50 years GSI

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FAIR

The new accelerator facility FAIR is under construction at GSI. Learn more.

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GSI is member of

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1. GSI and FAIR

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GSI Helmholtzzentrum – Aerial View, September 2018
Entrance of GSI Helmholtzzentrum.
FAIR construction site – Aerial View, September 2018
Visualization of the future FAIR accelerator facility.
Construction site of the tunnel for the SIS100 particle accelerator of FAIR, September 2018
FAIR construction site – Aerial View, September 2018
Photo: T. Middelhauve/GSI/FAIR
Photo: G. Otto/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: T. Middelhauve/GSI/FAIR
Image: ion42
Photo: T. Middelhauve/GSI/FAIR
Photo: T. Middelhauve/GSI/FAIR

2. GSI and FAIR accelerator facility

2.1 Ion sources

The ion sources are the starting point of the GSI/FAIR accelerator facility. Here ions from all (natural) elements of the periodic table can be created with the help of high voltage (up to 300 000 V). Subsequent they can get accelerated in the linear and the ring accelerator.

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Ion sources - starting point of the accelerator facility
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
2.2 Linear Accelerator UNILAC

The linear accelerator UNILAC (UNIversal Linear ACcelerator) has a length of 120 meters. Ions, e.g. charged atoms of all chemical elements can be accelerated up to 20 percent of the speed of light (60,000 km/s) with this unit. The inside is only visible during maintenance work. The UNILAC is composed of three different consecutive accelerator structurees.

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Linear accelerator UNILAC.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Exterior View.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Exterior View.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Interior View of the Alvarez Structure.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Interior View of the Alvarez Structure.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Interior View of the Alvarez Structure.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Interior View of the Alvarez Structure.
Linear accelerator - acceleration structure.
Linear accelerator - super lense.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Interior View of the RFQ Structure.
Linear Accelerator UNILAC – Interior View of the IH Structure.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Foto: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Foto: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Foto: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Foto: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Foto: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Foto: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: A. Zschau/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: A. Zschau/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Foto: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Foto: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
2.2 Ring Accelerator SIS18

In the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 (ger. SchwerIonenSynchrotron) with a circumference of 216 meters he ion beam is further accelerated up to 90 percent of the speed of light (270,000 km/s) in the course of several hundred thousand circulations.

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Heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 - exterior view.
Heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 - exterior view.
High frequency cavity at SIS18
Beam diagnosis at SIS18
Electron cooler at SIS18
Interior View of the Cavity.
Kicker magnet at SIS18
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
2.3 Storage Ring ESR

In the storage ring ESR (ger. ExperimentierSpeicherRing) with a circumference of 108 meters ions accelerated in the UNILAC and SIS can be stored at very high speeds and used in experiments.

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Experimental storage ring ESR.
Experiment set up at ESR.
Storage Ring ESR – Exterior View.
Storage Ring ESR – Exterior View.
Storage Ring ESR – Magnet.
Storage Ring ESR – Magnet.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Mai, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
2.4 Cryring

The Cryring is a storage ring with a circumference of 54 m. It can provide an especially high vacuum of 10-11 mbar. It is the first accelerator ring of the future FAIR facility and plays a crucial role for the testing of FAIR components as well as the control software of the SIS100 accelerator ring.

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Cryring – exterior view.
Cryring – close up.
Cryring – close up.
Cryring – close up.
Cryring – close up.
Electron cooler at Cryring.
Cryring
Scientists can conduct especially precise experiments if the ions stored in Cryring have similar properties (velocity, momentum). With the electron cooler the ion beam can be homogenised.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
2.4 Fragment Separator FRS

The 75 meters long FRS (FRagment Separator) ist located behind the ring accelerator SIS18. It is used to produce rare isotopes of naturally occurring heavy nuclei. Directly after the production they are sent to an experimental site or stored in the ESR.

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Fragment Separator FRS – Exterior View.
Fragment Separator FRS – Exterior View.
Photo: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung

3. Infrastructure

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Main control room.
GSI-Infrastructure – Main Control Room.
GSI-Infrastructure – Main Control Room.
GSI-Infrastructure – Detector Prototype for the Measurement of Ion Bunches.
Detector laboratory - manufacturing of a Multiwire Drift Chamber (MDC) component.
Detector laboratory.
Detector laboratory.
Control center for the whole accelerator facility.
Control center for the whole accelerator facility.
The GSI accelerators don't accelerate single ions, they are bundled to ion bunches. The detector is used to measure the temporal resolution of the bunch.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Mai, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH

3.1 Green IT Cube

The Green IT Cube is a high performance computing center used by scientists from GSI and FAIR to analyse the large amounts of data gained in the experiments. In its final assembly it will be one of the largest scientifc computer centers in the world with a cooling power of twelve megawatts. Thanks to an innovative cooling system the Green IT Cube will save 90 percent of the cooling energy compared to other supercomputers and thus is very energy efficient and cost saving.

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Green IT Cube – Outside View
Green IT Cube goes green
Green IT Cube – Interior
Green IT Cube – Computer Corridor
Green IT Cube – Computer Racks
Supercomputer L-CSC
Green IT Cube at night
Green IT Cube – Outside View
Supercomputer L-CSC
Green IT Cube – Outside View
Mounting of the exterior decoration at the Green IT Cube building.
The steel frame will house the racks for the computers after the completion of the construction works.
View inside a corridor of the Green IT Cube filled with computer racks.
View inside the Green IT Cube filled with computer racks.
The high performance computer L-CSC will be moved to the new Green IT Cube.
Green IT Cube outside view at night
Green IT Cube – Outside View
The fast and energy efficient L-CSC uses water cooling and customary GPUs.
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
T. Ernsting, Hessen schafft Wissen

4. Experiments

4.1 Heavy Elements

In this field of research scientist try to discover superheavy elements above the naturally occurring uranium with the atomic number 92. GSI hosts two experimental set-up's: SHIP (Separator for Heavy Ion reaction Products) and TASCA (TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus).

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Ion trap SHIPTRAP.
Ion trap SHIPTRAP.
SHIP – Target Wheel.
SHIPTRAP – Ion Trap Attached to SHIP.
TASCA – Detector Setup.
TASCA – Target Wheel.
The ion beam coming from the linear accelerator UNILAC hits the target wheel, a thin foil mounted in a wheel. The produced elements are seperated by SHIP and identified in the attached detection systems.
The ion trap SHIPTRAP is attached to the velocity filter SHIP. With SHIPTRAP scientists succeeded in trapping a superheavy element (element 102 – Nobelium) and measure its mass with unprecedented precision for the first time. Michael Block, head of SHIPTRAP, is working at the trap.
The foils on the segmented wheel were irradiated with calcium ions. Parts of the foil that were hit by the beam can clearly be identified.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: K. Back, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
4.2 HADES

The detection system HADES (High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer) is one of the largest experiments at GSI. It is used for research on compressed hot nuclear matter produced in collisions of ion beam and target. Several layers of detectors identify different particles based on their charge, velocity or mass.

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HADES detector.
HADES detector - rear view.
HADES detector - rear view.
HADES with electromagnetic calorimeter (blue)
HADES detector - set up of electromagnetic calorimeter.
HADES from the inside
HADES detector.
HADES – RICH Structure.
Target made of gold foils for HADES detector.
HADES detector
The RICH (Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector) is positioned in the center of the detection system and identifies electrons and positrons.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: A. Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: G. Otto/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: T. Ernsting/HA Hessen Agentur
4.3 PHELIX

The high performance and high energy laser PHELIX (Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Ion EXperiments) is used for research in plasma and atomic physics. GSI offers the worldwide unique opportunity to conducted combined experiments with laser and ion beam.

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Starting point of PHELIX laser.
Component of PHELIX laser.
PHELIX – Amplifier.
PHELIX – Experiment Chamber.
The system amplifies the laser pulse.
Chamber for combined experiments with laser and ion beam.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: G. Otto, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: T. Hahn, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
4.4 ALICE-Experiment at CERN in Geneva

The Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN is the largest accelerator of the world. ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) belongs to the four large experiments located at LHC. The 25 meters long, 16 meters wide and 16 meters high apparatus weighs approx. 10.000 tons and hosts 18 detection systems. GSI has significantly contributed to two systems, the time projection chamber TPC and the transition radiation detector TRD.


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ALICE – Detektion System.
ALICE – Transition Radiation Detector TRD.
ALICE – Time Projection Chamber TPC.
ALICE – Interior View of the Time Projection Chamber TPC.
The detector with open magnet doors (red).
The transition radiation detector TRD was developed and built by several research groups, mainly of GSI. The module is mounted with a rack (yellow) to the miniframe (grey, inside the detector) of ALICE.
The time projection chamber TPC produces the largest amount of data in the ALICE experiment. It is used to precisely analyse the tracks of the particles produced in a collision. Peter Glässel, technical coordinator of ALICE, can be seen in the center.
Photo: CERN
Photo: CERN
Photo: CERN
Photo: CERN

5. Tumor Therapy

5.1 Cancer Therapy with Ion Beams at GSI
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https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/_migrated/pics/2_GSI_Therapie_2.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/_migrated/pics/3_GSI_Therapie_Donut.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/tumortherapie/GSI_FAIR_Biophysik_1.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/tumortherapie/GSI_FAIR_Biophysik_2.jpg
Therapy – Treatment Facility at GSI.
Therapy – Treatment Facility at GSI.
Therapy – Treatment Facility at GSI.
Therapy – Model of a Tumor Irradiation.
Cell research in the laboratory of biophysics department.
Cell research in the laboratory of biophysics department.
To ensure precise irradiation of the tumor the head of the patient has to be secured in a mask individually produced for each patient.
To ensure precise irradiation of the tumor the head of the patient has to be secured in a mask individually produced for each patient.
The array of acrylic glas slides demonstrates the precision of the irradiation at GSI. Only the irradiated aera is tarnished.
Photo: G. Otto/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: A Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: A Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: A Zschau, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
6. Components and facilities for FAIR
6.1 SIS100 dipole magnets

The dipole magnets of the future FAIR ring accelerator SIS100 will deflect the particles. In total 110 of these superconducting magnets will be installed in the accelerator ring.

https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_SIS100-Magnet_3.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_SIS100-Magnet_1.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_SIS100-Magnet_2.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_SIS100Magnet_4.jpg
SIS100 dipole magnet - view inside the magnet.
SIS100 dipole magnet.
SIS100 dipole magnet.
SIS100 dipole magnet.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: Babcock Noell
6.2 Serial test facility

At the serial test facility all superconducting magnets of the future FAIR accelerator SIS100 will be tested prior to installation. With liquid helium they are cooled to minus 269°C. Subsequently, they are tested for their capability to provide high and rapidly changing magnetic fields.

https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_Kryotestanlage_3.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_Kryotestanlage_2.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_Kryotestanlage_1.jpg
Serial test facility.
Serial test facility.
Serial test facility.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
6.3 GLAD magnet and Super-FRS magnet
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_GLAD_1.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/GSI_FAIR_Super-FRS-Magnet_1.jpg
GLAD magnet.
Super FRS magnet.
The superconducting GLAD magnet (GSI Large Acceptance Dipole) will be part of the FAIR experiment R3B. At this experiment scientists will explore reaction processes which are responsible for the creation of elements in stellar explosions.
This magnet weighing 95 t will be part of Super Fragment Separator at the FAIR accelerator facility. With the help of the Super Fragment Separator scientists can sort out interesting particles for further examination.
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Photo: J. Hosan/GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH

7. FAIR visualizations

https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/FAIR_Visualisierung_2.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/FAIR_Visualisierung_3.jpg
https://www.gsi.de/fileadmin/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/bilddatenbank/fair/FAIR_Visualisierung_1.jpg
Visualization of future FAIR facility.
Visualization of future FAIR facility.
Visualization of future FAIR facility.
Image: ion42
Image: ion42
Image: ion42

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