "Scientific IT", a guided tour of the Green IT Cube took place. It involved the galleries with computing racks as well as the balcony with view onto the not yet equipped steel framework and the utility buildings containing pumps and heat exchangers.

The Green IT Cube is an especially energy-efficient, space-saving and cost-effective high-performance computing centre. Instead of air, the Green IT Cube cools its computers with water. This means the energy used for cooling is only seven per-cent of the electrical power used for computing. Conventional computing centres with air cooling use 30 to 100 per-cent. The Green IT Cube will host 300,000 processing units. Scientists use it to perform simulations, to develop detectors for FAIR and to analyse measurements obtained from experiments in the accelerator facilities of GSI and, in future, FAIR.

Al-Wazir commented on the visit on Twitter: "One of the three (because of water cooling) most energy efficient computers in the world. Where? At GSI in Darmstadt of course" and documented his tour with pictures on Facebook and Twitter (in German).

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news-1960 Wed, 02 Mar 2016 09:54:01 +0100 Masterclass 2016—High-school students analyse LHC data https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////masterclass_2016high_school_students_analyse_lhc_data.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=a283862d24114b3917acb2ccaf39ce23 On Tuesday, 23 February 2016, the 6th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 20 high-school students were invited to be a scientist for a day and analyse data of the ALICE experiment located at the accelerator LHC at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning. On Tuesday, 23 February 2016, the 6th International Masterclass took place at FAIR and GSI. 20 high-school students were invited to be a scientist for a day and analyse data of the ALICE experiment located at the accelerator LHC at CERN in Geneva. GSI has had a major part in the construction and scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning.

The students were asked to evaluate and interpret data from the ALICE experiment. Under professional supervision by scientists they autonomously analysed data recorded in collisions of protons and from lead nuclei. In the collisions the so-called quark-gluon plasma can be generated for a short time—a state of matter which existed in the universe for the first few microseconds after the big bang. The plasma undergoes a phase transition back to normal matter in fractions of seconds. The particles produced in this process can give insight into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

In a guided tour the students also visited the FAIR storage ring CRYRING and experiments at the GSI accelerators. The basic idea of the programme is to allow the students to work in the same fashion as the scientists. This includes a videoconference at the end of the day, where the students presented and discussed their findings with other students from the universities in Frankfurt, Münster, Zagreb, and with CERN.

Approximately 200 universities and research facilities from 47 countries participate in the International Masterclasses this year. Organiser is the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (IPPOG). All events in Germany take place in cooperation with the Netzwerk Teilchenphysik, a nationwide network for the communication of particle physics to youngsters and teachers. They aim to make particle physics accessible to a broader public.

ALICE is one of the four large international experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is the experiment specifically designed to investigate collisions of heavy nuclei at high energies. Scientists of GSI and of German universities were involved in the development of new detectors and in the scientific programme of ALICE from the beginning. The GSI computing centre is an inherent part of the computing grid for data analysis of ALICE.

Further information:
  • International Masterclasses: www.physicsmasterclasses.org
  • Netzwerk Teilchenwelt: www.teilchenwelt.de
  • IPPOG: http://ippog.web.cern.ch/
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news-1949 Mon, 22 Feb 2016 12:51:17 +0100 Professor Horst Stöcker awarded with honorary doctorate of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////professor_horst_stoecker_awarded_with_honorary_doctorate_of_joint_institute_of_nuclear_research.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=65e2ecd327b14230d8bb84d7a0db28b4 GSI scientist professor Horst Stöcker was awarded with a honorary doctorate of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. He received the honour for his “outstanding contribution to the advancement of science and education of young scientists”. The bestowal by professor Victor Matveev, Director of JINR, took place in the context of the meeting of the Scientific Council of JINR, of which Horst Stöcker is a member since many years. GSI scientist professor Horst Stöcker was awarded with a honorary doctorate of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. He received the honour for his “outstanding contribution to the advancement of science and education of young scientists”. The bestowal by professor Victor Matveev, Director of JINR, took place in the context of the meeting of the Scientific Council of JINR, of which Horst Stöcker is a member since many years.

Horst Stöcker is a leading scientist in the GSI research department “Theory” and Judah M. Eisenberg Professor Laureatus at the Goethe University Frankfurt, as well as Senior Fellow of the Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies (FIAS). He was GSI’s Scientific Director from 2007 to 2015, and vice president of the Helmholtz Association twice. Stöcker holds a honorary doctorate also from the University of Bucharest, Romania, and from the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Already in his diploma thesis more than 40 years ago Stöcker analysed some of the first data from JINR’s accelerator Synchrophasotron, the first relativistic heavy-ion accelerator. In the following years he contributed scientifically to the understanding of the dynamics of hadron and heavy ion collisions as well as to the underlying phase structure of quantum chromo dynamics at the NICA collider currently under construction at JINR and to the complementary high-energy colliders RHIC, USA, and LHC, Switzerland. Stöcker’s focus was also on the differentiation to the future FAIR accelerator complex. FAIR’s worldwide unique features will be high beam intensities and qualities of heavy ions, antiprotons, strange matter and isotopes unknown so far.

Further awardees of the JINR honorary doctorate were professor Jemal Khubua, professor at the University of Tbilsi, Georgia, and professor Yuri Oganessian, discoverer of elements and head of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions at JINR.

JINR is an international centre for research concerning the basics and applications of nuclear physics, having its 60th anniversary this year. It was founded as a counterpart to the research centre CERN in Switzerland approximately at the same time.

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news-1941 Fri, 19 Feb 2016 14:22:31 +0100 Extraordinary interest in special talk by Bengt Friman about gravitational waves https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////extraordinary_interest_in_special_talk_by_bengt_friman_about_gravitational_waves.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=5fa56eea87b388ea4611c5f07586ee9d The talk on gravitational waves by professor Bengt Friman, head of the GSI research department "Theory", received extraordinary interest. More than 300 guests and employees visited his excellent talk on February 18, where he vividly explained the properties and the observation of gravitational waves, and illustrated the relation to the astrophysical research at the accelerator facilities at GSI and FAIR. The talk was announced on short notice in the public lecture series "Wissenschaft für Alle” at GSI and FAIR, following the report on the direct observation of gravitational waves in the USA one week earlier. The talk on gravitational waves by professor Bengt Friman, head of the GSI research department "Theory", received extraordinary interest. More than 300 guests and employees visited his excellent talk on February 18, where he vividly explained the properties and the observation of gravitational waves, and illustrated the relation to the astrophysical research at the accelerator facilities at GSI and FAIR. The talk was announced on short notice in the public lecture series "Wissenschaft für Alle” at GSI and FAIR, following the report on the direct observation of gravitational waves in the USA one week earlier.

In his talk "Gravitationswellen – Kräuselungen der Raumzeit", delivered in German, Bengt Friman reported on the direct observation of gravitational waves by the LIGO collaboration in the USA. He described the basic principles behind the generation of the waves, which were predicted by Albert Einstein already 100 years ago. Subsequently, he described possible observational methods as well as the earlier indirect detection of gravitational waves in a binary pulsar system. The current gravitational-wave event emanated from a collision of two black holes. Other sources of gravitational waves that may be detected with terrestrial interferometers are fast rotating neutron stars, supernovae as well as binary systems of neutron stars. Finally, Bengt Friman presented the current observation of the LIGO collaboration in comparison with simulations and gave an outlook on research at the accelerator facilties at GSI and, in the future, at FAIR, where the production of matter similar to that in the interior of neutron stars will be possible.

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news-1903 Wed, 17 Feb 2016 15:05:00 +0100 Indian Counsellor of Science and Technology Rajachandran Madhan visits FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////indian_counsellor_of_science_and_technology_rajachandran_madhan_visits_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=fffe44e2f7c73ca6e4e042f36e49240c On Friday, February 5, 2016, the new Indian Counsellor of Science and Technology Rajachandran Madhan from the Indian Embassy in Berlin visited FAIR and GSI. In this role Madhan is also a member of the Administrative and Financial Committee (AFC) of FAIR. His journey to Darmstadt was the first visit to a scientific facility since he took over as counsellor. He emphasized the importance of the FAIR project to India during his visit. India is the third largest shareholder of FAIR following Germany and Russia. On Friday, February 5, 2016, the new Indian Counsellor of Science and Technology Rajachandran Madhan from the Indian Embassy in Berlin visited FAIR and GSI. In this role Madhan is also a member of the Administrative and Financial Committee (AFC) of FAIR. His journey to Darmstadt was the first visit to a scientific facility since he took over as counsellor. He emphasized the importance of the FAIR project to India during his visit. India is the third largest shareholder of FAIR following Germany and Russia.

Madhan was welcomed by the FAIR and GSI management. Furthermore he received information about the status of the FAIR project by professor Karlheinz Langanke, Scientific Director of GSI, and, in additional talks, about the cooperation with India. In a joint lunch with Indian students and scientists he got to know about the research and education on the campus. Afterwards he visited the accelerators, the Green IT Cube, the HADES detector, the therapy facility and the FAIR construction site.

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news-1910 Fri, 12 Feb 2016 08:53:00 +0100 Jörg Blaurock appointed new Technical Managing Director of FAIR and GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////joerg_blaurock_appointed_new_technical_managing_director_of_fair_and_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6619492c340e9e0eabb9bcadd2c5bf92 As of 1 February 2016, Jörg Blaurock is the first joint Technical Managing Director of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research) and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) in Darmstadt. Prior to this he has been working in international large-scale plant construction for over 20 years, overseeing full planning, delivery, assembly and commissioning of large technical facilities worldwide. He is now changing from General Electric in Stuttgart to Darmstadt. In his role as Technical Managing Director, he is responsible for the construction of the FAIR facility as well as for the operation and further development of the existing accelerator facilities. As of 1 February 2016, Jörg Blaurock is the first joint Technical Managing Director of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research) and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR GmbH) in Darmstadt. Prior to this he has been working in international large-scale plant construction for over 20 years, overseeing full planning, delivery, assembly and commissioning of large technical facilities worldwide. He is now changing from General Electric in Stuttgart to Darmstadt. In his role as Technical Managing Director, he is responsible for the construction of the FAIR facility as well as for the operation and further development of the existing accelerator facilities.

FAIR will be one of the largest and most complex accelerator facilities in the world. For FAIR engineers and scientists will expedite technological developments in many areas in international cooperation, for example in computer science or in superconductivity techniques. Approximately 3,000 scientists from all over the world will conduct cutting-edge research at FAIR. In unique experiments they will gain new basic insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe.

"FAIR is an international high-tech-project for research which will be realized in Darmstadt. For me it is an extraordinarily interesting task which I am looking forward to contributing to with my expertise in the realization of large scale plants," says Jörg Blaurock.

Jörg Blaurock, born in 1964, studied mechanical engineering at the Helmut Schmidt University in Hamburg during his career as an officer in the Bundeswehr, where he worked until 1994. He went on to work for large scale plant construction firms Uhde GmbH and Lurgi GmbH in the turnkey production of petrochemical industrial plants at various international locations. In 2007 he joined Alstom, today General Electric, where he worked in a number of positions – most recently for General Electric Deutschland GmbH in Stuttgart. There, as Managing Director he was responsible for the turnkey delivery of utility steam generators for electricity-generating fossil-fuel power stations.

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news-1895 Wed, 27 Jan 2016 09:17:17 +0100 Award for Denis Nordmann https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////award_for_denis_nordmann.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=f385eef81123cf320f294b29ec58aa77 For his diploma thesis Denis Nordmann, student at the Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, received the first award for outstanding theses of the association for the promotion of foundry and material engineering. The award is bestowed with 1,000 Euro. It was handed over in December 2016 in the context of the Barbara meeting at the TH Mittelhessen in Friedberg by Professor Klaus Behler, the chairman of the association. Nordmann's work was conducted in cooperation with the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. For his diploma thesis Denis Nordmann, student at the Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, received the first award for outstanding theses of the association for the promotion of foundry and material engineering. The award is bestowed with 1,000 Euro. It was handed over in December 2016 in the context of the Barbara meeting at the TH Mittelhessen in Friedberg by Professor Klaus Behler, the chairman of the association. Nordmann's work was conducted in cooperation with the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. One criterion for the award was the implementation of technical knowledge gained in the studies into a technical application of physics.

Inside the GSI and future FAIR accelerators prevails a very high vacuum to ensure that the accelerated particles don't collide with remaining gas particles and get lost. To gain such ultra-high vacua in accelerator facilities the scientists use, amongst other things, gas resorbing materials, so called non-evaporable getters (NEG). The inner walls of the vacuum chambers are coated with special materials that resorb gases on their surface and so "pump" them. In his diploma thesis Nordmann produced a NEG surface from titanium, zirkonium an vanadium. He analysed the quality of the surface with spectroscopic methods and characterised the pumping behaviour for different gases like hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. The results help with the application of NEG surfaces in the FAIR project.

Jannette Hofmann received the second award bestowed with 500 Euro. She developed a precise interferometric position measurement for microscopy. Her work in cooperation with Leica Microsystems resulted in a patent application.

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news-1888 Fri, 22 Jan 2016 13:56:00 +0100 New energy-efficient high-performance computing center for GSI and FAIR – Green IT Cube opens https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////new_energy_efficient_high_performance_computing_center_for_gsi_and_fair_green_it_cube_opens.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=d853783eacc12ad46b04a2089db4cfae The building for the new high-performance computing center Green IT Cube at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research has been completed after just one year of construction. The Green IT Cube will be one of the most powerful scientific computing centers in the world. It achieves its high energy and cost efficiency thanks to a special cooling system. The official opening ceremony for the six-storey building was held on 22 January by Dr Georg Schütte, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and chair of the GSI supervisory board and the FAIR Council, and Ingmar Jung, State Secretary at the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts. The Green IT Cube will provide enormous computing capacity for experiments at the accelerator facilities of GSI, and, in future, FAIR. The building for the new high-performance computing center Green IT Cube at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research has been completed after just one year of construction. The Green IT Cube will be one of the most powerful scientific computing centers in the world. It achieves its high energy and cost efficiency thanks to a special cooling system. The official opening ceremony for the six-storey building was held on 22 January by Dr Georg Schütte, State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and chair of the GSI supervisory board and the FAIR Council, and Ingmar Jung, State Secretary at the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts. The Green IT Cube will provide enormous computing capacity for experiments at the accelerator facilities of GSI, and, in future, FAIR.

The Green IT Cube is a highly energy-efficient computing center because it uses much less energy to cool its computers than conventional computing centers. Instead of air, the Green IT Cube cools its computers with water. This means the energy used for cooling is only seven percent of the electrical power used for computing. Conventional computing centers with air cooling use 30 to 100 percent. Such centers require high ceilings or cold aisle and hot aisle systems with complex climate controls.

Space-effective and cost-effective

This effective cooling process enables space-saving positioning of computers in the Green IT Cube. The cube-shaped building measures 27 x 30 x 22 meters and can hold 768 computer cabinets side by side on six floors. Simultaneously saving energy and space makes the Green IT Cube very cost-efficient. Investment costs for the building were about €12 million and were provided by the German federal government and the state of Hesse via a Helmholtz investment program.

A computing center for science

The Green IT Cube is used by researchers to perform simulations and to develop detectors for FAIR. In addition, they will use it to analyze measurements obtained from experiments in the accelerator facilities of GSI, and, in future, FAIR, in order to gain fundamental insights into the structure of matter and the development of the universe. To make this possible, the Green IT Cube will be equipped with computer systems that meet the researchers’ long-term needs for processing power, storage capacity and transfer rates.

“The new Green IT Cube computing center is an important milestone for the future accelerator center FAIR,” says Schütte. “It also shows that international research projects like FAIR produce many new technologies that can be important for society as a whole. In view of the great need for processing power and the necessity of saving energy, the technology in the Green IT Cube has the potential for broad application.”

“We are pleased that top-level research is going on here in Darmstadt and that the state of Hesse is thus setting standards for IT technology and energy efficiency,” says State Secretary Jung. “The Green IT Cube is an example of successful basic research that also benefits Hesse’s industry and economy.”

“We would like to thank the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts, which financed the construction of the Green IT Cube via the Helmholtz investments in further expansion,” says Prof. Karlheinz Langanke, Scientific Director of GSI. “We would also like to thank the developers of the Green IT Cube for their outstanding work. The Green IT Cube will give our researchers the computing capacity they need at GSI and FAIR today and in the future. Later, the Green IT Cube will be FAIR’s main computing center.”

Unsurpassed processing power in the Green IT Cube

Currently, two storeys of the Green IT Cube are equipped with four megawatts of cooling power. When it is finished it will have 12 megawatts of cooling power. The cube can house around 300,000 CPUs, which corresponds to about 100,000 PCs. They offer the superior processing power needed for simulating and analysing experiments at GSI and FAIR. The plan calls for 100 petabytes to store experiment data – the equivalent of around one million conventional PC hard drives. The very high data rates of these experiments can be recorded at a speed of over one terabyte per second. That is the equivalent of around 500,000 residential DSL connections.

The GSI’s existing computers will begin moving into the Green IT Cube in February. Among them is the L-CSC cluster, which ranks third in the Green500, the list of the world’s most energy-efficient supercomputers (it held first place until June 2015). The L-CSC has a rate of computation of 5.27 billion operations per second per watt of electrical power. Its processing power is equal to one quadrillion operations per second (one petaflop per second).

An award-winning concept

The Green IT Cube was developed by Professor Volker Lindenstruth, head of information technology at GSI, his team, and his colleague Professor Horst Stöcker, in cooperation with the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) and Goethe University Frankfurt. The Green IT Cube concept has already won multiple awards. Among them was the Green IT Best Practice Award for its computing center and computing concept, presented in 2011 under the aegis of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. In June 2015, the Green IT Cube received an international award for the most innovative computing center at Datacloud 2015, the European conference on data centers and cloud computing.

Further picture of the Green IT Cube

GSI picture gallery

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news-1886 Thu, 21 Jan 2016 13:05:21 +0100 "target" magazine issue 13 published https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////target_magazine_issue_13_published.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=752f32cade47f5b91ab9d36e5ab47b20 In der 13. Ausgabe unseres Magazins "target" berichten wir über die Anlieferung des GLAD-Magneten für FAIR aus Frankreich. Des Weiteren ist die Entdeckung von vier neuen Atomkernen und die Bestätigung von zwei physikalischen Theorien bei GSI geglückt. In unserer Rubrik "GSI stellt sich vor" erfahren Sie mehr über die Arbeitssicherheit von der Kaffeemaschine bis zum flüssigen Stickstoff. In the 13th issue of our magazine "target" we cover the delivery of the GLAD-magnet for FAIR from France. Furthermore we succeeded in the discovery of four new atomic nuclei and the verification of two physical theories. In our portrait of a GSI department you will learn more about job safety from  coffee machine to liquid hydrogen.

Download "target" – Issue 13, January 2016 (PDF, 6 MB)

More on the topic

Abonnement und target archive

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news-1883 Mon, 18 Jan 2016 11:22:00 +0100 Test passed! - High-precision experiments allow detailed determination of the nuclear behavior in highly charged ions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////test_passed_high_precision_experiments_allow_detailed_determination_of_the_nuclear_behavior_in_h.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=bf2882aa737fff4ae8d49dddefa8836e In high-precision measurements at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and of the University Mainz an international team of scientists successfully tested the so called quantum electrodynamics of bound states (BS-QED). For the first time effects resulting from the movement of the atomic nucleus have been taken into account. The results broaden our understanding of the interactions between electrons and atomic nuclei. The results have been published in a recent article in the Nature Communications magazine. In high-precision measurements at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and of the University Mainz an international team of scientists successfully tested the so called quantum electrodynamics of bound states (BS-QED). For the first time effects resulting from the movement of the atomic nucleus have been taken into account. The results broaden our understanding of the interactions between electrons and atomic nuclei. The results have been published in a recent article in the Nature Communications magazine.

The atomic interaction between nucleus and electrons is described by the quantum electrodynamics of bound states (BS-QED), one of the most tested theories in physics. So far no measurement showed any deviation of the theoretical predictions of BS-QED. In their recent examinations the scientists tested the magnetic momentum of bound electrons in strong electromagnetic fields as they appear at the surface of heavy atomic nuclei. This magnetic momentum is characterized by the so called g-factor. In the experiment the scientists compared the g-factors of two calcium isotopes. "Thanks to this comparison we succeeded in including all the details of the movements of the electrons and the nucleus and to precisely determine the behavior of the nuclei of the highly charged ions", explains Dr. Wolfgang Quint, physicist at GSI.

The experimental determination of the difference in the two g-factors of the lithium-like calcium-48 and calcium-40, i.e. calcium atoms that have only three electrons left in their shell, took place at two experimental setups. In an experiment at the University Mainz a single ions of each of the calcium isotopes was captured in the 3.8 tesla strong magnetic field of an apparatus consisting of three Penning traps and stored for several month. Via irradiation with microwaves the orientation of the outer bound electron was repeatedly flipped and the oscillation frequency of the electron was determined.

In a second experiment at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum the mass of the calcium isotope Ca-48 was measured with seven times the precision achieved so far. "With the ion trap SHIPTRAP at GSI we can capture the calcium isotopes and determine their mass very precisely. The calcium ions are held inside the trap by magnetic fields and circulate on a tiny spiral orbit with a certain frequency which can be directly used to calculate the mass", says GSI scientist Professor Michael Block, who is in charge of the experimental setup. The difference in the g-factors was determined from the measured data with a precision of ten parts in a billion, also the movement of the nucleus was completely taken into account for the first time. Thus the experiment lays a foundation for a new generation of tests of the BS-QED and paves the way for future basic precision measurements in atomic physics.

Participating institutes:
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt
Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg
Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz
Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz
Department of Physics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia
Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden
Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Kurchatov Institute, Moskau, Russia
Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St Petersburg, Russia 
Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz

Further information

Article in Nature Communications 

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news-1877 Wed, 23 Dec 2015 11:25:22 +0100 Last known magic neutron number weakens in heavy elements https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////last_known_magic_neutron_number_weakens_in_heavy_elements.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=b6557ec0ebe6bebfd69c7aee31bcb4b9 An international team of scientists has succeeded to create and detect extremely short-lived atomic nuclei of the element uranium at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The new data provide key information on how the numbers of neutrons and protons inside exotic heavy nuclei influence their stability. This is important to give better guidance for experiments on the search for new superheavy elements. An international team of scientists has succeeded to create and detect extremely short-lived atomic nuclei of the element uranium at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The new data provide key information on how the numbers of neutrons and protons inside exotic heavy nuclei influence their stability. This is important to give better guidance for experiments on the search for new superheavy elements.

In atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons arrange in individual shells. Nuclei containing just the right numbers to fill a proton and a neutron shell are considerably more stable than their neighbours. For protons, 82 is the last known of these “magic numbers”, while it is 126 for neutrons. This makes lead-208, with 82 protons and 126 neutrons, the heaviest “doubly-magic nucleus” known to date. For decades, scientists tried finding out how many protons will fit into the next shell, which was conjectured to give rise to an "island of stability" in the region of superheavy elements. Current theoretical models still disagree: some favor 114, others prefer 120 or even 126. Element 114 is known, but can be studied at rates of only about one atom per day. Elements 120 and 126 are yet unknown. Scientists thus look for other experimental data allowing to refine their models.

In their recent work, an international team led by Dr. Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar from the Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Germany, and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany, traced this last neutron shell closure towards heavier elements. The question is whether the neutron number 126 remains as dominant in these increasingly unstable nuclei as it is known to be in lead-208. For this, they produced exotic nuclei of uranium. Usual uranium nuclei as found in nature, like uranium-238, have far more neutrons than around 126, so the researchers first produced the new uranium-221 and acquired new and improved data on uranium-222, of which only three atoms were observed in a study dating back to 1983.

For this, an intense beam of titanium-50 ions (element 22) was accelerated at GSI Darmstadt and used to irradiate a foil containing ytterbium-176 (element 70). Fusion led to uranium nuclei (element 92), which were separated in the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA and guided to a detector suitable to register their decay. In this way, the team studied these nuclei's instability and found them to decay within microseconds. Such short lifetimes could only be registered thanks to a new, advanced data acquisition system and data analysis techniques. The study of combined data of isotopes of elements from lead up to uranium at and above the 126 neutron shell suggests this to no longer be a pronounced magic neutron number in uranium. These data allow benchmarking models that, e.g., guide efforts to search for new superheavy elements.

More Information

Original publication in Physical Review Letters 115

Website of GSI department Super Heavy Element Chemistry

TASCA Collaboration

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news-1875 Fri, 18 Dec 2015 11:00:00 +0100 Strategic collaboration on FAIR: Scientific partnership of GSI and TU Darmstadt continues https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////strategic_collaboration_on_fair_scientific_partnership_of_gsi_and_tu_darmstadt_continues.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=14a08a0f1e2479ad47e10fa5ea2d251d The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research and the Technische Universität Darmstadt are to continue the strategic partnership they began in 2009 on the international research centre FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). One of the project’s main priorities is to promote young researchers. Both parties have signed an agreement that runs until 2021. The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research and the Technische Universität Darmstadt are to continue the strategic partnership they began in 2009 on the international research centre FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). One of the project’s main priorities is to promote young researchers. Both parties have signed an agreement that runs until 2021.

GSI and TU Darmstadt provide almost €1.34 million in funding per year, which primarily goes towards paying grants and salaries for PhD students and post-doc positions. The extension agreement between GSI and TU Darmstadt continues the bilateral cooperation agreement that was initiated on 17 December 2009. The strategic collaboration is targeted at research in the field of nuclear and radiation physics, but also at driving progress in materials research, radiation therapy and basic research into ion-beam therapy.

The cooperation agreement is based on a framework agreement from November 2008 on strategic collaboration on the construction and scientific use of FAIR. As well as GSI and TU Darmstadt, further partners include the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) and the universities of Frankfurt, Gießen, Heidelberg and Mainz.

FAIR

The FAIR accelerator facility, which is under construction at GSI, is one of the world’s largest research projects for basic research in physics. FAIR is an accelerator facility that will produce antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensity and quality. The centrepiece of the facility is a ring accelerator with a circumference of 1,100 metres, which is connected to a complex system of storage rings and experimental stations. The existing GSI accelerators will form part of the FAIR facility and serve as pre-accelerators. FAIR enables a wider range of experiments to be conducted than ever before, allowing scientists from all over the world to gain new insights into the structure of matter and the evolution of the universe since the Big Bang.

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news-1874 Thu, 17 Dec 2015 09:39:00 +0100 We are made of stardust - GSI scientist receives EU grant of two million euro https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////we_are_made_of_stardust_gsi_scientist_receives_eu_grant_of_two_million_euro.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=4b818ba06a89db2e8ff3f1d73540b053 He is supposed to investigate how elements are created in stars: For researching the stellar element synthesis GSI scientist Yuri Litvinov receives two million euro of the European Research Council (ERC). With the „ERC Consolidator Grant“ he will finance a team of six scientists. Together they will perform experiments at the accelerator facility of GSI within the next five years to decode how the building blocks of life are created. He is supposed to investigate how elements are created in stars: For researching the stellar element synthesis GSI scientist Yuri Litvinov receives two million euro of the European Research Council (ERC). With the „ERC Consolidator Grant“ he will finance a team of six scientists. Together they will perform experiments at the accelerator facility of GSI within the next five years to decode how the building blocks of life are created.

Yuri Litvinov could convince the ERC evaluation panel with his research proposal and succeded despite 2050 other applicants. The proposal is about the physics of stars in which the elements of the periodic table are created. Of special interest are exotic atomic nuclei which occur as intermediate elements but do not exist naturally anywhere on Earth and have to be created artificially with an accelerator. 

To produce and store exotic nuclei, Litvinov needs a facility like the one existing at GSI. With the help of the accelerator facility they can be produced and subsequently be injected into the experimental storage ring (ESR) where they can be investigated. The ESR, which has a circumference of 108 meters, will be supplemented by the storage ring „cryring“ with a circumference of 54 meters. The cryring is currently being installed in the GSI halls. It was delivered from Sweden and will later be part of the future accelerator facility of FAIR.

Litvinov wants to measure the exotic nuclei which will be stored in the rings with high accuracy: the masses and their lifetimes as well as their decay paths are important to understand their role in the stellar element synthesis. Therefore the physicist plans the development of new sensitive detectors. 

Litvinov’s experiments will pave the way for future experiments at the accelerator facility FAIR. At FAIR scientists will be able to produce hundreds of exotic nuclei, which are not accessible with today’s methods.

Litvinov studied physics in St. Petersburg and is a GSI researcher since 1999. In 2003 he completed his PhD at the university of Gießen and passed with distinction (doctoral supervisor Prof. Hans Geissel). Starting in 2009 he spent two years at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and habilitated at the University of Heidelberg in 2011. Since then Litvinov is actively involved in the GSI department APPA/SPARC managed by Prof. Thomas Stöhlker. Among other tasks at GSI he is coordinator of the ESR experiments and head of the SPARC detector department within the FAIR project since 2012. 

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news-1872 Wed, 02 Dec 2015 18:17:00 +0100 A new world record for the energy of colliding heavy ions https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////a_new_world_record_for_the_energy_of_colliding_heavy_ions.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e983d44d7dc8f245623bcbe5813fcb6f After the restart of the LHC earlier this year at CERN with proton-proton collisions, it is the turn of heavy-ion physics to take center stage. The lead ions collide now at a new world record of a petaelectronvolt, an energy almost doubled with respect to Run 1 of the LHC. After the restart of the LHC earlier this year at CERN with proton-proton collisions, it is the turn of heavy-ion physics to take center stage. The lead ions collide now at a new world record of a petaelectronvolt (1015 eV), an energy almost doubled with respect to Run 1 of the LHC.

The LHC receives the beam to accelerate at such energies from a chain of accelerator components, starting with the ion injector, developed and build by GSI in the 90s, a component which is essential for the LHC operation with ion beams. On 25th of November "Stable beams" were declared, the long-awaited start of a measuring campaign with lead ions which will last almost a month.

In Pb-Pb collisions a quark-gluon plasma is produced, a state of matter at high temperatures or densities that existed in our early universe up to 10 microseconds in its lifetime. All four large detectors at the LHC are participating in the present data taking, in particular the ALICE detector, especially designed for the study of the quark-gluon plasma. The ALICE group at GSI is among the most active groups in the analysis of the new data.

The ALICE group at GSI shares responsibility for the operation and calibration of two important detector systems in ALICE. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) were designed and built with a long and dedicated contribution of the ALICE group and the Detector Laboratory of GSI. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) of ALICE, essential for the online filtering and compression of data, has also benefited from the participation of GSI. The support from the IT department, providing high-performance computer farms and data storage for the Grid and for the analyses by the German groups, is crucial.

With ALICE, a couple of hundred million collisions are expected to be registered in the coming weeks. The picture, acquired in the first minutes of the new measuring campaign, displays a typical collision with several thousand reconstructed tracks in the TPC. The first physics results are awaited very soon. The GSI scientists and PhD students have a leading contribution in the ongoing analyses, with a special focus on the transverse-momentum distribution of produced particles. This will provide the first look at the properties of the deconfined quark-gluon medium at the largest energy density ever achieved in laboratory.

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news-1866 Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:04:14 +0100 GSI doctoral candidate award for trap experiment https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////gsi_doctoral_candidate_award_for_trap_experiment.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=54c824c2c97e129e7339d0b08d486536 Dr. Andreas Mooser received the GSI doctoral candidate award. He was awarded for his doctoral research on high-precision measurement of magnetic moment of proton. The award, which is presented every year, is endowed with 1000 Euro and is funded by Pfeiffer Vacuum. The award was presented by GSI scientific director, Professor Karlheinz Langanke, and Dr. Ulrich von Hülsen, a member of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH management. Guest of honor and speaker was ESA General Director Johann-Dietrich Wörner. Dr. Andreas Mooser received the GSI doctoral candidate award. He was awarded for his doctoral research on high-precision measurement of magnetic moment of proton. The award, which is presented every year, is endowed with 1000 Euro and is funded by Pfeiffer Vacuum. The award was presented by GSI scientific director, Professor Karlheinz Langanke, and Dr. Ulrich von Hülsen, a member of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH management. Guest of honor and speaker was ESA General Director Johann-Dietrich Wörner.

For his dissertation, Dr. Mooser and his colleagues kept a single proton at minus 268 degrees Celsius for 13 months in order to measure the magnetic moment of the proton. This was made possible by high-precision equipment known as the Double Penning trap. Dr. Mooser developed this ultra-sensitive vacuum-isolated apparatus for the experiments at the University of Mainz together with scientists from GSI, the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and the Japanese RIKEN research institute. “This enabled us to detect single spin quantum jumps of the proton”, explained Dr. Mooser. The magnetic moment of the proton is particularly interesting for solving the puzzle of antimatter in the universe. Close comparison of the magnetic moments of antiprotons and protons can shed some light on why matter and antimatter did not completely annihilate each other after the Big Bang, and why there was a surplus of matter left from which our universe emerged. Recent experiments conducted by the BASE collaboration at CERN, of which Dr. Mooser is meanwhile a member, showed that both charge-to-mass ratios are equal in magnitude.

“I feel honored and extremely gratified that my work has been singled out for the GSI doctoral award”, said Dr. Mooser, who wrote his dissertation at the University of Mainz, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz and GSI. “Measuring the magnetic moment of the proton paves the way for future research into missing antimatter in the universe.”

Pfeiffer Vacuum and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung have been linked through a partnership for many years. Vacuum solutions from Pfeiffer Vacuum have been successfully utilized there for decades. Dr. Ulrich von Hülsen, member of Pfeiffer Vacuum management, congratulated the laureate: "It is immensely important to Pfeiffer Vacuum to foster new talent in cutting-edge research. Pfeiffer Vacuum has been setting standards in vacuum technology for 125 years. The company was built on a pioneering spirit and passion which has led it to successfully contribute to technological progress in industry and science from the very beginning.”

"The outstanding research opportunities at the GSI accelerator and the development of the future FAIR accelerator attract many young researchers from around the world to GSI," said GSI scientific director, Professor Karlheinz Langanke. "They contribute important innovative ideas to the development of the new accelerators and detectors."

The GSI doctoral candidate award is offered for the best dissertation every year. Eligible students have to have earned their doctorate during the previous year and have been sponsored by GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung as part of its strategic partnerships with the universities of Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Giessen, Heidelberg, Jena and Mainz or through the Research and development program.  There are currently over 300 doctoral candidates working on their dissertations at GSI and FAIR within the scope of the graduate school HGS-HIRe (Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research).

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news-1868 Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:31:00 +0100 Giersch Excellence Grant 2015 for Johannes Ullmann https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////giersch_excellence_grant_2015_for_johannes_ullmann.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=69d2b0e0cb86db0d5dd8fc899f7f9253 Johannes Ullmann received the Giersch Excellence Grant for his works on the determination of the hyperfine splitting energy of the ground state of hydrogen and lithium like Bismuth by laser spectroscopy. The Experiment was conducted at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt and allows a precise test of quantum electrodynamics in extreme electric and magnetic fields. Johannes Ullmann received the Giersch Excellence Grant for his works on the determination of the hyperfine splitting energy of the ground state of hydrogen and lithium like Bismuth by laser spectroscopy. The Experiment was conducted at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt and allows a precise test of quantum electrodynamics in extreme electric and magnetic fields.

Uncertainties in the theoretical prediction of nuclear effects on the hyperfine splitting were eliminated by measuring two charge states of the same isotope. Although the hyperfine splitting energy in hydrogen like Bismuth is known since 1994, the resonance in the lithium like charge state was not found until 2011. Due to too large uncertainties in the determination of the ions' velocity, no accurate value could be determined then. „Thanks to an in-situ high voltage measurement at the GSI storage ring in combination with extensive improvements of detection systems and data acquisition, the uncertainty could be reduced by one order of magnitude“, Ullmann explains, who does his PhD at the University Jena and GSI. In collaboration with high voltage experts of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany and detector specialists of University Münster and the group of Professor Nörtershäuser at TU Darmstadt he conducted the experiment.

Every year up to 24 PhD candidates of the graduate school HGS-HIRe get the Giersch Excellence Grant, which is endowed with 2500 Euro. At the ceremony which took place at Campus Riedberg the awardees of the Giersch PostDoc Startup 2015 also were announced. All in all the Giersch Foundation awarded young researchers with 100 000 Euro.

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news-1861 Wed, 11 Nov 2015 09:10:43 +0100 Opening of the Marburg Ion Beam Therapy Center — cancer treatment using a process developed at GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////opening_of_the_marburg_ion_beam_therapy_center_cancer_treatment_using_a_process_developed_at_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=32c7ea5e8ab861c0e0f4683c53a6b3a7 The Marburg Ion Beam Therapy Center was ceremonially opened on November 11, 2015. Treatment of the first patients at the center had started in October. Heavy ion therapy was developed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. The accelerator facility was successfully used for the treatment of tumor patients between 1997 and 2008. A new accelerator facility of this kind is now going into operation in Marburg. It is the second such facility in Germany that is attached to a clinic and is capable of treating large numbers of patients. The Marburg Ion Beam Therapy Center was ceremonially opened on November 11, 2015. Treatment of the first patients at the center had started in October. Heavy ion therapy was developed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. The accelerator facility was successfully used for the treatment of tumor patients between 1997 and 2008. A new accelerator facility of this kind is now going into operation in Marburg. It is the second such facility in Germany that is attached to a clinic and is capable of treating large numbers of patients.

The MIT will offer an efficient form of cancer therapy, with minimal side effects, to as many as 750 patients per year. Following the example of the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, the Marburg facility uses a process of irradiation with ions that is based on research and development work done by GSI, the Heidelberg University Hospital, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.

“We are delighted that the Marburg facility is now completed and that from now on more patients will be able to benefit from the extremely effective and gentle process of ion beam therapy we developed at GSI,” said Gerhard Kraft, the former head of the Biophysics department at GSI. “It’s an outstanding example of how basic research can benefit society and individuals thanks to successful technology transfer.” Karlheinz Langanke, the Scientific Director of GSI, said, “This is also a great personal success for Gerhard Kraft, the founder of ion therapy at GSI and a pioneer in Europe.”

The first promising biological experiments and technical developments related to an innovative technology for irradiating tumors with heavy ions were already being conducted at GSI during the 1980s. Biophysicists worked closely with accelerator physicists, technicians, and physicians to further develop the accelerator facility for cancer therapy. The same accelerator that was used for studying supernovae and neutron stars was to be applied to medical treatment for human beings. The first clinical study was conducted jointly with the Heidelberg University Hospital, the DKFZ, and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf from 1997 to 2008. A total of 444 patients, most of whom suffered from basal skull tumors, were treated using beams of carbon ions from the GSI accelerator facility — with great success.

This process is especially effective and gentle, because the ion beams penetrate into the body and have a particularly strong effect in the tumor tissue, where they are absorbed. In addition, the ion beams’ effect can be directed with millimeter precision to individual points within the malignant tumor by means of the raster scan process developed at GSI, so that the healthy surrounding tissue is spared.

The experience gained from the GSI pilot project flowed directly into the design of an accelerator facility that is intended specifically for therapeutic use and designed to make routine clinical procedures possible. The Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center HIT was then constructed on this basis. A significantly smaller accelerator facility was developed by GSI for this center. The Marburg facility has also been constructed according to this model.

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news-1853 Thu, 05 Nov 2015 14:17:00 +0100 A giant has arrived - Magnet built in France for FAIR delivered to GSI https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////a_giant_has_arrived_magnet_built_in_france_for_fair_delivered_to_gsi.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=2ef11a9543217cacbc4a88095b3e4e69 The GLAD (GSI Large Acceptance Dipole) magnet has arrived today at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe). It took one week for the giant 60-ton scientific device to make the 600-kilometer journey from Saclay (near Paris) to GSI in Darmstadt. The superconducting GLAD magnet, which was built at the CEA research center in Saclay, will be used in the R3B experiment at FAIR. With this experiment scientists can investigate the synthesis of the elements in supernovae. The GLAD (GSI Large Acceptance Dipole) magnet has arrived today at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe). It took one week for the giant 60-ton scientific device to make the 600-kilometer journey from Saclay (near Paris) to GSI in Darmstadt. The superconducting GLAD magnet, which was built at the CEA research center in Saclay, will be used in the R3B experiment at FAIR. With this experiment scientists can investigate the synthesis of the elements in supernovae.

About 50 engineers and scientists worked on the development and construction of the magnet over a period of several years and were supported by industry partners. Now, the magnet has arrived at its operation site. A special mobile heavy-duty crane was needed to unload the 60-ton magnet, which was then guided into the experiment hall on air cushions. Precision work was the order of the day, as the hall gate is only a few centimeters larger than the 5.7-meter long, 8.6-meter wide, and 4.3-meter tall magnet.

“The GLAD magnet is a key instrument for studying exotic nuclei with large number of neutrons, and it is also an outstanding example of a very technologically demanding project that has now been successfully completed for FAIR within the framework of an international partnership,” says Haik Simon, who managed the project for GSI.

Scientists plan to use GLAD and the R3B experiment to determine the properties of rare and highly unstable nuclei that contain large numbers of neutrons. The investigation of these neutron-rich nuclei will greatly increase our understanding of exploding stars, or supernovae. Neutron-rich nuclei are formed in supernovae as intermediate stages in the reactions that create all of the heavy elements such as lead or gold that we find on Earth today.

GLAD will initially undergo extensive testing in order to precisely verify its specifications. It will take several months to completely install and connect the newly developed magnet in the experiment unit and cool its coils down to a temperature below -268 degrees Celsius. After that, it will be possible to use the magnet for experiments at the GSI facility and then later at the future FAIR accelerator facility.

FAIR’s accelerator facility will for the first time generate sufficiently large numbers of very neutron-rich nuclei, thereby enabling scientists to measure their properties. These measurements will increase our understanding of how elements are created in the universe.

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news-1855 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:01:47 +0100 Benjamin Lee professorship award for Karlheinz Langanke https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////benjamin_lee_professorship_award_for_karlheinz_langanke.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=d6eae215dbce24d3e641a7ceb7c8a294 Karlheinz Langanke, Scientific Director of GSI, was awarded with the Benjamin Lee professorship. Every year this award is given to outstanding theoretical physicists for "groundbreaking research in different areas of theoretical physics" by the Asian Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) in Korea. Langanke's research is focusing on nuclear astrophysics especially on nuclear reactions in supernovae and on stellar element synthesis. Langanke is the first European awardee. Karlheinz Langanke, Scientific Director of GSI, was awarded with the Benjamin Lee professorship. Every year this award is given to outstanding theoretical physicists for "groundbreaking research in different areas of theoretical physics" by the Asian Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) in Korea. Langanke's research is focusing on nuclear astrophysics especially on nuclear reactions in supernovae and on stellar element synthesis. Langanke is the first European awardee.

On the occasion of the award ceremony Langanke gave the key note talk on the unique research opportunities at the future accelerator facility FAIR at GSI at the annual conference of the Korean Physical Society. Furthermore he gave a series of lectures on nuclear astrophysics for students at APCTP.

The professorship is awarded in memory of Benjamin Lee, an outstanding Korean theoretical physicist, who died too young in 1977 during a tragic car accident. Since 2012 the award is granted annually.

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news-1852 Fri, 30 Oct 2015 20:05:00 +0100 Reaching for the stars – with success; GSI-physicist Almudena Arcones receives € 1.5 million grant from the EU https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////reaching_for_the_stars_with_success_gsi_physicist_almudena_arcones_receives_eur_15_million_gra.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6582b798f1bfb5f2e0ece678820df5df Almudena Arcones, Head of a Helmholtz Young Investigator group at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research and junior professor at the TU Darmstadt, is to receive a € 1.5 million grant from the European Research Council for the next five years. The “European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant” will enable her to compile a team that will carry out new calculations on the creation of the elements in stars. In the competitive selection process, Arcones was one of a group of 300 entrants who were filtered out from the original total of just under 3000. Almudena Arcones, Head of a Helmholtz Young Investigator group at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research and junior professor at the TU Darmstadt, is to receive a € 1.5 million grant from the European Research Council for the next five years. The “European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant” will enable her to compile a team that will carry out new calculations on the creation of the elements in stars. In the competitive selection process, Arcones was one of a group of 300 entrants who were filtered out from the original total of just under 3000.

Almudena Arcones wants her team to decode the creation of the heaviest elements such as gold and platinum in the universe. Heavy elements like the ones we find on Earth today occur, for instance, in stellar explosions, known as supernovae, or when neutron stars collide. Under these extreme conditions, heavy elements can be created by core reaction paths. Thousands of unstable, largely unknown isotopes occur as intermediate elements.

The physicist and her team want to simulate astrophysical conditions and the reaction processes in detail in order to understand why the individual elements occur precisely in the observed quantities. The future FAIR acceleration system will allow them to examine the physics of the heavy cores experimentally.

“Her simulations of element synthesis are helping to advance our research, and strengthen the collaboration between the GSI and the TU Darmstadt. The theoretical work will also be of tremendous benefit in advancing our experimental research at the GSI and at the future acceleration centre FAIR,” Bengt Friman, head of the Theory department at GSI, is delighted to announce.

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news-1848 Wed, 28 Oct 2015 10:50:50 +0100 Marburg Ion Beam Therapy Center starts operations https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////marburg_ion_beam_therapy_center_starts_operations.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=e574735970bc27a498dda5cc3e866df5 On October 27, 2015 the first patients were treated at the Marburger Ion-Beam Therapy Center, which thereby started operations as scheduled. The cancer treatment with ions was developed by the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Within a clinical study 440 patients were treated successfully at the GSI accelerator facility from 1997 until 2008. On October 27, 2015 the first patients were treated at the Marburger Ion-Beam Therapy Center, which thereby started operations as scheduled. The cancer treatment with ions was developed by the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Within a clinical study 440 patients were treated successfully at the GSI accelerator facility from 1997 until 2008.

Together with the Heidelberg University Hospital GSI scientists developed an accelerator to enable a clinical routine application. 2009 the first therapy center for patients built by GSI together with Siemens and the Heidelberg University Hospital in Heidelberg started operations. Since then more than 3000 patients were treated there.

More information

Press release by Heidelberg University Hospital (in German only)

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news-1849 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 10:47:00 +0100 Giersch-Excellence-Award 2015 for Paul Scharrer, PhD student of the Helmholtz Institute Mainz https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////giersch_excellence_award_2015_for_paul_scharrer_phd_student_of_the_helmholtz_institute_mainz.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=207843f2a18769e80883e830a57a9d35 Paul Scharrer has been awarded a "Giersch Excellence Award" for outstanding scientific work in the past years and is invited to join the Graduiertenschule Giersch. Scharrer is PhD student in the SHE Chemistry Research Section of the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) a university branch of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Paul Scharrer has been awarded a "Giersch Excellence Award" for outstanding scientific work in the past years and is invited to join the Graduiertenschule Giersch. Scharrer is PhD student in the SHE Chemistry Research Section of the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) a university branch of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.

The topic of his thesis project is the fundamental investigation of electron stripping processes of slow heavy ions in gaseous media. Besides being of key importance for the study of superheavy elements in gas-filled recoil separators like TASCA at GSI, which was successfully used for the identification of elements 114, 115, and 117 as well as for sensitive searches for the new elements 119 and 120, such processes are exploited to produce highly charged ions suitable for heavy ion beam acceleration at GSI and at the future FAIR accelerator facility. The focus of Paul Scharrer's work is on the electron stripping of heavy projectiles used as heavy ion beams at GSI and at heavy ion accelerator centers around the world. Typically, projectiles like 238U are initially produced in a comparatively low charge state (4+ at GSI), which is not well suited for acceleration to high energies. Therefore, after having reached 1.4 MeV/u in the first accelerator stage, the projectiles pass through a gas-filled region, where they are stripped of electrons, which increases their charge state.

Together with his colleagues from the SHE Chemistry Department at GSI and HIM and the Linac and Operation (L&O) Department within the FAIR@GSI division, Paul Scharrer developed a new gas stripper setup, which exploits the very low duty cycle of the FAIR facility. The new setup employs pulsed gas injection, delivering gas only while beam is passing. This allowed reducing the gas load dramatically, allowing for significantly higher gas densities during beam passage to be achieved, despite the limited pumping capacity and the strict vacuum requirements in the adjacent accelerator sections. Furthermore, the new setup allows use of any gas, unlike the previously used stripper, which was exclusively based on N2. Guided by theoretical studies from Prof. V. Shevelko from the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, Russia, who was a HIM Visiting Fellow for several months in 2013-2015 to support the work, systematic studies showed a pulsed hydrogen-based stripper to be superior. The efficient stripping process in hydrogen gas allowed achieving a new record 238U28+ intensity at the UNILAC, exceeding the previous highest values by more than 50%, and already reaching more than 65% of the FAIR design beam brilliance. Besides the perspective to achieve yet higher average charge states for most of the ion species at higher H2-density, the new setup offers opportunities for operation as a pulsed stripper, where every pulse can be tailored to different projectiles from the two ion source terminals feeding this accelerator line. "This significantly enhances the versatility of the UNILAC accelerator and is also a critical step towards the FAIR facility" explains Dr. Winfried Barth from GSI's L&O department. Christoph Düllmann, professor at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and head of the SHE Chemistry department at GSI and HIM adds "Paul's work highlights the close connection of basic research like studies on production and properties of superheavy elements, and technical advances that arise, sometimes in fields that appear rather remote at first glance".

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news-1833 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 16:02:00 +0200 New president at the Helmholtz Association: Otmar D. Wiestler takes over the helm https://www.gsi.de/en/start/news/details////new_president_at_the_helmholtz_association_otmar_d_wiestler_takes_over_the_helm.htm?no_cache=1&cHash=6a998159ac26dd915353aeada7cb7eb7 Otmar D. Wiestler, former Chairman of the Board of Directors at the German Cancer Research Center, has assumed office as President of the Helmholtz Association on September 1st, 2015. He is taking over from Jürgen Mlynek, who has stepped down after ten years and two terms in office. Otmar D. Wiestler, former Chairman of the Board of Directors at the German Cancer Research Center, has assumed office as President of the Helmholtz Association on September 1st, 2015. He is taking over from Jürgen Mlynek, who has stepped down after ten years and two terms in office.

Press release

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news-1831 Mon, 31 Aug 2015 11:13:00 +0200 Four new atomic nuclei discovered https://www.gsi.de/en/start/ne