FAIR

The new accelerator facility FAIR is under construction at GSI. Learn more.

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GSI is member of the

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GSI associates

BMBF HMWK MWWK TMWWDG

Cities, countries, rivers – Element names from geography

City/Locality

City/Town Element name
(symbol),
atomic number
Comment Year of discovery
Berkeley (USA) Berkelium (Bk), 97 Discoverers: Glenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso and Stanley G. Thompson

Produced and identified at the accelerators of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley (California, USA)
1949
Copenhagen (Denmark), lat. Hafnia Hafnium (Hf), 72 Discoverers: Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy

Occurs naturally, identified in Copenhagen (Denmark)
1923
Darmstadt (Germany) Darmstadtium (Ds), 110 Discoverers: Sigurd Hofmann, Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Münzenberg with international team

Produced and identified at the accelerator of the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (today: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung) in Darmstadt (Hesse, Germany)
1994 (off. recognition 2003)
Dubna (Russia) Dubnium (Db), 105 Discoverer: G. N. Flerow, Yu. Oganessian

Produced and identified at the accelerator of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia)
1969
Livermore (USA) Livermorium (Lv), 116 Discoverers: Yu. Oganessian with team of Russian and US scientists

Produced and identified at the accelerator of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia). Scientists of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore (USA) were significantly involved in the discovery.
2000 (off. recognition 2010)
Paris (France), ancient name Lutetia Lutetium (Lu), 71 Discoverers: Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach and Charles James

Occurs naturally, identified in Paris (France), Treibach (Austria) und Durham (USA) almost at the same time
1907
Stockholm (Sweden), lat. Holmia Holmium (Ho), 67 Discoverers: Marc Delafontaine and Jacques-Louis Soret

Occurs naturally, identified in Geneva (Switzerland). One year later it was also found by Per Theodor Cleve in Uppsala (Schweden) and named after his city of birth Stockholm.
1878
Strontian (Scotland) Strontium (Sr), 38 Discoverer: Adair Crawford

Occurs naturally, found in the town Strontian (Scotland), identified in Edinburgh (Scotland)
1790
Ytterby (Sweden) Yttrium (Y), 39 Discoverer: Johan Gadolin

Occurs naturally, found in the town Ytterby (Sweden), identified in Abo (Finland)
1794
Ytterby (Sweden) Erbium (Er), 68 Discoverer: Carl Gustav Mosander

Occurs naturally, found in the town Ytterby (Sweden), identified in Stockholm (Sweden)
1843
Ytterby (Sweden) Terbium (Tb), 65 Discoverer: Carl Gustav Mosander

Occurs naturally, found in the town Ytterby (Sweden), identified in Stockholm (Sweden)
1843
Ytterby (Sweden) Ytterbium (Yb), 70 Discoverer: Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac

Occurs naturally, found in the town Ytterby (Sweden), identified in Geneva (Switzerland)
1878

Regions

Region Element name
(symbol),
atomic number
Comment Year of discovery
California (USA) Californium (Cf), 98 Discoverers: Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso and Glenn T. Seaborg

Produced and identified at the accelerator of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley (California, USA)
1950
Hesse (Germany), lat. Hassia Hassium (Hs), 108 Discoverers: Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Münzenberg, Sigurd Hofmann with international team.

Produced and identified at the accelerator of the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (today: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung) in Darmstadt (Hesse, Germany)
1984 (off. recognition 1997)
Moscow (Russia) Moscovium (Mc), 115 Discoverers:

2004 (off. recognition 2016)
Tennessee (USA) Tennessine (Ts), 117 Discoverers:

2010 (off. recognition 2016)

Countries

Country Element name
(symbol),
atomic number
Comment Year of discovery
France Francium (Fr), 87 Discoverer: Marguerite Perey

Occurs naturally, identified at the Radium Institute Paris (France)
1939
France, (Gaul), lat. Gallia Gallium (Ga), 31 Discoverer: Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

Occurs naturally, identified in Paris. The name is ambiguous. On the one hand the Latin denomination Gallia stand for France, the country the element was identified in. On the other hand the Latin word gallus stand for cock, "le coq" in French, so that the element might also be named after the discoverer Lecoq.
1875
Germany, lat. Germania Germanium (Ge), 32 Discoverer: Clemens Winkler

Occurs naturally, identified in Freiberg (Germany)
1886
Japan, jp. Nihon Nihonium (Nh), 113 Discoverer:

2004 (off. recognition 2016)
Poland Polonium (Po), 84 Discoverer: Marie Curie

Occurs naturally, identified in Paris. Poland is the home country of the discoverer.
1898
Scandinavia (lat. Scandia) Scandium (Sc), 21 Discoverer: Lars Fredrik Nilson

Occurs naturally, identified at the University of Uppsala, Sweden
1879

Continents

Continent Element name
(symbol),
atomic number
Comment Year of discovery
America Americium (Am), 95 Discoverers: Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan and Albert Ghiorso

Produced at the accelerator of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley (California, USA). Identified at the metallurgic laboratory (today Argonne National Lab) in Chicago (USA)
1945
Europe Europium (Eu), 63 Discoverer: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay

Occurs naturally, identified in Paris
1901

Rivers

River Element name
(symbol),
atomic number
Comment Year of discovery
Rhine (lat. Rhenus) Rhenium (Re), 75 Discoverers: Walter Noddack, Ida Noddack-Tacke and Otto Berg

Occurs naturally, identified at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (today Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) in Berlin (Germany)
1925

Island/country (mystical)

Island Element name
(symbol),
atomic number
Comment Year of discovery
Thule (mystical island/country) Thulium (Tm), 69 Discoverer: Per Theodor Cleve

Occurs naturally, identified in Uppsala (Sweden). Thule is a mystical island/country at the rim of the world in the European nordic sea.
1879

Sources

  • Lexikon der chemischen Elemente, Harry H. Binder, S. Hirzel Verlag Stuttgart Leipzig, 1999
  • Die chemischen Elemente - Ein Streifzug durch das Periodensystem, Lucien F. Trueb, S. Hirzel Verlag Stuttgart Leipzig, 1996